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927.5  B 

Bryan,  Michael 

Bryan's  dictionary 

of  painters  and 


REV.  ED,  VOL.  4 

mill  III  iiiiiii 

3  3333  11604  5622 



The  Newark 
Public  Library 

Aator.  Lenox  and  Tilden  FoundationB 

The  Branch  Libraries 
Art  Collection 
455  Fifth  Avenue 
New  York,  N.Y,  10016 


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BOMBAY  :     A.      H       WHEELER     &     CO. 







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BRYAN'S  Dictionary 



Painters  and  Engravers 



GEORGE     C.     WILLIAMSON,     Litt.D. 






All  rights  reserved 

Art  Ccllecti-'.' 


Chief  perhaps  in  importance  in  this  volume  are  the  new  biographies  of  the  great 
British  painters,  Reynolds,  Romney,  Raeburn,  Rossetti,  and  Russell.  The  first 
President  of  the  Academy  has  been  undertaken  by  Mr.  Algernon  Graves,  F.S.A., 
the  leading  authority  of  the  day.  The  biography  of  Romney  has  been  contributed 
by  Mr.  Roberts,  who  is  now  engaged  upon  a  monograph  on  that  artist.  Raeburn 
has  been  fittingly  given  to  the  Scots  critic,  Mr.  Caw,  who  has  devoted  special 
attention  to  the  portraits  of  that  master.  Rossetti  has  naturally  fallen  to  Mr. 
Marillier,  his  latest  biographer,  and  Russell  to  the  Editor,  as  the  author  of  a  monograph 
on  the  great  painter  in  pastel. 

A  very  striking  article  on  Ruskin  has  been  contributed  by  Mr.  Frederic  Harrison, 
who  better  than  almost  any  other  writer  of  the  present  day  realizes  the  influence  upon 
art  exercised  by  "  The  Master,"  while  another  biography  deserving  special  mention  is 
the  one  on  Titian  by  Mr.  Herbert  Cook,  who  has  also  written  the  biography  of 
Previtali.  Rembrandt  and  Rubens  have  fallen  to  Mr.  Malcolm  Bell,  and  the  Editor 
calls  attention  to  the  exhaustive  and  carefully-classified  lists  of  works,  especially  by 
Rembrandt,  which  that  writer  has  provided. 

Amongst  the  Italian  Masters  the  curious  and  bewildering  school  of  the  Piazzas 
with  Piazzetta  and  the  Pitati,  once  known  as  the  Bonifazio  I.,  II.,  and  III.,  have 
been  under  the  charge  of  Miss  Constance  Jocelyn  Ffoulkes ;  the  work  of  Raphael 
has  been  treated  in  the  light  of  recent  research  by  Julia  Cartwright  (Mrs.  Ady), 
and  Mr.  Selwyn  Brinton  has  made  a  careful  study  of  Pisano. 

Some  of  the  lesser-known  men  have  been  undertaken  by  Mr.  R.  H.  Hobart  Cust, 
and  particular  attention  may  be  directed  to  his  articles  on  Neroccio,  Pacchiarotti,  and 

Entirely  new  biographies  based  upon  recent  monographs  also  appear  in  this 
volume  upon  Tintoretto  and  Francia,  and  a  very  complete  one  of  Guido,  whose 
pictures  are  worthy  of  more  attention  than  they  receive  at  the  present  time,  while 
with  regard  to  Palma  the  Editor  has  been  fortunate  enough  to  enlist  the  services  of 
Dr.  Gronau,  and  so  to  secure  the  very  latest  discovered  information  respecting  that 
noble  painter. 

The  veteran  Mr.  Weale  has,  as  in  other  volumes,  taken  the  Flemish  painters 
under  his  care,  and  the  biographies  of  P.  Nachtegaele,  Neufchatel,  Nieulant,  Cost 
(three),  Orley  (three),  A.  van  Ouwater,  A.  van  Overbeck,  J.  Prevost,  Pourbus  (three), 
P.  Quast,  A.  Raguineau,  J.  Ramey,  and  Rijckaerts  (three)  are  from  his  pen,  while 

vi  NOTE  TO  VOL.  IV. 

he  has  also  assisted  in  correcting  the  various  Ravesteya  biographies.  Dr.  Martin  of 
the  Hague  has  been  mainly  responsible  for  these  last-named  articles,  and  also  for 
those  on  Adriaen,  Isack  van  Ostade,  Paulus  Potter,  and  Ruisdael. 

The  miniature  painters  have  not  been  overlooked,  and  the  three  Robertsons,  who 
have  never  before  received  their  full  measure  of  attention,  are  the  subjects  of  special 
biographies  by  Miss  Emily  Robertson,  the  daughter  of  Andrew  Robertson.  New 
lives  have  been  contributed  of  Isaac  and  of  Peter  Oliver,  of  Andrew  and  Nathaniel 
Plimer,  of  Nixon,  Prieur,  and  many  of  the  lesser-known  painters  in  miniature 
and  enamel. 

As  in  previous  volumes,  Dr.  Laing  of  Dundee  has  undertaken  various  members  of 
the  Scottish  and  allied  Schools,  writing  the  biographies  of  R.  H.  Nibbs,  W.  H.  Overend, 
R.  Nightingale,  Walter  H.  Paton,  P.  W.  Nicholson,  A.  W.  Rattray,  F.  R.  Pickersgill, 
W.  P.  Osborne,  J.  T.  Ross,  P.  Peel,  C.  Pearson,  and  others,  while  the  two  artists  named 
Arthur  Perigal  have  been  the  subjects  of  special  articles  by  Mrs.  O'Reilly,  the  daughter 
of  the  younger  painter. 

Some  attention  has  been  directed  to  gifted  amateurs  such  as  Dr.  Propert,  art 
writers  and  critics  as  J.  Hungerford  Pollen  and  R.  Redgrave,  glass  painters  as  Peckitt, 
Oliver,  and  Price,  caricaturists  as  Rowlandson,  medallists  as  Pistrucci  and  Pingo, 
flower  painters  as  Marianne  North  and  Maud  Naftel,  and  artists  who  are  specially 
known  in  connection  with  architecture  and  decoration,  such  as  the  members  of  the 
Pugin  (three),  Papworth  (six),  and  Parry  (six)  families.  Several  of  these  new 
biographies  have  been  written  by  members  of  the  families  concerned,  or  by  experts 
who  have  devoted  particular  attention  to  the  artists  in  question. 

i  The  Liverpool  painters,  F.  C.  Newcombe,  J.  W.  Oakes,  B.  Ousey,  H.  C.  Pidgeon, 
J.  Pelham,  J.  Pennington,  and  G.  Nicholson  have  been  given  into  the  care  of  Mr. 
Dibdin,  who  has  been  devoted  for  many  years  to  the  study  of  their  paintings. 

Mr.  Martin  Hardie  of  the  South  Kensington  Art  Library,  beside  helping  very 
much  with  the  minor  painters  in  miniature,  has  contributed  the  lives  of  H.  Ninham, 
W.  Parrott,  John  Pettie,  D.  C.  Read,  T.  M.  Richardson,  C.  J.  Richardson,  and 
important  articles  on  Puvis  de  Chavannes  and  T.  Rowlandson. 

Amongst  other  artists  who  have  been  the  subject  of  particular  biographies  should 
be  mentioned  Geo.  Pinwell  by  the  Editor,  F.  H.  Potter  by  Mr.  J.  Baillie,  E.  T.  Parris 
by  Mr.  W.  Roberts,  S.  W.  Reynolds  the  engraver  by  Mr.  Alfred  Whitman  of  the  Print 
Room,  British  Museum,  Pater  by  Mr.  Staley,  Room  and  Roden  by  Mr.  Chamberlain  of 
the  Birmingham  Art  Gallery,  G.  Piranesi  by  Mr.  Oldmeadow.'and  also  J.  T.  Nettleship 
and  Sir  Noel  Paton. 

American  artists  have  not  been  overlooked,  and  biographies  of  T.  Nast,  J.  Neagle, 
C.  Pearson,  W.  Page,  C.  W.  Peale,  R.  Peale,  W.  L.  Picknell,  and  P.  F.  Rothermel  may 
be  taken  as  illustrative  of  the  attention  given  to  this  section  of  the  book. 

Mr.  Pinkerton  is  responsible  for  very  many  of  the  notices  of  foreign  painters,  and 
beside  the  many  names  that  have  been  mentioned,  there  appear  in  the  long  roll  of  the 
rank  and  file  the  names  of  Paul  J.  Naftel,  L.  von  Nagel,  J.  C.  Nattes,  C.  G.  Naumann, 
J.  Navlet,  V.  Navlet,  F.  H.  Nazon,  B.  Neher,  L.  Neubert,  E.  N.  Neureuther,  L. 

NOTE  TO  VOL.   IV.  vii 

Neustatter,  E.  J.  Newell,  R.  H.  Newell,  Lady  Newton,  T.  Nicholson,  J.  Nixon, 
R.  Nixon,  George  Noble,  Samuel  Noble,  F.  Nodder,  R.  Norbury,  B.  Nordenberg, 
C.  Norris,  F.  Nower,  L.  Nulck,  G.  Nuti,  A.  Obermullner,  John  O'Connor,  K.  W. 
Oesterley,  D.  Ogborne,  F.  W.  Oliphant,  E.  F.  Otho,  Carl  Otto,  C.  A.  Pabst, 
A.  L.  C.  Pagnest,  F.  Palizzi,  G.  W.  Palm,  V.  Palmaroli,  J.  E.  Pannier,  V.  de 
Papeleu,  E.  M.  Papermann,  Camille  Paris,  H.  P.  Parker,  A.  Pasini,  B.  Pasini, 
L.  Passini,  Isidore  Patrols,  0.  Patzig,  A.  Pauli,  F.  Paulsen,  W.  F.  Pauwels,  R.  Peake, 
Sir  R.  Peake,  J.  L.  Pearson,  Carlo  Pellegrini,  J.  C.  L.  L.  Pellenc,  L.  G.  Pelouse, 
L.  F.  Penet,  O.  Penguiily  L'Haridon,  C.  0.  de  Penne,  C.  F.  J.  Pensee,  D.  Penther,  A. 
Pequegnot,  P.  E.  Peraire,  S.  R.  Percy,  A.  G.  Perez,  A.  von  Perger,  A.  H.  Perin,  W.  G. 
Peroflf,  C.  Perrandeau,  M.  Perret,  E.  Perrin,  E.  Perseus,  J.  Peszka,  P.  F.  Peters,  J.  B. 
Peyrol,  K.  G.  Pfannschmidt,  N.  G.  Philips,  J.  G.  Philp,  H.  Picard,  E.  Pichio,  P.  A.  Pichon, 
N.  E.  Pickenoy,  George  Pickering,  H.  P.  Picou,  K.  von  Pidoll,  E.  U.  B.  Piglhein, 
H.  Pillati,  C.  H.  PiUe,  J.  Pilliard,  F.  Piloty,  R.  Pilsbury,  A.  Pincon,  E.  Pinel, 
E.  H.  T.  Pingret,  C.  Pissarro,  F.  Pitner,  P.  Pittori,  J.  Plank,  M.  Plaschke,  C.  Plasencia, 

A.  E.  Plassan,  H.  Plathner,  F.  Plattner,  0.  Pletsch,  H.  Pliichart,  F.  Podesti, 
H.  Pohle,  L.  Pomey,  C.  M.  Popelin-Ducarre,  C.  A.  Porcher,  J.  F.  Portaels,  W. 
Portmann,  [G.  Postma,  A.  T.  Potemont,  L.  J.  Pott,  H.  Potuyl,  H.  Pranischnikoff, 
E.  de  Pratere,  F.  Preller,  K.  L.  Preusser,  J.  W.  Preyer,  J.  C.  Plittner,  L.  Quarante, 
K.  G.  Quarnstrom,  E.  Quenedey,  J.  F.  Quesnel,  J.  Quinaux,  G.  Raab,  M.  R.  Radiguet, 
S.  Radin,  E.  Raffort,  D.  Rahoult,  P.  A.  Rajon,  J.  M.  Ranftl,  V.  J.  Rauvier,  A.  Rapin, 
P.  E.  le  Rat,  S.  Rayner,  J.  Rebell,  A.  M.  Rebonet-Alboy,  K.  Rechlin,  R.  and  S.  Redgrave, 

B.  Reher,  A.  Reid,  F.  ReifF,  B.  Reinhold,  A.  Renan,  E.  Renouf,  J.  Resch,  W.  A.  Reuter, 
J.  H.  Reve,  A.  T.  Ribot,  E.  Richard,  J.  Richaud,  Geo.  Richmond,  J.  Richomme, 
A.  Richter,  M.  W.  Ridley,  A.  Rimmer,  E.  Riou,  A.  C.  Risler,  A.  H.  Rivey, 
H.  P.  Riviere,  A.  Robert,  L.  Robie,  H.  Robinson,  0.  G.  de  Rochebrune,  K.  Rochussen, 
H.  Rodakowski,  W.  Roelofs,  C.  M.  Roerbye,  J.  Roeting,  K.  Rohde,  N.  Rohde,  H.  H. 
Rolland  de  la  Porte,  Karl  RoUe,  A.  Romako,  A.  G.  Romberg,  C.  Ronot,  F.  Rops, 
—  Rosemale,  L.  M.  Rossetti,  F.  Rothbart,  G.  Rouget,  M.  von  Rouvroy,  C.  Roux, 
L.  P.  Roux,  D.  H.  Rozier,  A.  A.  Rube,  P.  E.  Rudell,  J.  Ruinart  de  Biimont, 
W.  H.  Rule,  P.  P.  Rumpf,  H.  F.  G.  von  Rustige. 

In  all  there  are  more  than  three  hundred  and  fifty  new  biographies  in  this 
volume,  a  far  larger  number  than  in  any  of  the  preceding  volumes;  while,  in 
addition  to  these,  many  other  biographies  have  been  revised  and  amplified,  and 
upwards  of  one  thousand  corrections  and  emendations  have  been  introduced. 


As  confusion  frequently  arises  in  the  alphabetical  arrangement  of  biographical  dic- 
tionaries owing  to  the  arbitrary  mode  in  which  it  has  been  customary  to  deal  with  such 
names  as  are  preceded  by  an  article  or  a  preposition,  or  by  both,  it  has  been  thought 
desirable  in  this  work  to  adopt  the  grammatical  principle  sanctioned  by  the  Belgian 
Academy  in  regard  to  the  names  of  Flemish  and  French  (or  Walloon)  origin,  which 
are  included  in  the  '  Biographie  Nationale.' 

The  arrangement  therefore  is  according  to  the  following  plan  : 

I.  Every  artist  having  a  surname  is  placed  under  that  surname,  cross-references  being 
given  from  assumed  names  and  sobriquets  whenever  needed. 

Thus,  CoiTeggio  is  entered  under  AUegri,  Antonio. 

rinturicchio  „  Biagio,  Bernardino. 

Sehastiano  del  Pionibo  „  Luciani,  Sehastiano. 

Tintoretto  „  Rohusti,  Jacopo. 

(a)  When  the  prefix  to  a  name  is  an  article  it  remains  annexed,  because  it  is  an  integral 
part  of  the  name ;  but  when  it  is  a  preposition,  it  is  disunited,  because  it  indicates  the  place 
of  origin  or  birth  of  the  artist,  or  a  territorial  or  seigneurial  name.  Thus,  the  French  Le 
and  La,  and  the  equivalent  Dutch  and  Flemish  De  are  retained ;  while  the  French  de,  the 
Italian  da  and  di,  the  German  von,  and  the  Dutch  and  Flemish  van  are  rejected. 

Thus,  Charks  Le  Brun 

is  entered 


Le  Brim. 

Jan  David  De  Heem 


De  Heem. 

Jean  Franrois  de  Troy 



Ileinrich  Maria  von  Hess 



Isach  van  Ostade 



(b)  When  the  prefix  is  an  article  joined  to  or  preceded  by  a  preposition,  as  in  the  French 
du,  de  la,  and  des,  the  Italian  del,  della,  degli,  dai,  dagli,  and  dalle,  the  Spanish  del  and  de 
la,  and  the  Dutch  van  der,  van  de,  van  den,  and  ver  (a  contraction  for  van  der),  it  cannot  be 
disunited  from  the  proper  name,  because  the  particles  together  represent  the  genitive  case 
of  the  article. 

Thus,  Alphonse  du  Fresnoy  is  entered  under  Du  Fresnoy. 

Laurent  de  La  Hire  „  De  La  Hire. 

NiccoU  deW  Ablate  „  DeW  Abbate. 

Girolamo  dai  Libri  „  Dai  Libri. 

Willem  van  de  Yelde  „  Van  de  Velde. 


(c)  English  artists  bearing  foreign  names  are  placed  under  the  prefix,  whether  it  be  an 
article  or  a  preposition. 

Thus,  Peter  De  Wint  is  entered  under  De  Wint. 

(d)  Proper  names  with  the  prefix  St.  are  placed  as  though  the  word  Saint  were  written 
in  full :  and  similarly,  M'  and  Mc  are  arranged  as  3Iao. 

(e)  Foreign  compound  names  are  arranged  under  the  first  name. 

Thus,  Baptiste  Auhry-Lecomte  is  entered  under  Auhrij-Lecomte. 

Juan  Cano  de  Arevalo  „  Cano  de  Arevalo. 

II.  An  artist  having  no  surname  is  placed  under  the  name  of  the  place  from  which  he 
is  known,  or  failing  that,  under  his  own  Christian  name 

Thus,  Andrea  da  Bologna  is  entered  under  Bologna. 

Andrea  del  Sarto  „  Andrea. 

Fra  Bartolommeo  „  Bartolommeo. 

III.  Anonymous  artists  known  as  the  Master  of  the  Crab,  the  Master  of  the  Die,  the 
Master  of  the  Rat-Trap,  will  be  found  under  the  common  title  of  Master. 


W.  A.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Sir  Walter  Armstrong. 

J.  B.  ...  ...  ...  ...  J.  Baillie. 

A.  L.  B.  ...          ,    ...  ...  ...  A.  LysBaldry. 

C.  B.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Clara  Bell. 

M.  B.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Malcolm  Bell. 

L.  B.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Lawrence  Binyon. 

S.  B.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Sehvyn  Briiitoii. 

J.  C.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Julia  Cartwriglit  (Mrs.  Ady). 

J.  L.  C.  ...  ...  ...  ...  J.  L.  Caw. 

A.  B.  C.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Arthur  B.  Chamberlain. 

H.  C.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Herbert  Cook. 

M.  C.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Maud  Crutt well. 

L.  C.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Lionel  Cust. 

R.  H.  H.  C.  ...  ...  ...  ...  R.  H.  Hobart  Cust. 

G.  S.  D.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Rev.  G.  S.  Davies. 

G.  R.  D.  ...  ...  ...  ...  G.R.Dennis. 

E.  R.  D.  ...  ...  ...  ...  E.  R.  Dibdin. 

CD.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Campbell  Dodgsou. 

L.  D.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Langton  Douglas. 

O.  J.  D.  ...  ...  ...  ...  0.  J.  DuUea. 

C.  J.  Ff.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Constance  J.  Ffoulkes. 

R.  E.  F.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Roger  E.  Fry. 

B.  E.  G.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Robert  Edmund  Graves. 

A.  G.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Algernon  Graves. 

G.  G.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Georg  Gronau. 

M.  H.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Martin  Hardie. 

F.  H.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Frederic  Harrison. 

M.  M.  H.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Mary  M.  Heaton. 

J.  B.  S.  H.  ...  ...  ...  ...  J.  B.  Stoughton  Holborn. 

C.  H.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Charles  Hoi royd. 

P.  K.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Paul  Kristeller. 

J.  H.  W.  L.    ...  ...  ...  ...  J.  H.  W.  Laing. 

G.  S.  L.  ...  ...  ...  ...  G.  S.  Layard. 

M.  L.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Mary  Logan  (Mrs.  Berenson). 

H.  C.  M.  ...  ...  ...  ...  H.  C.  Marillier. 

W.  M.  ...  ...  ...  ...  W.  Martin. 

D.  R.  M.  ...  ...  ...  ...  Dora  R.  Meyrick. 

L.  0.  ...  ...  ...  ■..  Lucy  Olcott. 

E.  J.  0.  ...  ...  ...  ...  E.  J.  Oldmeadow. 


A.  O'R. 

Agnes  O'Reilly. 

F.  M.  P. 


F.  M.  Perkins. 



Percy  Pinkerton. 

A.  H,  P. 

A.  H.  Pollen. 

S.  P.  P. 

S.  Pugin  Powell. 

C.  R. 

, , 

Corrado  Ricci. 

R.  R. 


Ralph  Richardson. 

J.  P.  R. 



J.  P.  Richter. 

W.  R. 


, , 

W.  Roberts. 

E.  R. 

Emily  Robertscm. 

W.  B.  S. 

William  Bell  Scott. 

F.  S. 


Florence  Simmonds. 

H.  C.  S. 

H.  Clifford  Smith. 

E.  S. 

E.  Staley. 


Elliot  Stock. 

E.  C.  S. 

E.  C.  Strutt. 

W.  H.  J.  W. 

W.  H.  James  Weale. 

A.  W. 

Albinia  Wherry. 

A.  W. 

Alfred  Whitman. 

F.  W.  W. 

Frederic  W.  Whyte. 

G.  C.  V,\ 

George  C.  Williamson 



Portrait  of  an  Old  Woman  (Photogravure  Plate)         .        National  Gallery 


Landscape  with  Cascade National  Gallery 


La  Ddchesse  de  Chartres  {Photogravure  Plate)  .        .        .  Stockholm 

Les  Trois  Graces The  Louvre 


The  Madonna  and  Child Siena 

The  Madonna  and  Child  with  Saints Siena 


Blowing  Bubbles  National  Gallery 


Mr.  T.  B.  Bealb.     1824  ....  Collection  of  Lady  Banbury 


Christ  and  St.  John Hampton  Court 


Henry,  Prince  of  Wales Windsor  Castle 

A  Man,  name  unknown,  aged  30.     1614       Collection  of  the  Queen  of  Holland 


Arthur  Capel,  Earl  of  Essex,  and  his  Wife  At  one  Ume  at  Castle  Howard 

Henry,  Prince  of  Wales  \  Belvoir  Castle 

ISAAC   OLIVER  {  on  one 

Sir  Philip  Sidney  )   ^'"^^ Welbeck  Abbey 

JAMES  VAN  COST  (miscalled  on  the  illustration  Jakob) 

Portrait  of  a  Boy.    1650 National  Gallery 


The  Woman  in  Whits Tlie  Louvre 


The  Dead  Christ Brussels 


Dance  in  a  Tavern  {From  the  Etching) 

The  Smoker.     1655 Antiverp 


A  Forest  Scene National  Gallery 


Panthere  couchbe  dans  sa  cage Stockholm 


The  Raising  of  Lazarus Berlin 



To  face  p. 






























GIACOMO  PACCHIAROTTI  (miscalled  Jaoopo  Pacchiarotto  on  the  illustration) 

The  Madonna  and  Child National  Gallery    To  face  p.    54 


The  Three  Sisters; Dresden  „  68 


The  Deposition  in  the  Tomb,  -with  San  Valeriano  and  San  Mebcuriale 

Nationai  Gallery  „  60 


Fete  ChamfStee South  Kensii\gton  „  78 


Dawn.     Luther  at  Erfurt    .        .        .         Collection  of  R.  H.  Brechin,  Esq.  „  78 

The  Fairy  Raid Collection  of  John  Polsen,  Esq.  „  78 


La  Jeune  Fille  au  Chat The  Louvre  „  98 


Anne  of  Austria The  Louvre  „  104 

Louis  XIV.,  Anne  of  Austria,  and  a  Brother  of  the  King       The  Louvre  „         104 


The  Rivals Glasgow  „  104 


Lord  Chancellor  Thurlow National  Portrait  Gallery  „         110 


William  Wordsworth  National  Portrait  Gallery  „         114 


David  Garrick National  Portrait  Gallery  „  120 


Gilbert  A  Beckett's  Troth  (or  The  Saracen  Maiden)         Collection  of  Sir 

John  Jaffray  „  122 

The  Dove-cote  (From  the  Engraving) „  122 


The  Dark  Prison  {From  the  Etching) „  124 

A  Grand  Staircase  with  Columns  and  Fountains  (From  the  Etching)         .  „         124 


The  Vision  of  St.  Anthony  and  St.  George       .        .        Natiorial  Gallery  „         126 

Adoration  of  the  Magi Berlin  „         128 


Rebecca,  Lady  Northwick"\  .„.2 

Hon.  Mrs.  Grieve  '        '/-,  „  \-     '  .  t  'd-         ..  j*-      '     -c  '  " 

Hon.  Lady  Cockerell  f  '         Collect^on  of  J  Purpont  Morgan,  Esq. 

Hon.  Anne  Rushout  J  ,,134 


Girls  disturbed  while  bathing Amsterdam  „         136 


Le  Concert  de  Famille Collection  of  M.  Doucet  „         146 

H.  POT 

A  Startling  Introduction     , Hampton  Court  „         148 


The  Young  Bull The  Hague  „         148 

The  Two  Plough  Horses.    1652  (From  the  Etching)     ,        ,         .        .        .  „         148 


Portrait  of  J.  Van  der  Gheenste.    1583    .        ,        »        .        .       Brussels  „         150 


F.   POURBUS,  the  younger  (miscalled  on  the  plate  P.  Pourbds  the  younger) 

Isabella,  Aechduchess  of  Austria Hampton  Court 


The  Infant  Jupiter  suckling  the  Goat 


St.  John  the  Baptist  and  three  other  Saints  .       .       .      Bergamo 


George  Washington       i 
Horace  Walpole.    1735 } 

Montagu  Hoxise 



.  Collection  of  the  Earl  of  Dartry 
Collection  of  the  King  of  Denmark 

The  Louvre 



Probably  Nicolas  Fuuquet. 
Frederik  III.    1663 


Psyche  carried  off  by  Zephyrus 


The  Dedication  of  St.  Genevieve 

FERDINANDO  quaglia 

The  Empress  Josephine Wallace  Collection 


Mrs.  Campbell  of  Balliemore  {Photogravure  Plate)      .        .        .  Edinburgh 
Sir  Walter  Scott Collection  of  the  Earl  of  Home 


The  San  Maetino  Maggiore  Altar-piece  in  its  original  Francia  Frame 

The  Manzuoli  Altar-piece Bologna 


Les  Grimpeurs  (From  the  Engraving) 

Portrait  of  Pietbo  Abetino  (From  the  Engraving) 


George  III National  Portrait  Gallery 


The  Crucifixion 

The  Ansidei  Madonna  .... 
The  Madonna  della  Seggiola  \  on  one 
The  Madonna  di  Casa  D'Alba    )   page 

GUIDO  RENI,  called  GUIDO 

PHfflBus  AND  Aurora       .... 

Collection  of  Dr.  Ludivig  Mond 

National  Gallery 

Pitti  Palace,  Florence 

Hermitage  Gallery 



John  Charles,  Viscount  Althorp  {Photogravure  Plate) 

Collection  of  Earl  Spencer 
Lady  Cockburn  and  her  children  (miscalled  on  illustration  "  In  the  National 

Gallery")  Collection  of  Alfred  Beit,  Esq. 

The  Age  of  Innocence National  Gallery 

Portraits  of  two  Gentlemen National  Gallery 


The  Countess  of  Oxford  (From  the  Mezzotint) 


An  Old  Woman  with  a  key .       Munich 


The  Artist  [by  himself)  . 


Christ  and  the  Woman  of  Samaria 

National  Portrait  Gallery 
Tate  Gallery 

To  face  p.  150 



















Portrait  of  the  Artist.     1640 National  Gallery    To  face  p.  236 

The  Three  Trees  (From  the  Etching) ,,242 


James  II National  Portrait  Gallery  „  244 


Interior  of  the  Church  of  St.  Paul  at  Antwerp     .        .        Tate  Gallery  „         250 


The  Artist Collection  of  Miss  E.  Robertson  „         252 


St.  Michael  overcoming  Lucifer Dresden  „         256 

The  Last  Supper Venice  „         258 


The  Madonna  and  Child  with  Saints  and  Anqels     .        .        .         Berlin  „         266 

The  Nativity  ........         National  Gallery  „  266 


Mrs.  Fitzherbert — the  Haughty  Dame  (Photogravure  Plate)  Collection  of  J. 

E.  Gray  Hill,  Esq.  „  268 

The  Artist National  Portrait  Gallery  „  268 

Mrs.  Mark  Currie National  Gallery  „  270 

The  Parson's  Daughter National  Gallery  „  270 


Portrait  of  a  Youth Dorchester  House  „         272 


Jacob's  Dream Devonshire  House  ,,         276 

SIR  W.   C.   ROSS 

The  Artist  as  a  Y'odns  Man South  Kensington  „         280 

D.  g.  rossetti 

Beata  Beatrix  {Pliotograimre  Plate) Tate  Gallery  „  282 

Lady  Lilith Collection  of  WUliam  Bossetti,  Esq.  „         284 


From  the  Dance  of  Death.    1815        ....        South  Kensington  „         290 

P.   P.   RUBENS 

The  Descent  from  the  Cross  {Photogravure  Plate)      .        .        .      Antwerp  „         292 

Le  Chapeau  de  Poil  National  Gallery  „  294 


Landscape  with  an  old  Manor  House Berlin  „         298 

Landscape  with  Waterfall National  Gallery  „         298 


Miss  Faden  {Photogravure  Plate)    ....        Collection  of  Mr.  Webb  „  304 

The  Youno  Artists         ....        Collection  of  Mr.  Frank  H.  Webb  „         306 




NABHOLZ,  JoHANN  Cheistoph,  a  painter  and 
engraver,  born  at  Regensburg  in  1752,  died  in 
1796.  He  painted  principally  portraits,  among 
them  those  of  the  Czarina  Catherine  II.  ;  and  of 
many  of  her  nobility.  Some  of  his  portraits  and 
other  subjects  he  engraved  himself. 

NACHENIUS,  Jan  van,  a  native  of  the  Hague, 
who  painted  about  1812.  He  was  a  pupil  of 
Mathieu  Terwesten.  He  lived  first  at  Amsterdam, 
afterwards  in  the  Dutch  Indies,  where  he  died. 

NACHTEGAELE,  Peter,  1450-70,  held  office 
in  the  Guild  of  St.  Luke  at  Bruges  in  1457-58, 
and  1461-6.3. 

NACHTMANN,FkanzXavier,  painter  and  htho- 
grapher,  was  born  at  Bodenmais,  in  Lower  Bavaria, 
in  1799.  He  studied  in  the  Academy  at  Munich, 
and  was  employed  in  1823  as  flower  and  fruit 
painter  at  the  Royal  China  Manufactory  of  that 
city.  In  1827  he  quitted  this  employment  to 
devote  himself  to  portraiture  in  water-colour  and 
miniature,  and  the  study  of  architectural  per- 
spective. His  portraits  of  tlie  royal  family  are  finely 
executed,  while  among  his  perspective  views  may 
be  mentioned,  the  '  Interior  of  the  Court  Church  at 
Munich.'  He  signed  his  works  X.J/'.  Nachtmann 
died  in  1846. 

NADAT.     See  Dati,  Natale. 

NADORP,  Franz,  a  painter,  etcher,  and  litho- 
grapher, also  a  sculptor  and  modeller,  was  born  at 
Anholt,  Rhenish-Prussia,  in  1794.  He  began  to 
learn  painting  under  Bergler  at  Prague  in  1814. 
Afterwards  he  spent  some  time  at  Dresden,  Vienna, 
and  Rome,  where  he  died  in  1876.  Kadorp  painted 
landscapes  of  large  dimensions,  as  well  as  portraits 
and  other  subjects.     Among  them  : 

The  Villa  Eaphael. 

The  Villa  d'Este. 

The  Forum  of  rompeii. 

The  Murder  of  King  Edward's  Children. 


Francesca  da  Rimini. 

He  also  etched  thirteen  plates,  among  which  is 
'The  Barberini  Triton.' 

VOL.  IV.  B 

NAECKB,  Gustav  Heinrich,  was  born  at 
Frauenstein  in  Saxony  in  1786,  and  was  instructed 
by  Grasse,  whom,  however,  he  followed  only  in 
his  colouring.  After  having  lived  at  Rome  for 
some  years,  he,  in  1825,  became  a  professor  at  the 
School  of  Art  at  Dresden,  where  he  died  in  1835. 
Among  his  paintings  are  : 

St.  Genovefa.     1816.     {The  Grand  Duke  of  Coburg.) 
St.  Elizabeth.     1826.     (Naumburg  Cathedral.) 
Christ  and  His  Disciples.     1830. 

NAEUWINCX,  (or  Naiwinck,)  Hendrik.  The 
birthplace  of  this  Dutch  painter  and  etcher  is 
uncertain ;  but  it  was  either  Utrecht,  or  more 
probably  Sclioonhoven,  and  the  date  of  his  birth 
about  1619-20,  as  he  was  contemporary  with  Jan 
Asselyn,  who  was  born  in  1610,  died  in  1660,  and 
(lainted  figures  and  animals  in  landscapes  by 
Naeuwincx  ;  so  that  the  pictures  by  him  may  have 
been  confounded  with  those  of  Asselyn.  Immer- 
zeel  quotes  very  high  prices  as  having  been  paid 
for  pictures  by  Naeuwincx,  which  consist  of  land- 
scapes, towns,  villages,  &c.  One  in  the  style  of 
Waterloo,  in  which  sportsmen  are  introduced,  is 
dated  1651.  He  is,  however,  more  generally 
known  by  his  drawings  and  etchings,  in  which 
the  point  is  used  with  great  delicacy.  Tliey  are 
rare,  and  were  published  in  two  sets  of  eight  each  ; 
of  which  Nagler  gives  a  full  description.  The 
date  of  the  death  of  Naeuwincx  has  not  been 

NAFTEL,MAnD,a  clever  flower  painter,  daughter 
of  Paul  J.  Naftel  by  his  second  wife.  She  was 
born  in  1856,  studied  in  the  Slade  School,  and 
in  Paris  under  Carolus  Duran.  She  became  as- 
sociated with  the  Society  of  Painters  in  Water- 
Colours  in  1887,  but  never  attained  to  full  member- 
ship. She  died  in  London  in  1890  after  a  very 
short  illness.  A  book  on  'Flowers  and  how  to 
Paint  them'  was  written  by  her  and  became  a 
standard  work  on  the  subject. 

NAFTEL,  Paul  Jacob,  a  clever  water-colour 
artist,  a   native  of  the  Cliannel  Islands,  born  at 


Guernsey  in  1817.  Neither  his  father  nor  mother 
exhibited  any  talent  in  art,  but  from  his  earliest 
youth  Naftel  was  fond  of  drawing  and  dehghted 
in  the  use  of  brushes  and  colours.  He  began  life 
in  a  commercial  pursuit,  but  soon  abandoned  it  in 
favour  of  art,  earning  his  living  by  giving  lessons 
in  drawing  and  painting  at  various  schools.  After 
a  few  years  of  rigid  economy  and  very  laborious 
work  he  obtained  the  position  of  drawing-master 
at  the  chief  college  of  his  native  island.  In  1870 
he  left  Guernsey  and  came  to  London,  and  there 
obtained  considerable  work  in  the  teaching  profes- 
sion, becoming  master  in  drawing  and  painting  at 
many  fashionable  schools.  This  work  he  continued 
down  to  the  time  of  his  death,  but  gradually  taught 
less  and  less  as  the  demand  for  his  own  exquisite 
water-colours  increased.  He  had  joined  the  Old 
Water-Colour  Society  in  1856  while  he  was  in 
Guernsey,  first  as  an  associate  and  then  three  years 
after  as  a  member,  and  he  exhibited  from  that 
time  down  to  his  death  in  the  Galleries  of  that 
Society.  Part  of  his  life  he  lived  at  Chelsea,  but 
he  died  near  Feltliam  on  September  13,  1891.  He 
did  a  little  book  illustration,  preparing  the  designs 
for  two  small  volumes  on  the  Cliannel  Islands. 
His  landscapes  were  of  exquisite  quality  and  very 
dainty  refinement,  most  of  them  representing 
scenes  in  Italy,  the  Tyrol,  Scotland,  and  England, 
whilst  many  of  his  works  depicting  the  sea  were 
from  scenes  in  his  own  much-loved  island  home. 

NAGEL,  Jan,  an  unimportant  Dutch  painter  of 
the  17th  century.  He  was  born  at  Haarlem.  He 
imitated  Cornelius  Molenaer,  and  died  at  the  Hague 
in  1602  (?). 

NAGEL,  LuDWiQ  von,  German  painter;  born 
March  29,  1836,  at  Weilheim  (Upper  Bavaria)  ; 
was  a  pupil  of  W.  Diez.  He  was  fond  of  equestrian 
subjects,  and  indeed  is  best  known  for  his  spirited 
drawings  of  horses  and  of  episodes  in  military 
manoeuvres.  He  went  through  the  Franco-German 
War  of  1870.  He  became  popular  by  his  con- 
tributions to  '  Fliegende  Bliitter,'  and  '  Miinchener 
JBliitter.'     He  died  in  September  1899. 

NAGEL,  Peter,  a  Flemish  engraver,  who 
flourished  at  Antwerp  about  1569-84.  He  is  said 
to  have  been  a  pupil  of  Philip  Galle,  and  he 
engraved  many  subjects  after  Flemish  masters. 
Among  other  prints  he  has  left, '  The  Seven  Works 
of  Mercy  ' ;  after  M.  Heemskerk. 

NAGLI,  Francesco,  called  II  Centino,  an  Italian 
painter  of  the  17th  century.  He  was  bom  at  Cento, 
and  was  a  pupil  of  Guercino.  Most  of  his  active 
life  was  passed  at  Rimini,  where,  in  the  Church  of 
Santa  Maria  degli  Angeli,  his  best  work  is  to  be 

NAGTEGEL,  Arnold,  engraver.  He  worked  in 
1690,  probably  at  Amsterdam.  His  name  is  affixed 
to  prints  in  mezzotint,  after  portraits  of  Ishaoh 
Aboab  Rabin  and  of  the  English  surgeon,  Thomas 

NAHL,  JoHANN  Adgust,  one  of  a  family  of 
artists,  mostly  sculptors,  established  at  Ausbach. 
He  was  born  in  1752  at  Channe,  near  Bern,  on  a 
property  belonging  to  his  father,  who  gave  him 
his  first  instruction  in  art.  As  his  taste  inclined 
rather  towards  painting  than  to  sculpture,  he 
became  a  scholar  of  Tischbein  at  Cassel,  then  of 
Tannesch  at  Strasburg,  of  the  landscape  painter 
Bemmel,  and  of  Handmann  at  Bern.  At  the  age 
of  twenty  Nahl  went  to  Paris,  and  studied  Le 
Sueur  so  ardently  as  to  assimilate  his  style.  In 
1774  Nahl  proceeded  to  Rome,  where  he  passed 

seven  years  in  drawing  from  antiques,  and  copying 
the  works  of  Raphael  and  Guido.  He  there  painted 
his  fine  picture  '  An  Offering  to  Venus,'  one  of  his 
richest  and  most  highly-finished  works.  The 
illness  of  his  father  induced  him,  in  1781,  to  re- 
turn to  Cassel,  where,  shortly  afterwards,  his  father 
died.  Nahl  did  not  remain  long  in  that  place,  but 
went  to  England.  There  he  remained  fifteen 
months,  and  after  visiting  Holland,  returned  to  his 
native  place.  In  1786  and  1787  he  was  again  in 
Rome  and  Naples  ;  and  in  1792  returned  to  Cassel. 
There  he  became  a  professor  in  the  Academy,  and 
in  1815  '  Professor  of  Painting.'  He  died  at 
Cassel  in  1825.  Twice  Nahl  gained  prizes  given 
by  Goethe  for  pictorial  composition.  In  1799- 
1800  by  his  '  Parting  of  Hector  and  Andromache,' 
and,  in  1801,  by  his  'Hercules  at  the  Court  of 
Lycomedes.'  Nahl's  works  include  history,  por- 
traits, and  landscapes.  He  also  etched  several 
mythological  subjects. 

NAIGEON,  Jean,  a  French  historical  and  por- 
trait painter,  and  relative  of  the  French  philosopher, 
Jacques  Andr6  Naigeon,  who  himself  began  life 
as  an  artist.  Jean  Naigeon  was  a  scholar  of 
Devosge,  at  the  Dijon  Academy,  and  of  David. 
His  principal  pictures  are,  '  The  infant  Pyrrhus 
presented  at  the  Court  of  Glaukias ; ' '  jEneas  going 
to  Battle;'  'Numa  Pompilius  consulting  the  Nymph 
Egeria ; '  two  bas-reliefs  in  the  gallery  of  the 
Luxembourg,  being  allegories  {en  grisaille)  of  the 
glory  of  Rubens  and  Le  Sueur ;  the  design  for  the 
Vignette  engraved  by  Roger  for  the  official  docu- 
ments of  the  Government  of  the  French  Republic. 
He  also  painted  theatrical  decorations,  and  por- 
traits of  distinguished  persons  of  the  time,  among 
them  Monge  and  Laplace.  He  was  instrumental 
in  saving  many  works  of  art  from  destruction  in 
1793,  and  was  conservator  of  the  Museum  of  the 
Luxembourg,  and  a  member  of  the  Legion  of 
Honour.  He  was  born  at  Beaune  (Cote  d'Or)  in 
1757,  and  died  in  1832. 

NAIGEON,  Jean  Gdillaume  Elzidor,  a  French 
historical  and  portrait  painter,  born  in  Paris  in 
1797.  He  studied  under  his  father,  Jean  Naigeon, 
and  also  under  David  and  Gros.  He  entered  the 
'^cole  des  Beaux  Arts'  in  1815,  and  having  gained 
the  second  grand-prize  in  1827,  went  to  Italy.  In 
1832  he  succeeded  his  father  as  curator  of  the 
Luxembourg  Gallery.  He  died  in  Paris  in  1867. 
Amongst  his  works  are  : 

The  Magdalen  in  the  Desert.     1836. 

The  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds.     1845. 

Gleaners  near  Naples. 

The  Vintage  at  Amalfi. 

Several  Portraits.     (  Versailles  Gallery. ) 

NAIN.     See  Le  Nain. 

NAISH,  William,  an  English  miniature  painter 
of  the  18th  century.  He  was  a  native  of  Axbridge, 
Somersetshire,  and  practised  in  London.  He  ex- 
hibited at  the  Royal  Academy  from  1783  to  1800, 
in  whicli  year  he  died.  His  brother,  John  Naish, 
was  also  an  artist. 

NAIVEU.     See  Neveu. 

NAKE,  GnsTAV  Heineich,  a  German  painter  of 
history  and  portraits,  who  flourished  between  1784 
and  1834.     Works : 

Faust  and  Marguerite. 

St.  Elizabeth  of  Hungary  distributing  Alms. 

NALDINI,  Battista  di  Matted,  called  Bat- 
TiSTA  Degli  Innocenti,  was  born  at  Florence  in 
1537,  and  spent  the  greater  part  of  his  youth  with 
the    superintendent    of  the  Foundling   Hospital, 


He  was  first  a  scholar  of  Jacopo  Carrucci, 
but  afterwards  studied  under  Angelo  Bronzino. 
According  to  Baglione  he  visited  Rome  in  the 
pontificate  of  Gregory  XIII.,  where  he  painted 
Beveral  altar-pieces  for  the  churches,  and  on  his 
return  to  Florence  he  was  engaged  by  Giorgio 
Vasari  as  his  coadjutor  in  the  works  in  which  he 
was  employed  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio,  where  he 
was  occupied  fourteen  years.  His  pictures  of  the 
Purification  and  Entombment  in  Santa  Maria 
Novella,  at  Florence,  are  extolled  by  Borghini. 
Other  works  of  his  are  the  '  Pieta '  over  the  tomb 
of  Michelangelo,  and  Adorations  '  of  the  Shep- 
herds,' and  '  of  the  Magi'  in  the  Dresden  Gallery. 
He  was  living  in  1590.  Zani  supposes  that  he 
died  about  1600. 

NAMEUR,  Louis  de,  a  French  historical  painter, 
was  born  in  1629,  and  received  into  the  Academy 
in  1665.     None  of  his  works  can  now  be  identitied. 

NANGIS,  Genevieve.  See  under  Reqnadlt, 
Nic.  Fr. 

NANI,  Jacopo,  (or  Giacomc,)  an  unimportant 
Italian  painter,  of  the  18th  century.  He  was  em- 
ployed at  the  Neapolitan  Court,  where  he  painted 
landscapes,  flowers,  and  fruit.  Lanzi  says  he  was 
a  scholar  of  Belvidere. 

NANINI  (Matteo).  An  obscure  pupil  of  Carlo 

NANNI,  Giovanni,  (or  Nani,)  called  Giovanni 
DA  Udine,  Giov.  de  Nanis,  and  De  Recamatori,  of 
the  Embriverero,  was  born  at  Udine  on  the  15th 
October,  1487,  and  having  discovered  an  early 
disposition  for  art,  by  making  drawings  from  the 
animals  and  birds  killed  in  the  chase  by  his  father, 
Francesco  Recamatore,  he  was  sent  to  ^  Venice, 
where  he  was  placed  under  the  tuition  of  Giorgione. 
The  fame  of  Raphael  had  reached  Venice,  and 
inspired  Nanni  with  an  ardent  desire  to  visit 
Home.  His  protector,  the  patriarch  Grimani,  de- 
sirous of  promoting  his  wishes,  furnished  him  with 
letters  of  recommendation  to  Baldassare  Castig- 
lione,  by  whom  he  was  introduced  to  Raphael, 
who  admitted  him  into  his  school.  He  was  there 
employed  in  painting  the  ornamental  accessories. 
While  he  was  in  Raphael's  studio  the  discovery 
was  made  of  the  remains  of  antiquity  in  the  baths 
of  Titus.  Nanni  was  selected  by  Raphael  to  make 
designs  from  the  beautiful  grotesques  on  stucco, 
found  in  the  diflerent  apartments.  He  not  only 
succeeded  in  his  commission  to  the  entire  satisfac- 
tion of  his  master,  but  discovered  a  process  of 
compounding  a  stucco,  which  had  the  same  appear- 
ance, and  probably  the  same  durability,  as  that 
used  by  the  Romans.  He  was  now  employed  by 
Raphael  to  execute  the  greatest  part  of  the  gro- 
tesques in  the  Loggie  and  Stanze  of  the  Vatican,  a 
commission  he  discharged  so  well  as  to  link  his 
name  indissolubly  with  that  of  his  master.  The 
grotesques  in  the  lower  Loggia  were  entirely  from 
the  brush  of  Giovanni,  but  in  1867  they  were  much 
painted  over  by  Maiitovani.  After  the  death  of 
Raphael  he  was  employed  by  Clement  VII.,  in  con- 
junction with  Pierino  del  Vaga,  to  ornament  that 
part  of  the  Vatican  called  La  Torre  di  Borgia, 
where  they  represented  the  Seven  Planets  ;^  the 
emblematical  figures  were  designed  by  del  Vaga, 
but  the  grotesques  and  symbolical  decorations 
were  executed  by  Nanni.  The  festoons  of  the 
'  History  of  Psyche,'  in  the  Farnesina  Palace,  were 
also  by  him,  and  he  decorated  the  vestibule  of 
the  Villa  Madama,  now  in  ruins,  and  prepared 
the  designs  for  the  windows  of  the  Laurentian 
B  2 

Library.  In  1527  he  was  compelled,  by  ttie  sack- 
ing of  Rome,  to  fly  from  that  city,  and  he  took 
refuge  at  Ddine,  %vhere  he  was  for  some  time  em- 
ployed. He  was  afterwards  engaged  at  Florence, 
by  the  family  of  the  Medici,  in  several  considerable 
works.  He  returned  to  Rome  in  the  pontificate  of 
Pius  IV.,  and  there  he  died  in  1564.  He  was  buried  in 
the  Pantheon,  near  the  tomb  of  his  master  Raphael. 

NANNI,  GiROLAMO,  was  a  native  of  Rome,  and 
flourished  about  the  year  1642,  during  the  pontifi- 
cate of  Sixtus  v.,  by  whom  he  was  employed  in 
several  considerable  works.  He  was  generally 
known  by  the  name  of  "  poco  e  buono,"  from  the 
following  circumstance.  Being  of  a  very  studious 
disposition,  and  rather  slow  in  his  operations,  he 
was  reproached  for  his  tardiness  by  Giovanni  da 
Modena,  a  contemporary  artist,  when  he  replied, 
"  Faccio  poco  e  buono  ; ''  and  he  bore  that  name 
ever  afterwards.  His  works  are  to  be  seen  in 
several  of  the  public  buildings  of  Rome.  In  the 
church  of  the  Madonna  dell'  Anima  there  is  an 
'  Annunciation  ; '  and  in  San  Bartolomeo  dell'  Isola, 
two  subjects  from  the  life  of  St.  Bonaventura. 

NANNUCCIO,  or  Nannoccio,  was  a  Florentine 
painter,  and  a  pupil  of  Andrea  del  Sarto ;  he 
flourished  about  1540.  He  went  to  France  with 
the  Cardinal  Toumon,  and  spent  a  large  part  of 
his  life  there. 

NANTEUIL,  Celestin  LEBCEnF,  a  French  his- 
torical and  genre  painter  and  lithographer,  born  at 
Rome  in  1813.  He  was  brought  to  France  when 
only  two  years  old,  and  studied  under  J.  M.  Lang- 
lois  and  Ingres.  In  1829  he  entered  the  Ecole  des 
Beaux  Arts,  but  was  expelled  for  heading  a  stu- 
dent's disturbance.  Much  of  his  time  was  occupied 
in  illustrating  books  by  Victor  Hugo,  Dumas,  and 
others,  for  which  he  made  an  immense  number  of 
drawings.  He  obtained  medals  in  1837  and  1848. 
In  his  later  years  he  held  the  post  of  Director  of 
the  Dijon  Academy.  He  died  in  1873.  Amongst 
his  pictures  are : 

A  Ray  of  Sunshine.     1848.     ( Valenciennes  3fuscum.) 

The  Temptation.     1851.     (_Savre  Museum.) 

Souvenirs  of  the  Past. 

Scene  from  Don  Quixote.     (Lille  Museum.) 

Hunting-dogs  reposing.     {Luxembourg^  Paris.) 

The  Fawn.     {The  same.) 

His  chief  lithographs  are : 

The  '  Bebedores ' ;  after  Velazquez. 

The  Studio  of  Velazquez  ;  after  the  same. 

The  Toper ;  after  Tenters. 



NANTEUIL,  Robert.  This  celebrated  French 
engraver  and  draughtsman  in  crayons,  was  bom  at 
Rheims  about  1623,  according  to  the  '  Merc u re 
Galant'  of  December  1678,  or  in  1630  as  stated  by 
other  authorities.  There  is  an  engraving  by  him 
dated  1645,  and  it  was  not  the  first  he  did.  He 
was  the  son  of  a  merchant,  who  gave  him  a  classi- 
cal education,  but  a  decided  inclination  for  the  art 
of  design  induced  him  to  adopt  it  as  a  profession. 
He  was  instructed  in  engraving  by  his  brother-in- 
law,  Nicolas  Regnesson,  whose  sister  he  married  in 
164'7,  and  then  went  to  Paris,  where  he  received 
further  instruction  from  Abraham  Boke  and  Phil- 
lippe  de  Champagne.  He  acquired  considerable 
reputation  as  a  maker  of  portraits  in  crayons,  and 
his  talent  in  that  branch  recommended  him  to  the 
protection  of  Louis  XIV.,  whose  portrait  he  painted, 
and  after  this  was  appointed  designer  and  engraver 
to  the  Royal  cabinet,  with  a  pension.     In  1648  he 



applied  himselt  more  to  engraviog  in  the  style  of 
C.  Mellan  and  others,  but  in  1660  he  adopted  one 
infinitely  superior,  which  in  clearness  and  beauty 
of  effect  has  never  been  surpassed.  The  portraits 
by  him  will  ever  hold  a  rank  among  the  most  ad- 
mired productions  of  the  art.  Nanteuil  died  in 
Paris  in  December  1678,  and  it  appears  extra- 
ordinary that  in  so  short  a  life,  if  he  was  born  in 
1630,  he  could  accomplish  so  many  plates  in  so 
finished  a  style.  Mariette  possessed  two  hundred 
and  eighty  prints  by  this  artist.  The  following 
are  among  his  most  esteemed  portraits : 

Anne  of  Austria,  Queen  of  France  ;  after  Mignard. 
Several  Portraits  of  Louis  XIV". ;  from  his  own  designs, 

and  after  Mignard,  and  others. 
l/ouis,  Dauphin  ;  son  of  Louis  SIV.     1677. 
Louis  Bourbon,  Prince  de  Cond6  ;  after  his  own  desian 

1662.  * 

Henri  Jules  de  Bourbon,  Duke  d'Enghein  :  after  Mia- 
nard.     1661.  •=  J  n 

Christina,  Queen  of  Sweden  ;  after  S.  £ourdon.     1654. 
Louisa  Maria,  Queen  of  Poland  ;  after  Juste.     1653. 
Charles  Emmanuel,  Duke  of  Savoy.     1C68. 
Charles,  Duke  of  Lorraine.     1660. 

Johann  Friedrich,  Duke  of  Brunswick  Luneburg.    1674 
Charles  II.,  Duke  of  Mantua.     1652. 
Antonio  Barberini,  Cardinal,  and  Archbishop  of  Ptheims. 

Emanuel  Theodore,  Duke  of  Bouillon,  Cardinal.     1670. 
Leon  le  BoutheUier,  Minister  of  State ;   after  Cham- 

paigne.     1652. 
Jules  Mazarin,  Cardinal.     1655. 
Armand  Jean  du  Plessis,  Cardinal  de  Richelieu  ;  after 

Henri  de  la  Tour  d'Auvergne,  Viscount  Turenne.    1665. 

Pompone  de  Bellievre. 

Two  Plates  ;  one  after  P.  de  Champaigne ;  dated  1653. 
The  other,  an  oval,  after  0.  le  Brun.  The  latter  is 
one  of  Nanteuil's  best  engravings. 

Robert  Nanteuil  was  also  a  poet,  and  the  verges 
he  addressed  to  Louis  XIV.,  begging  for  more 
time  to  finish  his  portrait,  are  graceful. 

NANTO.     See  Denanto. 

NAPOLETANO,  II.    See  Angeli,  Fil. 

NAPOLI,  Rosa  da.     See  Roos,  Jac. 

NAPOLITANO,  Simone.    See  Bologna. 

NAPPI,  Francesco,  was  born  at  Milan  about 
1573,  and  after  studying  for  some  time  both  there 
and  at  Venice,  visited  Rome  during  the  pontificate 
of  Urban  VIII.  He  was  employed  for  some  of  the 
public  edifices  at  Rome  ;  but  his  works  do  not  rank 
above  mediocrity.  His  best  productions  are,  his 
pictures  of  the  '  Resurrection  '  and  the  '  Assump- 
tion of  the  Virgin,'  in  the  cloister  of  Santa  Maria 
sopra  Minerva ;  and  the  '  Annunciation '  in  the 
Monasterio  dell'  Umihtk.     He  died  in  1638. 

NARCISO,  Josfe  Antonio,  a  Spanish  painter  of 
the  18th  century,  no  details  of  whose  life  are  known. 

NARCISSUS.     See  Peesijn. 

NARDI,  Angelo,  was  bom  at  Florence  about 
1601,  and  after  studying  the  works  of  Paolo 
Veronese,  visited  Spain  in  the  reign  of  Philip  IV., 
■whose  court-painter  he  became  in  1625,  and  whom 
he  assisted  with  advice  in  the  purchase  of  Italian 
paintings.  He  was  a  favourite  of  the  Archbishop 
of  Toledo,  and  executed  for  him  seven  altar-pieces 
for  the  Bernardin  Nuns  at  Alcala  de  Heneares, 
eleven  for  those  at  Jaen,  and  eight  in  the  Atocha 
Church  at  Madrid.     Nardi  died  at  Madrid  in  1660. 

NARDINI,  ToMASo,  an  Italian  painter,  was  born 
at  Ascoli  about  1658.  He  painted  figures  in  the 
perspectives  of  Collaceroni.     He  died  in  1718. 

NARDOIS,  J.  Galioth,  a  French  painter  of  the 
17th  century.  He  is  quoted  in  Nagler's  '  Mono- 

gramisten,'  where  he  is  said  to  have  painted  in  the 
style  of  Claude,  and  to  have  engraved  some  jJates. 

NARDUCCI,  (or  Narduck,)  Giovanni,  after- 
wards '  Fray  .Juan  de  la  Miseria,'an  Italian  painter, 
was  born  in  Molica  about  1526.  He  acquired  some 
knowledge  of  painting  in  the  Schools  of  Naples, 
whence,  being  of  a  pious  disposition,  he  made 
pilgrimages  to  all  parts  of  Italy,  and  at  last  left 
ids  native  country  for  the  shrine  of  Santiago  at 
Compostella.  Proceeding  afterwards  to  Madrid, 
he  entered  the  school  of  Sanchez  Coello,  where  his 
piety  recommended  him  to  the  devout  sister  of 
Philip  II.  In  1560  he  entered  one  of  the  reformed 
Carmelite  convents  at  Pastrana.  There  he  painted 
an  '  Ecce  Homo,'  and  two  portraits  of  Santa  Teresa 
de  Jesus.  It  is  doubtful  whether  any  of  his  works 
still  exist.  He  painted  also  portraits  of  St.  Luis 
Beltran  and  of  Fray  Nicolas  Factor,  the  artist,  of 
Valencia.  He  closed  a  long  life  of  devotion  at 
Madrid  in  1616. 

NASELLl,  Francesco,  was  born  at  Ferrara,  and 
flourished  about  the  year  1610.  When  young,  he 
studied  the  works  of  the  Carracci  and  Guercino. 
which  he  copied  with  surprising  success,  but  after- 
wards devoted  himself  to  the  manner  of  his  coun- 
tryman Giuseppe  Mazzola.  He  was  employed  for 
several  of  the  churches  in  Ferrara.  In  the  cathe- 
dral there  is  an  altar-piece  by  him,  representing 
the  '  Nativity  ; '  in  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  de 
Servi,  a  large  picture  of  the  'Last  Supper;'  ana 
in  the  church  of  Santa  Francesca,  the 'Assumption 
of  the  Virgin.'  Naselli  died  at  Ferrara  about  1630. 
NASH,  Edward,  an  English  miniature  painter, 
born  in  1778.  He  exhibited  at  the  Academy  from 
1811  to  1820.  In  his  later  years  he  practised  in 
India,  sending  his  works  home  to  be  exhibited. 
He  died  in  England  in  1821. 

NASH,  Frederick,  an  English  water-colour 
painter  and  draughtsman,  born  in  1782  at  Lambeth. 
His  instruction  in  art  was  due  to  Malton.  His 
works  first  appeared  at  the  Academy  in  1800,  and 
he  occasionally  exhibited  there  till  1847.  In  1808 
he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Water-Colour 
Society,  where  he  exhibited  with  some  intermis- 
sions till  1856.  To  show  his  facility  and  industry, 
it  may  be  stated  that  his  contributions  to  the  latter 
Society  amounted  to  nearly  five  hundred  works. 
He  was  also  draftsman  to  the  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries, and  made  several  tours  in  France,  Switzer- 
land, Germany,  &o.  In  1834  he  retired  to  Brighton, 
where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life,  and  died 
there  in  1856.  There  are  water-colour  drawings 
by  him  of  '  Tintern  Abbey,'  and  the  'Versailles 
Fountains,'  at  the  Kensington  Museum.  Amongst 
the  works  which  he  illustrated  are : 

'  Views  of  St.  George's  Chapel,  'Windsor.'    1805. 

'  Twelve  Views  of  the  Antiquities  of  London.'     1810. 

Ackerman's  '  History  of  "Westminster  Abbey.' 

'  History  of  the  University  of  Oxford.'     1814. 

'  Picturesque  views  of  the  City  of  Paris  and  its  Environs. 

NASH,  Joseph,  an  English  water-colour  painter 
and  draughtsman,  born  in  1808.  He  became  a 
member  of  the  old  Water-Colour  Society,  where 
he  first  exhibited  in  1835.  His  forte  was  the  de- 
piction of  mediaeval  buildings  and  scenes.  He 
published  '  Architecture  of  the  Middle  Ages ' 
(1838)  ;  '  Mansions  of  England  in  the  Olden  Time  ' 
(1839-49)  ;  and  '  Views  of  Windsor  Castle  '  (1848) 
He  also  contributed  illustrations  to  Lawson's 
'  Scotia  delineata'  (1847) ;  E.  MacDermott's '  Merrie 
Days    of    England'    (1859);    and   'Old    English 





Ballads'  (1864);  and  he  drew  on  stone  Sir  D. 
Wilkie's  '  Oriental  Sketches. '  At  the  Paris  Exhibi- 
tion of  1855  he  exhibited  six  water-colour  draw- 
ings, and  was  awarded  an  "  honourable  mention." 
He  died  at  Bayswater  in  1878. 

NASINI,  Antonio,  a  brother  of  Guiseppe  Nic- 
colo,  by  whom  he  was  trained  in  art.  He  after- 
wards became  a  monk,  and  worked  for  tlie  churches 
of  Siena.     He  died  in  1716. 

NASINI,  CavaHere  Giuseppe  Niccol6,  was  born 
at  Siena,  probably  in  1664.  His  father,  Fran- 
cesco Nasini,  an  artist  little  known,  instructed  him 
in  the  first  rudiments  of  art ;  but  he  afterwards 
went  to  Rome,  and  became  one  of  the  ablest  dis- 
ciples of  Giro  Ferri.  By  the  recommendation  of 
this  master  he  was  employed  by  the  Grand  Duke 
of  Tuscany,  to  paint,  from  the  designs  of  Pietro 
da  Cortona,  the  '  Four  Ages  of  Man,'  in  emblem- 
atical subjects,  in  the  Palazzo  Pitti  at  Florence.  On 
his  return  to  Rome  he  was  commissioned  to  paint 
the  ceiling  of  the  Capella  Bracciana,  in  the  church 
de  SS.  Apostoli ;  and  his  picture  of  the  '  Prophet 
Amos,'  in  the  Basilico  of  St.  John  of  Lateran.  He 
died  at  Siena  in  1736.     Among  his  pictures  are: 

FoUgno.       Madonna  del  |  g  Le^^^^a^. 

Ftanto,      j 
Eome.     (^P'WS-  An- )  ^j^^  g^p^j^_ 

Siena.  Conventuale.    Death,  Judgment,  Heaven,  and 


He  etched  a  print  of  the  Virgin  and  the  Infants 
Jesus  and  St.  John  in  a  landscape,  with  Cherubs 
flying  in  the  air,  in  the  taste  of  Giro  Ferri,  and  also 
engraved  in  the  manner  of  P.  S.  Bartoli. 

NASINI,  Francesco,  an  obscure  painter  of  Siena, 
who  in  the  17th  century  painted  in  fresco  in  the 
refectory  of  the  Monasterio  del  Carmine  of  that 

NASMYTH,  Alexander,  a  Scotch  landscape 
painter,  was  born  at  Edinburgh  in  1758.  He  went 
early  to  London,  and  was  a  pupil  of  Allan  Ramsay. 
Afterwards  he  went  to  Rome,  where  he  remained 
several  years,  and  studied  historical  painting, 
landscape,  and  portraiture.  On  his  return  to  Edin- 
burgh, he  commenced  practice  as  a  portrait  painter, 
and  had  Robert  Burns  as  one  of  his  sitters.  His 
portrait  of  the  poet  is  now  in  the  National  Gallery 
of  Scotland  ;  a  replica  is  in  the  National  Portrait 
Gallery,  London.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
original  Society  of  Scottish  Artists,  and  an  Asso- 
ciate of  the  Royal  Institution.  His  inclination, 
however,  being  towards  landscape  painting,  he 
ultimately  confined  himself  to  that  branch  ;  but 
much  of  his  time  was  occupied  in  teaching,  in 
which  he  was  very  successful.  He  exhibited 
landscapes  occasionally  at  the  Royal  Academy  in 
London,  from  1813  to  1826.  In  1822  he  published 
sixteen  views  of  places  described  in  the  'Waverley 
Novels.'     He  died  at  Edinburgh,  April  10,  1840. 

NASMYTH,  Peter,  commonly  called  by  liimself 
and  others,  Patrick,  was  the  son  of  Alexander 
Nasmyth,  and  was  born  at  Edinburgh  in  1787.  He 
showed  an  early  and  decided  predilection  for  land- 
scape painttiiig ;  and  his  zeal  in  pursuit  of  his 
favourite  art  left  him  little  opportunity  of  acquiring 
any  other  instruction.  Early  in  life  he  injured  his 
right  hand,  and  learned  to  paint  with  his  left,  and 
owing  to  an  illness  he  became  deaf.  At  the  age  of 
twenty  he  went  to  London,  and  his  productions 
became  very  popular,  obtaining  for  him  the  desig- 
nation of  '  the  English  Hobbema,'  which  was  about 
as  well  justified  as  such  soubriquets  usually  are. 

He  improved  on  the  style  of  his  father,  and  his 
pictures  have  less  of  the  spotted  chalky  character 
which,  from  its  having  been  followed  by  several 
other  members  of  this  clever  family,  is  considered 
as  a  chief  feature  of  "the  Nasmyth  school."  In 
1809  he  first  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy,  and 
in  1824  he  became  one  of  the  original  members  of 
the  Society  of  British  Artists.  He  often  painted 
Scottish  scenes,  but  the  character  of  his  landscapes 
is  entirely  English.  His  style  was  not  sufficiently 
massive  to  represent  properly  the  wild  mountain- 
ous character  and  striking  atmospheric  peculiar- 
ities of  Scotland.  Light  clouds,  sunshine,  smooth 
water,  or  small  pattering  brooks,  meadows,  gently 
rising  grounds,  and  green  trees,  are  the  objects 
which  his  pencil  was  best  qualified  to  represent. 
Nasmyth  died  at  Lambeth,  on  the  17th  of  August, 
1831,  during  a  thunder-storm,  which,  at  his  own 
desire,  he  was  raised  in  his  bed  to  behold.  His 
pictures  are  signed  Pat^.  Nasmyth.  Among 
Nasmyth's  better  works  we  may  name: 

London.  Nat.  Gall.    Cottage  in  Hyde  Park. 

„  „  The  Angler's  Nook, 

„  „  Landscape      with       a       furzy 


„  „  A  Cascade. 

„  „  A  Country  Road. 

„  „  Landscape  with  Eiver. 

„  „  Lake  Scene. 

„    South  Kensington.    Sir  Phih'p  Sydney's  Oak,  Pens- 

,«  ,,  Cottage  by  a  Brook. 

,,  „  Rick-yard. 

View  of  St.  Albans. 
Distant  View  of  Edinburgh. 
View  of  Windsor  Castle. 
A  Hampshire  Landscape. 

NASOCCHIO,  Giuseppe,  a  native  of  Bassano, 
who  painted  in  the  style  of  the  quattrocentisti, 
but,  according  to  Lanzi,  left  a  picture  dated  1529. 
Two  more  artists  of  this  name,  Francesco  and 
Baetolommeo  NAsoccnio,  were  active  in  Bassano 
in  the  16th  century. 

NASON,  Pieter,  painter,  was  bom  early  in  the 
17th  century  at  Amsterdam,  or  The  Hague.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Guild  of  Painters  of  the 
latter  place,  and  in  1656  was  one  of  the  forty- 
seven  members  who  established  the  'Pictura' 
Society.  From  a  MS.  by  Pieter  Terwesten,  it 
appears  not  improbable  that  Nason  was  a  ]iupil  of 
Jan  van  Ravensteyn  ;  and  it  is  believed  that  his 
name  has  been  effaced  from  pictures  since  at- 
tributed to  Mierevelt,  Moreelse,  and  above  all  to 
Ravensteyn.  It  is  certain  that  he  painted  the 
portrait  of  Prince  Mauritz,  Governor  of  the 
Brazils,  engraved  by  Houbraken,  and  those  of 
Charles  the  Second  of  England,  engraved  by  C. 
Van  Dalen  and  Sandrart,  and  of  the  Grand 
Elector.  At  Berlin  there  is  a  full-length  portrait, 
dated  1667,  of  the  latter,  by  Nason  ;  also  a  fine 
picture  of  still  life,  representing  gold,  silver, 
and  glass  vessels,  ifec. ;  likewise  a  portrait  by  him 
signed  and  dated  1670.  There  are  others  at 
Copenhagen  and  at  Rotterdam.  The  date  of  his 
death  is  not  known,  but  his  life  was  long.  Redgrave 
gives  the  initial  of  his  Christian  name  wrongly  as  R. 

NAST,  Thomas,  American  caricaturist  and 
black-and-white  artist,  was  born  at  Landau  in 
Bavaria  on  Sept.  27,  1840.  He  went  to  America 
with  his  parents  at  the  age  of  six,  and  after  very 
little  instruction  began  his  artistic  career  by 
supplying  illustrations  and  caricatures  to  '  Frank 
Leslie's  Illustrated  Newspaper,' 'Harper's  Weekly,' 


and  other  periodicals.  In  1860  he  was  sent  to 
England  by  the  '  New  York  Illustrated  News 'to 
illustrate  the  prize-fight  between  Heenan  and 
Sayers.  He  then  joined  General  Medici  as  artist- 
correspondent  in  the  campaign  conducted  by 
Garibaldi  in  1860,  furnishing  sketches  for  various 
English,  French,  and  American  papers.  On  hia 
return  to  America  he  gained  a  high  reputation  as 
an  artist  durinar  the  Civil  War,  and  became  a 
cartoonist  to  '  Harper's  Weekly.'  As  a  political 
cartoonist  he  had  wide  influence,  his  work  having  an 
ingenious  distortion  and  a  subtlety  that  made  him 
adreaded  opponent.  His  most  trenchant  campaign 
was  his  attack  on  Tammany  Hall  in  New  York. 
He  illustrated  a  number  of  books,  made  designs 
for  panoramas,  and  travelled  on  several  lecturing 
tours.  He  also  executed  a  number  of  oil-paintings, 
one  of  which,  representing  the  departure  of  tlie 
7th  Regiment  of  New  York  for  the  war  in  1861, 
is  in  the  armoury  of  the  regiment,  of  which  at  the 
time  of  his  deatli  Nast  was  a  veteran  member. 
In  1871  he  supplied  thirty-three  illustrations  to 
'The  Fight  at  Dame  Europa's  School,' published 
in  London  in  1871  ;  and  in  1873  illustrated  a  New 
York  edition  of  the  '  Pickwick  Papers.'  For  some 
years  before  his  death  he  was  American  Consul 
at  Guayaquil  in  Ecuador.  He  died  in  January 
1903.  M,  H. 

NATALE.     See  Schiavoni. 

NATALI,  Carlo,  called  II  Guardolino,  was 
born  at  Cremona  about  the  year  1590.  He  was 
first  a  disciple  of  Andrea  Mainardi,  but  afterwards 
studied  at  Bologna,  under  Guide  Reni.  There  are 
several  of  his  works  at  Genoa  and  Cremona,  where 
he  also  distinguished  himself  as  an  architect.  One 
of  his  best  works,  as  a  painter,  is  a  picture  of 
'St.  Francesca  Romagna,'  in  the  church  of  San 
Gismondo  at  Cremona.  He  lived  to  above  the 
age  of  ninety-three,  for  he  was  still  alive  in  1683. 

NATALI,  Giovanni  Battista,  the  son  of  Carlo 
Natali,  was  born  at  Cremona  about  the  year  1630, 
and  distinguished  himself  as  a  painter  and  en- 
graver. After  receiving  some  instruction  from 
his  father,  he  went  to  Rome,  where  he  entered  the 
school  of  Pietro  da  Cortona.  On  his  return  to 
Cremona,  he  painted  several  pictures  for  the 
churches,  and  established  an  academy  in  which  he 
cultivated  the  principles  of  Cortona,  though  with- 
out many  followers.  In  the  church  of  the  P.  P. 
Predicatori,  is  a  large  picture  by  him,  embellished 
with  architecture,  representing  '  St.  Patriarca  burn- 
ing the  Books  of  the  Heretics.'  He  died  about 
the  year  1700. 

NATALI,  GinsEPPE,  was  the  head  of  a  family 
established  at  Casal  Maggiore,  in  the  Cremonese, 
many  members  of  which  were  employed  in  archi- 
tectural and  decorative  painting.  Giuseppe  was 
born  in  1652,  and  died  in  1722.  His  brothers 
Francesco,  Pietro,  and  Lorenzo  worked  with  him. 
His  son  Giambattista  died  young,  and  Francesco's 
son  of  the  same  name,  after  being  appointed  court 
painter  to  the  King  of  Naples,  died  before  the 
middle  of  the  18th  century.  Giovanni  Battista 
Zaist,  who  wrote  the  memoirs  of  the  painters  of 
Cremona,  was  a  pupil  of  Giuseppe  Natali. 

NATALINO  da  MURANO.     See  Murano. 

NATALIS,  MiCHiEL,  was  bom  at  Liege  in  1606 
or  1609,  and  first  instructed  in  engraving  by  his 
father,  who  was  medallist  to  the  Bishop,  and  by 
Carl  de  Mallery.  He  afterwards  went  to  Paris  and 
Rome,  where  he  was  introduced  by  Sandrart  to 
Prince  Giustiniani,  for  whom,  in  conjunction  with 

Theodor  Metham,  Regnier  Persyn,  and  others,  he 
engraved  the  antique  statues  in  his  gallery.  In 
1653  he  was  court-engraver  to  the  Elector  Maxi- 
milian Heinrich  at  Cologne,  and  engraved  in  1658 
the  portrait  of  the  Emperor  Leopold.  He  was 
still  alive  in  1670.  He  engraved  a  few  portraits, 
which  are  among  the  best  of  his  prints.  'VVe  have, 
among  others,  the  follo^ving  by  him  : 


Josephus  Justinianus  Benedicti  Filius;  Mich.  Natalis 

Jacob  Catz,  Pensionary  of  Holland,  and  Poet ;  after  du 

Eugene  d'Alamond,  Bishop  of  Ghent. 

Ma.\imilian  Emanuel,  Elector  of  Bavaria  ;  after  J.  San- 

Fri'-drich,  Count  of  Merode. 

Ernestine,  Princess  de  Ligne ;  after  Van  Byck. 

The  Marquis  del  Guasto,  with  his  Mistress  represented 
as  Venus  ;  after  Titian. 


The  Holy  Family  ;  after  Saphael. 

The  Virgin  and  Infant  Jesus,  with  St.  Joseph  seated 
behind  ;  afterAndrea  del  Sarto. 

The  Holy  Family;  after  JV.  Poussin.  The  first  im- 
pressions are  before  the  child  was  draped. 

The  Holy  Family,  with  angels  presenting  flowers ; 
after  6'.  Bourdon. 

The  Virgin  holding  the  Infant  Christ,  who  is  sleeping, 
with  St.  John  by  her  side  ;  after  the  same.  The  first 
impressions  are  before  the  bosom  of  the  Virgin  was 

The  Assembly  of  the  Carthusians ;  in  four  sheets  ; 
after  Bertholet  Fiemad. 

Mary  washing  the  Feet  of  Christ ;  after  Rubens. 

The  Last  Supper  ;  after  Diepenleeck. 

NATHE,  Christoph,  a  landscape  painter  and 
etcher,  born  at  Niederberlau  in  Upper  Lusatia  in 
1753.  He  studied  under  Oeser  at  Leipsic,  and 
travelled  in  Silesia  and  Switzerland.  Of  his 
etchings  may  be  mentioned  a  collection  of  forty- 
eight  landscapes,  heads,  and  portraits.  He  painted 
in  oils  and  water-colours,  and  made  drawings  in 
sepia.  Nathe  died  at  Schadewalde,  near  Marklissa, 
in  1808. 

NATKER,  (or  Notker,)  a  monk  of  St.  Gall,  who 
painted  miniatures  in  the  10th  century. 

NATOIHE,  Charles  Joseph,  painter  and  en- 
graver, was  born  at  Nimes  in  1700,  He  was 
instructed  by  Louis  Galloche  and  Lemoine.  Having 
obtained,  in  1721,  the  first  prize  for  painting,  by 
his  picture  of  '  The  mother  of  Samson  offering 
a  sacrifice  to  God,'  which  is  the  oldest  of  the 
competition  pictures  preserved  in  the  Acad^mie 
des  Beaux  Arts,  he  then  went  to  Rome,  where  the 
Academy  of  Saint  Luke,  having  proposed  the 
subject  of  '  Moses  delivering  the  Law  to  the 
Israelites,'  he  gained  the  first  prize.  In  1751  he 
became  Director  of  the  French  Academy  at  Rome, 
and,  after  he  had  painted  the  dome  of  the  church 
of  Saint  Louis  des  Fran^ais,  was,  in  1766,  made  a 
Knight  of  the  Order  of  St.  Michael.  He  retired  in 
1774,  and  died  at  Castel  Gandolfo  in  1777.  His 
best  works  as  a  painter  are  '  St.  Sebastian,  with  an 
Angel  taking  an  Arrow  from  his  body ; '  and  the 
fresco  paintings  (now  much  damaged)  in  the 
chapel  of  Les  Enfants  trouvds,  engraved  by 
Desplaces,  Fessard,  and  others.  His  works  are 
signed  C.  N.,  or  with  his  full  name.  The  Louvre 
possesses  the  three  following  works  from  his  brush : 

Veuus  demanding  arms  for  .lEneas  from  Vulcan. 

The  Three  Graces. 


'/'>:-i>'?   (^rr,fj^.:c:,/  rt"' 








He  etched  the  following  plates,  but  most  of  the  im- 
pressions remaining  of  the  '  Crucifixion  '  and  the 
'  Four  Seasons  '  have  been  finished  with  the  burin  : 

The  Crucifixion,  with  Mary  Magdalene  at  the  foot  of 

the  Cross. 
The  Adoration  of  the  Magi. 
The  Martyrdom  of  St  Fereol. 
Two,  of  the  Sports  of  Children. 
Spring  and  "Winter ;  etched  by  ^atoire,  and  finished 

with  the  burin  by  P.  Aveline. 

His  sister,  Mademoiselle  Natoire,  who  went  to 
Italy  with  him,  worked  in  pastel. 

NATTES,  JoHS  Claode,  an  English  water- 
colour  painter,  of  the  early  tinted  school,  was  born 
about  1765.  He  studied  under  Hugh  Deane,  and 
exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  from  1782  to  1814. 
This  very  clever  topographical  draughtsman  was  an 
Irishman  of  vehement  temper  and  wild  entliusiasm. 
He  was  one  of  the  earliest  topographical  painters 
whose  works  had  any  artistic  merit  beyond  their 
accuracy,  and  he  was  able  to  invest  the  scenes  which 
he  represented  with  some  distinct  poetic  charm. 
His  works  appear  in  many  volumes  depicting  Scot- 
land, Ireland, the  West  of  England,  and  the  northern 
parts  of  France,  all  of  which  were  published  by 
himself;  but  occasionally  his  work  was  commis- 
sioned by  other  writers  to  illustrate  their  pro- 
ductions, and  in  the  '  Beauties  of  England  and 
Wales'  and  the  various  volumes  of  the  'Keepsake  ' 
there  are  many  of  his  drawings  to  be  found.  He 
was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Old  Water-Colour 
Society  and  exhibited  constantly  in  its  Galleries 
and  also  at  the  Royal  Academy,  but  in  1807  he 
was  expelled  from  the  Society  of  Painters  in 
Water-Colours,  having  been  convicted  of  attaching 
his  name  to  certain  drawings  which  were  not  his 
own  work,  and  which  it  is  said  he  had  sent  to  the 
Gallery  because  his  own  works  were  not  ready  in 
time.  He  protested  against  the  expulsion  and 
insisted  that  the  greater  part  of  these  drawings 
were  his  own  work,  and  in  this  he  was  probably 
correct,  but  the  members  refused  to  accept  his 
excuses.  He  continued,  however,  to  exhibit  at  the 
Royal  Academy  up  to  1814.  He  died  at  South 
Molton  Street,  London,  in  1822.  With  his  very 
latest  breath  he  condemned  the  action  of  the  Old 
Water-Colour  Society,  claiming  that  drawings  done 
by  his  pupils,  but  finished  by  himself,  were 
entitled  to  be  called  his  work  and  to  be  shown  in 
his  name.  For  the  support  of  this  argument  he 
was  able  to  produce  many  famous  examples  from 
the  works  of  the  old  masters.  Among  the  illus- 
trated works  which  l>e  published  are  : 

Scotia  Depicta.    1804. 

Hiberuia  Depicta.     1802. 

Select  views  of  Bath,  Bristol,  Malvern,  &c.     1805. 

Bath  illustrated.     1806. 

NATTIER,  Jean  Baptiste,  elder  son  of  Jean 
Marc  Nattier,  the  elder.  He  was  a  painter  of 
history  of  small  merit.  Received  into  the  Academy 
in  1712,  he  became  involved  in  a  disgraceful  scan- 
dal, was  committed  to  the  Bastille,  and  there  put  an 
end  to  his  own  life  in  1726. 

NATTIER,  Jean  Marc,  commonly  called  Marc 
Nattier,  was  born  in  Paris  in  1642.  He  painted 
some  excellent  portraits,  and  was  the  father  and 
first  master  of  Jean  Marc  Nattier,  the  younger. 

NATTIER,  Jean  Maro,  son  of  the  last-named 
and  of  Marie  Courtois,  a  distinguished  miniaturist, 
was  born  in  Paris  in  1685.  He  was  instructed  by 
his  father,  and  afterwards  studied  at  the  Academy, 
and  in  the  Gallery  of  the  Luxembourg.     He  dis- 

tinguished himself  as  a  portrait  painter,  in  which 
capacity  he  was  much  employed.  The  drawings  for 
the  engravings  from  the  pictures  painted  by  Rubens 
for  Marie  de'  Medici  were  by  Nattier.  About  1716 
he  accompanied  M.  Le  Fort,  the  minister  of  Peter 
the  Great,  to  Amsterdam,  where  the  Czar  then  was. 
There  he  painted  the  Czar,  several  members  of 
the  Russian  court,  and  a  picture  of  the  '  Battle  of 
Pultawa.'  He  afterwards  began,  at  the  Hague,  a 
portrait  of  the  '  Empress  Catherine,'  which  was 
never  finished.  In  1718,  Nattier  was  received  into 
the  Paris  Academy  on  the  strength  of  a  '  Perseus 
bringing  the  Medusa's  head  to  the  marriage  feast 
of  Phineus.'  In  1720,  having  lost  his  accumu- 
lations through  the  schemes  of  Law,  he  resolved 
to  confine  himself  to  portraiture,  which  he  prac- 
tised with  success  for  the  rest  of  his  life.  He  died 
in  Paris  in  1766.  His  life,  by  Madame  Torgal,  his 
daughter,  has  been  published.  Among  his  pictures 
we  may  also  name : 

Dresden.  Gallery.    Portmit  of  Marshal  Saxe. 

Nantes.  Gallery.    Portrait    of    the    famous    dan- 

Sfiise,  M.  A.  Cuppi,  called  La 

>.  „  A  Lady  of  Louis  XV.'s  Court 

Paris.  Louvre.    The  Magdalen, 

NAUDET,  Thomas  Charles,  a  French  landscape 
draughtsman,  and  pupil  of  Hubert  Robert.  He 
flourished  between  1774  and  1810. 

NAUDI,  Angelo,  an  obscure  Italian  of  the  16th 
century,  who  imitated  the  style  of  Paolo  Veronese, 
and  was  employed  at  the  court  of  Philip  IV. 

NAUMANN,  Carl  Georo,  German  painter; 
bom  Sept.  13,  1827,  at  Kbnigsberg  (Prussia) ; 
studied  at  the  Academy  there  under  Rosenberger 
and  afterwards  at  Munich.  He  chose  to  establish 
himself  at  Konigsberg  ;  he  painted  cheerful  genre 
pictures,  many  of  which  have  been  reproduced, 
such  as  '  Fasting  Time,'  '  The  Postman,'  '  Halt  1 ' 
'Alpine  Roses,'  &c.     He  died  in  December  1902. 

NAUMANN,  Friedrich,  was  born  at  Blasewitz, 
near  Dresden,  in  1750,  and  studied  five  years 
under  Casanova  at  the  Academy  there.  He  then 
went  to  Venice,  and  stayed  seven  years  at  Rome, 
where  he  was  a  disciple  of  Mengs.  He  studied 
principally  the  works  of  Raphael,  Guido  Reni, 
and  Titian.  The  Margrave  of  Anspach  appointed 
him  his  court-painter ;  and  he  was  also  a  member 
of  the  Academy  at  Berlin.  There  is  by  him, 
besides  'The  Hermit,'  and  '  The  portrait  of  Mengs  ' 
(engraved  by  Cunego),  an  altar-piece  in  the  Krerz- 
kirche  at  Dresden.     F.  Naumanii  was  alive  in  1815. 

NAUBORGO,  Michael,  a  Bolognese  painter, 
who,  it  is  believed,  was  a  pupil  of  Guido  Reni. 

NAUINX,  or  Navinx,  a  landscape  painter,  who 
lived  at  Hamburg  in  the  17th  century,  and  who  is 
often  confounded  with  Naeuwincx  or  Nauwinck. 
He  painted  Alpine  scenery  in  his  larger  works. 
In  the  smaller,  more  tranquil  scenes  somewhat  in 
the  style  of  Waterloo,  but  his  colouring  runs  into  a 
bluish  green,  or  into  grey.  J.  M.  Weyer  painted 
figures  for  him  in  good  keeping  with  his  landscapes. 
He  died  in  Hamburg,  but  the  date  is  uncertain. 

NAVA,  Luis  pe,  a  Spanish  knight  of  Santiago, 
who  practised  art  ay  an  amateur  about  1753,  and 
was  a  member  of  the  Seville  Academy. 

NAVARO,  Jdan,  a  Spanish  engraver,  is  stated 
by  Strutt  to  have  resided  at  Seville  about  the 
year  1598.  He  engraved  several  frontispieces  for 

NAVARRETE.    See  Fernandez  Navabretb. 



NAVARRO,  Francisco,  a  Spanish  engraver,  who 
executed  the  title-page  and  a  large  plate  of  arras, 
for  a  descriptive  account  of  an  auto-da-fe  held  at 
Madrid  in  1632,  and  the  title-page  of  a  book 
called  'The  Church  Militant,'  published  by  Fray 
Fernando  Carmayo  y  Salgado  in  1642.  In  the 
same  year  he  engraved  an  architectural  title-page 
with  the  effigies  of  Horace,  Persius,  and  Juvenal 
arranged  like  saints  in  a  retablo,  for  Don  Diego 
Lopez's  '  Dissertation  '  on  the  two  latter  satirists. 

NAVARRO,  Jdan  Jose,  a  Spanish  admiral  who 
practised  painting  and  designing,  was  born  in  1687. 
He  executed  some  very  clever  pen-and-ink  draw- 
ings in  the  style  of  Callot. 

NAVARRO,  JnAN  Simon,  an  historical  and 
flower  painter,  lived  at  Madrid  about  the  middle 
of  the  17th  century.  A  somewhat  mediocre 
historical  picture  b}'  him  bears  the  date  1654, 
and  represents  the  Virgin,  of  the  size  of  life, 
employed  in  the  workshop  of  Joseph,  who  is 
sawing  a  board,  while  the  Infant  Jesus  is  forming 
a  cross  in  the  midst  of  a  group  of  angels.  As 
a  painter  of  flowers  he  holds  a  more  respectable 
rank.  In  the  convent  of  the  Shod  Carmelites 
at  Madrid,  are  a  'Nativity'  and  an  'Epiphany' 
by  him,  which  were  formerly  in  the  convent 
of  the  same  order  at  Valdernoro. 

NAVEZ,  Franijois  Joseph,  a  Belgian  historical, 
genre,  and  portrait  painter,  born  at  Charleroi  in 
1787.  He  first  studied  under  Joseph  Francois, 
and  obtained  several  prizes  at  the  Brussels  and 
Ghent  Academies.  He  was  thus  enabled  to  com- 
plete his  studies  in  Paris  under  David,  with  whom, 
when  exiled  from  France,  he  returned  to  Belgium. 
From  1817  to  1822  Navez  was  at  Rome,  and  subse- 
quently settled  at  Brussels.  There  his  fame  was 
already  well  establislied,  and  he  was  much  em- 
ployed. During  many  years  he  held  a  foremost 
position  among  Belgian  artists,  and  was  Director 
of  the  Brussels  Academy.  Many  pupils  passed 
through  his  studio,  and  honours  were  freely  be- 
stowed on  him.  He  died  at  Brussels  in  1869. 
Among  his  works  are  : 

Amsterdam.  Jesuits^  Ck.  Incredulity  of  St.  Thomas. 

„  „  The  Holy  Family. 

„  „  The  Marriage  of  the  Virgin. 

Biussels.  Museum.  Hagar    and     Ishmael    in    the 


„  „  Athaliah  and  Joash. 

„  „  The  Judgment  of  Solomon. 

„  ,.  The  Rich  Man  before  Christ. 

„  St.  Gudule.  The  Assumption  of  the  Virgin. 

„  „  The  Raising  of  Lazarus. 

Haarlem.  Gallery,  Raising  the  Shunamit«'s  Son. 

„  „  The  Meeting  of  Isaac  and  Re- 


'!S.\imc]i  NewPinakothek,  '  Spinsters '  of  Fondi. 

NAVLET,  Joseph,  French  historical  painter,  was 
born  at  Chalons-sur-Marne,  and  studied  under  Abel 
de  Pujol.  Since  1848  he  has  exhibited  at  the 
Salon,  his  chief  works  being  '  The  Martyrdom  of 
Joan  of  Arc'  and  'The  Defeat  of  Attila.'  Tlie 
war  of  1870  supplied  him  with  many  subjects  for 
his  brush.  He  was  also  well  known  as  a  water- 
eolour  painter.  He  died  in  1889  at  the  age  of 

NAVLET,  Victor,  French  painter  and  archas- 
ologist,  died  in  1886. 

NAVOIS,  J.  S.,  who  lived  in  the  second  half  of 
the  17th  century,  was  a  painter  of  landscapes  and 
marines  in  the  manner  of  Bakhuisen.  His  paint- 
ings have  often  been  confounded  with  the  works 
of  that  master. 


NAYS,  — ,  was  a  Flemish  landscape  painter  who 
lived  towards  the  end  of  the  17th  century.  In 
some  of  his  pictures,  which  are  very  numerous  in 
Belgium  but  of  small  merit,  the  figures  are  painted 
by  Nicolay. 

NAZON,  FRANgois  Henri,  French  painter; 
born  Dec.  25,  1821,  at  Rdalmont  (Tarn);  was  a 
pupil  of  Gleyre,  and  afterwards  copied  the 
manner  of  Corot.  In  1870  he  settled  at  Montauban. 
Among  his  best  works  are  '  Lever  de  Soleil  k 
Penne,'  now  in  the  Luxembourg,  and  '  Moulins  du 
Tarn,'  in  the  Montauban  Museum.  He  died  in 
May  1902. 

NAZZARI,  Bartolommeo,  (or  Nazari,)  was  born 
at  or  near  Bergamo  in  1699,  and  was  first  a  scholar 
of  Vittore  Ghislandi  and  Angelo  Trevisano  at 
Venice.  Afterwards  he  studied  at  Rome  under 
Francesco  Trevisani,  and  then  settled  at  Venice. 
He  was  a  painter  of  history  and  portraits,  but 
particularly  excelled  in  the  latter,  in  which  he 
was  much  employed  at  the  different  courts  in 
Germany.  One  of  the  most  esteemed  of  his  his- 
torical pictures  is  a  '  Holy  Family,  with  St.  Anne,' 
at  Pontremoli.  He  died  at  Venice  or  Milan  in 
1758.  He  etched  the  portrait  of  F.  M.  Molza,  at 
Modena.  Bartolozzi  and  A.  Faldoni  have  engraved 
after  him. 

NEAGLE,  John,  an  English  line  engraver,  born 
in  London  about  1760.     Amongst  his  plates  are  : 

The  Royal  Procession  to  St.  Paul's.     1789. 

Several    plates   for    the    Shakespeare  Gallery;    after 
Wheatlei/  and  Smirhe. 

The  illustrations  to  Murphy's  '  Arabic  Antiquities  of 
Spain.'     1816. 

NEAGLE,  John,  a  self-taught  American  artist 
who  became  a  very  clever  portrait  painter.  He 
was  apprenticed  to  a  coach-builder  of  Philadelphia 
when  quite  a  lad,  having  been  born  in  that  city  in 
1799.  When  nineteen  years  of  age  he  was  able  to 
relinquish  the  work  to  which  he  had  been  set, 
and  devote  his  time  to  training  in  the  higher 
branches  of  the  profession,  and  eventually  settled 
down  in  New  Orleans,  where  he  speedily  became 
well  known  and  very  popular.  He  married  a 
daughter  of  the  artist  Sullj',  and  from  his  father- 
in-law  received  much  assistance  and  tuition.  When 
he  left  New  Orleans  he  returned  to  his  native  town, 
and  there  he  spent  the  rest  of  his  life,  and  in  that 
city  are  to  be  found  his  most  notable  works,  portraits 
of  Washington,  Carey,  and  Clay.  Other  portraits 
by  Neagle  can  be  found  at  Boston,  New  Orleans, 
Pittsburg,  and  New  York.     He  died  in  1805. 

NEAL,  Elizabeth,  a  still-life  painter  of  the  18th 
century.  It  is  said  that  she  lived  in  HoUand,  and 
painted  flowers  which  rivalled  those  by  Seghers. 
None  of  her  works,  however,  can  be  identified. 

NEALE,  John  Preston,  a  very  eminent  English 
architectural  designer  and  engraver,  was  born  in 
1771.  His  father  is  believed  to  have  been  a  painter 
of  insects.  He  himself  began  his  career  as  a  clerk 
in  the  Post  Office,  but  he  soon  left  clerical  work 
for  topographical  draughtsmanship.  He  painted  a 
few  works  in  oil,  but  his  favourite  method  was  to 
draw  with  the  pen  and  finish  with  washes  of  water- 
colour.  In  1818  he  published  the  first  portion  of 
the  '  History  and  Antiquities  of  the  Abbey  church 
at  Westminster,'  and  in  1823  the  second  part,  form- 
ing together  two  volumes  royal  quarto,  containing 
sixty-one  beautiful  engravings.  The  literary  part, 
consisting  of  notices  and  Biographical  Memoirs  of 
the  Abbots  and  Deans  of  that  foundation,  was 
written  by  E.   W.  Brayley.      Together  with   tlie 


Becond  portion   of  this   work,   he   published  six 
volumes,  royal  quarto,  of  '  The  Seats  of  Noblemen 
and  Gentlemen  of  England,  Wales,  Scotland,  and 
Ireland  ; '  and  in  1829  a  second  series  in  five  vols., 
containing,  in  the  whole,  seven  hundred  and  thirty- 
seven  plates.     The  labour  of  producing  two  such 
important  works  in  the  period  would  have  been 
sufficient  employment  for  the  most  industrious  de- 
signer ;  but  Neale  was  indefatigable.     During  the 
years  1824  and  1825  he  publislied,  in  conjunction 
with  LeKeux,  '  Views  of  the  most  interesting  Col- 
legiate and  Parochial  Churches  of  Great  Britain, 
including  Screens,  Fonts,   Monuments,  &c.,  with 
historical  and  architectural  descriptions,'  containing 
ninety-eight  plates,  in  which  the  talents  of  both 
artists  appear  to  the  greatest  advantage.     He  was  a 
frequent  exhibitor  between  1797  and  1844.     In  the 
earlier  part  of  his  artistic  career  he  painted  many 
architectural  subjects  in  oil,  with  views  of  their 
several  localities,  in  which  he  exhibited  the  feeling 
and  power  of  a  true  landscape  painter.     A  larger 
number   of  his   works  were,  however,  in  water- 
colours,  and  in  1817  and  1818  he  exhibited  at  the  1 
Water-colour  Society.      But  the  success   that  at-  I 
tended  his  publications  induced  him  to  abandon  the  | 
palette   altogether,   and  devote  his   energies   and  ' 
skill  to  a  class  of  work  in  which  he  particularly  ] 
deUghted,  and  in  which,  for  a  long  time,  he  stood 
unrivalled.     Many  detached  pieces  were  designed 
and   executed   by  him   for  the   embellishment  of 
other  publications.     He  died  near  Ipswich  in  1847. 
NEALE,  Thomas,  was  an  English  engraver,  who 
flourished  about  the  year  1650.     He  is  supposed 
to  have  been  a  disciple  of  Hollar.     He  engraved 
after   him    twenty-four   subjects    from   Holbein's 
'  Dance  of  Death,'  the  first  of  which  is  marked, 
Paris.  1057.     He  signed  his  prints  with  his  name 
in   full,  or  with   the   letters    T.   iV.      He    etched 
several  plate.s  of  birds  after  Barlow  ;  these  were 
executed  at  Paris  in  1659.    It  is  very  probable,  too, 
that  he  engraved  some  of  the  plates  for  the  eighth 
edition  of  Ogilby's  '  .ffisop.' 

NEALKES,  one  of  the  later  painters  of  ancient 
Greece,  lived  probably  at  Sicyon  about  252  B.C. 
He  is  regarded  as  the  principal  representative  of 
the  later  Sicyonian  school.  He  is  said  to  have 
possessed  a  lively  genius,  and  an  accurate  judg- 
ment. Being  engaged  to  paint  a  picture  of  a 
combat  between  the  Persians  and  Egyptians  on 
the  Nile,  and  being  apprehensive  that  the  river 
might  be  mistaken  for  the  sea,  he  introduced  a 
mule  drinking  on  the  border  of  the  Nile,  and  a 
crocodile  ready  to  attack  it,  thus  rendering  the 
scene  of  the  action  quite  unmistakable  I 

NEAPOLI,  Feancisco,  a  Spanish  historical 
painter,  was  born  at  Madrid  in  the  15th  century, 
and  is  supposed,  from  the  style  of  his  works,  to 
have  been  a  scholar  of  Leonardo  de  Vinci.  In 
conjunction  with  Pablo  de  Aregio,  it  is  said  that 
he  painted  the  doors  that  enclose  the  great  altar  of 
the  cathedral  of  Valencia.  They  represent  scenes 
from  the  life  of  the  Virgin  Mary.  This  work  was 
finished  in  1506,  and  for  it  the  artists  received 
3000  ducats.  Neapoli  was  the  founder  of  the 
Valoncian  school. 

NEBBIA,  Cesare,  was  born  at  Orvieto  about 
the  year  1536,  and  was  the  ablest  scholar  of  Giro- 
lamo  Muziano,  whose  style  he  adopted,  and  whom 
he  assisted  in  the  works  he  executed  for  Gregory 
XIII.,  in  the  Vatican  and  the  Capella  Gregoriana. 
He  was  himself  employed  by  Gregory's  successor, 
Sixtus  v.,  in  superintending  the  works  undertaken 

by  order  of  that  pontiff  in  the  palaceB  of  St.  John 
Lateran  and  Monte  Cavallo,  in  the  library  of  the 
Vatican,  and  at  the  Scala  Santa,  in  which  he  was 
as.sisted  by  Giovanni  Guerra  da  Modena.  He 
painted  several  pictures  for  the  churches  in  Rome, 
of  which  the  most  important  are  the  '  Resurrection,' 
in  San  Giaoomo  degli  Spagnuoli ;  some  subjects 
from  the  life  of  the  Virgin,  painted  in  fresco,  in 
the  Capella  Borgbese,  in  Santa  Maria  Maggiore  ; 
and  the  '  Crowning  of  the  Virgin,'  in  Santa  Maria 
de'  Monti.  He  died  at  Rome  about  the  year  1614. 
NEBEA,  Galeotto,  the  author  of  two  altar-pieces 
in  the  church  of  S.  Brigida,  at  Genoa.  He  was  a 
native  of  Castellaccio,  near  Alessandria,  and  the 
two  pictures  in  question  are  dated  respectively 
1481  and  1484. 

NEBOT,  B.,  painted  the  portrait  of  Captain 
Thomas  Coram,  the  founder  of  the  Foundling  Hos- 
pital, which  was  in  the  possession  of  D.  Nesbit, 
and  engraved  by  Brooke  in  1761. 

NECK,  Jan  van,  was  born  at  Naarden  in  1636. 
He  was  the  son  of  a  physician,  who  destined  him 
for  his  own  profession,  but  yielded  to  the  marked 
disposition  his  son  evinced  for  art,  and  placed 
him  under  the  tuition  of  Jacob  de  Backer,  whose 
style  he  followed  with  great  success.  Houbraken 
speaks  of  his  talents  as  an  historical  painter  in  the 
most  flattering  terms,  and  particularly  commends 
a  picture  by  him  representing  the  '  Presentation  in 
the  Temple,'  in  the  French  church  at  Amsterdam. 
He  was  still  more  successful  in  painting  fabulous 
subjects,  and  was  also  an  eminent  portrait  painter. 
He  resided  chiefly  at  Amsterdam,  where  he  died  in 
1714.  The  following  works  by.  him  have  been 
engraved : 
Alpheus  and  Arethusa  ;  hy  A.Blooteling. 
The  Bath  of  Diana ;  hy  the  same. 
The    portrait  of  the    theologian,  Groeuweyen ;    hy  C. 

Hay  ens. 
NECKER.  See  De  Neckek. 
NEDEK,  PlETER,  born  at  Amsterdam  in  1616, 
was  a  scholar  of  P.  Lastman,  and  a  painter  of  his- 
tory, portraits,  and  landscapes.  He  died  in  1678. 
NlllE,  Denis,  a  French  engraver,  was  born  in 
Paris  about  the  year  1732,  and  died  in  1818.  He 
was  a  pupil  of  J.  P.  le  Bas,  has  engraved  several 
plates  in  the  style  of  that  artist,  and  first  brought 
himself  into  notice  by  a  new  edition  of  the  '  Recueil 
des  Peintures  antiques'  of  Caylus  and  Mariette. 
Among  others,  he  executed  several  vignettes  for 
Ovid's  Metamorphoses,  published  in  Paris,  and  en- 
graved several  landscapes  after  A.  Van  de  Velde 
and  other  Dutch  masters.  In  conjunction  with 
Masquelier  he  engraved  '  Les  Tableaux  pittoresques 
de  la  Suisse '  and  '  Le  Voyage  pittoresque  de  la 
France.'  He  left  some  fifty-two  plates,  mcludmg 
the  following: 

The  Massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew  ;  'after  Gravelot. 
Three    Views    in    Martinique;     after    the     Chevalier 

(V  Epernay. 
Benjamin  Franklin  ;  after  Charmontel. 
A  View  of  the  City  of  Lyons  ;  after  Lallemand. 
The  Environs  of  Fra.'icati ;  after  the  same. 
A  View  of  Tivoli ;  after  the  same. 
NEEFFS,  (misspelt   Neefs,  Neef,  and  Nefs,) 
Jacobds.     This  Flemish  engraver,  a  member  of  a 
large  family  of  artists,  was  born  early  in  the  17th 
century.     He  was  probably  the  grandson  of  the 
elder  Pieter  Neeffs,  the  painter,  and  distinguished 
himself  by  the  plates  he  engraved  after  Rubens, 
Van   Dyck,  and  the  other  celebrated  painters  of 
the  Flemish  school.     His  works,  which  are  dated 



from  1632  to  1645,  are  principally  executed  with 
the  burin.  The  year  of  his  death  is  not  linown. 
The  following  are  some  of  hie  best  plates : 


Caspar    Nennius,   Bishop   of    Antwerp;   after    Gerard 

Gio.  ToUenario,  Jesuit ;  after  P.  Fruytiers. 
Frans  Snyders,  Painter  ;  after  Van  Di/ck. 
Anthonis    de    Tassis,    Canon   of  Antwerp ;    after  the 

The  Marchioness  of  Barlemont,  Countess  d'Egmont; 

after  the  same. 
Josse  de  Hertoghe  ;  after  the  same. 
Martin  Eyckaert,  Painter ;  after  the  same. 


The  FaU  of  the  Angels ;  after  Subens. 

Tlie  Meeting  of  Abraham  and  Melchizedek ;  after  the 

The  Crucifixion,  with  the  Virgin  and  St.  John ;  after 

the  same. 
St.  Augustine  ;  after  the  same. 
The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Thomas  ;  after  the  same. 
The  Judgment  of  Paris,  and  the  Triumph  of  Galatea, 

called  the  Ewer  of  Charles  I. ;  after  the  same;  scarce. 
Christ  and  the  Six  Penitents  ;  after  Gerard  Seyers. 
Job  and  his  Wife ;  after  the  same. 
The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Lievin  ;  after  the  same. 
Christ  appearing  to  Magdalene  ;  after  the  same. 
Christ  brought  before  Pilate  ;  after  J.  Jordaens. 
The  Satyr,  with  the  Peasant  blowing  Hot  and  Cold  ; 

after  the  savu. 
St.  Eoch  interceding  for  the  Persons  attacked  by  the 

Plague  ;  after  Erasmus  Que/linus. 

NEEFFS,  PlETER,  tlie  elder,  was  born  at  Ant- 
werp in  1577  or  1578.  He  was  the  scholar  of 
Hendrik  van  Steenwyck  the  elder.  He  painted 
the  interiors  of  the  churches  in  Antwerp  and  its 
neighbourhood,  often  introducing  candle-light 
effects.  His  mechanical  skill  was  great,  but  his 
hand  was  heavier  than  that  of  Steenwyck,  and  his 
colour  less  pleasing.  The  figures  in  his  pictures 
were  painted  by  F.  Francken,  Van  Thulden, 
Teniers,  and  Velvet  Breughel.  Neeffsdied  between 
1667  and  1661.  Many  of  his  best  pictures  are  in 
England,  but  the  museums  of  Paris,  Amsterdam, 
Rotterdam,  Brunswick,  Cassel,  Munich,  Geneva, 
Vienna,  and  St.  Petersburg  are  also  rich  in  his 

NEEFFS,  PlETER,  the  younger,  the  son  and 
scholar  of  Pieter  Neeffs  the  elder,  was  bom  at 
Antwerp  in  1601,  and  died  after  1675.  He  painted 
similar  subjects  to  those  of  his  father,  but  they  are 
greatly  inferior,  both  in  the  neatness  of  the  finish- 
ing and  the  correctness  of  the  perspective.  Several 
of  his  paintings  are  in  the  possession  of  the  Mar- 
quis of  Hertford,  and  others  at  the  Hague,  in  the 
Vienna  Academy,  and  the  Liechtenstein  Gallery. 

NEEL,  ScHEELEN.    See  Molenaer,  Corn. 

NEELE,  Samuel  John,  an  English  engraver, 
who  was  born  in  1758,  and  died  in  1824.  His  em- 
ployment was  principally  illustrating  antiquarian 
works  and  engraving  maps ;  but  he  contrived  to 
do  well  for  himself  in  a  pecuniary  sense. 

NEER.     See  Van  der  Neer. 

NEES.     See  Nes. 

NEESSA,  Alonzo  de,  a  Spanish  painter  born  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Madrid  in  1628.  There  are 
pictures  by  him  in  the  Monastery  of  the  Observ- 
ants in  that  city.     He  died  in  1668. 

NEFF,  TiMOTHEUs  Carl  von,  a  Russian  painter, 
born  in  1805  at  Korkulla,  in  Esthonia.  He  studied 
at  Dresden  under  Hartniaiin,  and  at  Rome.  In 
1826  he  returned  to  Russia  and  settled  at  St.  Peters- 
burg.    He  became  court  painter  in  1832,  and  in 


1839  a  member  of  the  Academy,  in  which  he  was 
appointed  professor  in  1865.  From  1842  he  was 
much  employed  on  the  decorations  of  St.  Isaac's 
Cathedral,  and  his  picture  of  the  patron  saint  there 
is  one  of  his  best  works.  Many  members  of  the 
Imperial  family  sat  to  him  for  their  portraits.  He 
died  at  St.  Petersburg  in  1877.  Some  of  his  works 
recall  those  of  Leopnld  Robert.  At  the  Hermitage 
there  are  the  following  by  him  : 

La  Eaigneuse.     1858. 

Two  Girls  in  a  Grotto.     1859. 

NEGKER  (Necker).     See  De  Neceer. 

NEGRE,  Matthieu  van,  was  an  historical  and 
architectural  painter,  who  lived  about  1620  or 
1630.  In  the  cathedral  of  Tournay  there  is  a  '  Holy 
Family '  by  him,  with  a  glory  of  angels,  dated 
1623.  Descamps  mentions  him,  but  there  are  no 
particulars  of  his  life. 

NEGRE,  Nicholas  van,  an  excellent  Flemish 
portrait  painter ;  perhaps  the  son  of  Matthieu.  He 
flourished  about  1645.  Snyderhoef  engraved  his 
portrait  of  Salmasius  in  1641  ;  C.  vanDalen  that  of 
Spanheim  in  1644  ;  and  there  are  other  plates  after 
his  work. 

NEGRI,  Gianfrancesco,  also  called  Francesco 
de'  Ritratti,  from  the  excellence  of  his  portraits, 
was  born  at  Bologna  in  1593.  He  was  instructed 
by  Odoardo  Fialetti  at  Venice,  and  was  the  founder 
of  an  academy  of  arts,  called  Degl'  Indomiti,  in  his 
own  house.  He  was  also  a  poet,  translated  parts 
of  Tasso's  works  into  the  Bolognese  dialect,  and 
wrote  other  books.  His  eldest  son  Pietro  Negri 
painted  in  the  style  of  his  instructor  Zanchi.  There 
is  by  him  in  the  Gallery  at  Dresden,  'The  Death 
of  the  Empress  Agrippina  in  the  presence  of 
Nero.'  He  died  at  Bologna  in  1659.  His  son 
Bianco,  who  was  a  Canon  of  St.  Petronio,  and  an 
author,  also  painted. 

NEGRI,  Pier  Martire,  was  a  native  of  Cremona, 
and  flourished  about  the  year  1600.  According  to 
Zaist,  he  was  a  disciple  of  Giovanni  Battista  Trotti, 
and  distinguished  himself  as  a  painter  of  history 
and  portraits.  He  afterwards  studied  at  Rome, 
and  was  received  into  the  Academy  of  St.  Luke. 
Pictures  by  him  exist  at  Cremona  and  Pa  via. 

NEGRON,  Ldcian  Carlos  de,  a  Spanish  genre 
painter,  who  flourished  about  1660.  He  was  one 
of  the  founders  of  the  Seville  Academy. 

NEGRONE,  (or  NIGRONE,)  Pietro,  a  native  of 
Calabria,  was  born  about  the  year  1500.  Accord- 
ing to  Domiiiici,  he  was  a  disciple  of  Giovanni 
Antonio  d'Amato,  and  also  studied  under  Marco 
Calabrpse.  At  Naples,  in  the  church  of  Santa 
Maria  Donna  Romata,  are  two  pictures  by  him, 
representing  the  'Adoration  of  the  Magi,'  and  the 
'Scourging  of  Christ,'  painted  in  the  year  1541  ; 
also  in  the  church  of  Santa  Agnello  a  picture  re- 
presenting the  Virgin  Mary  and  Infant  Christ  in 
the  clouds,  with  a  glory  of  angels,  and  below  St. 
Catharine,  St.  Jerome,  and  St.  Onofrio.  Negrone 
died  in  1565.  He  was  sometimes  called 'II  giovane 
Zingaro,'  the  young  gipsy. 

NEGRONI.     See  Neronl 

NEGROPONTE,  Era  Antonio,  an  eariy  Venetian, 
and  contemporary  with  Jacobello  del  Fiore.  In 
the  church  of  San  Francesco  della  Vigna,  Venice, 
there  is  a  colossal  'Virgin  in  adoration'  by  him 
which  is  inscribed  "  Frater  Antonius  da  Negropon 
pinxit,"  so  that  Boschini  and  Sansovino  are  mis- 
taken in  calling  him  Fra  Francesco.  To  Fra 
Antonio  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  also  ascribe  tenta- 


tively  a  'Madonna'  at  Legnano,  in  the  oratory  of 
the  Disoiplina. 

NEHER,  Bernard,  historical  painter,  was  born 
at  Biberacb,  Wiirtemburg,  in  1806.  After  some 
early  instruction  in  his  native  place,  he  studied  at 
Stuttgart  under  Dannecker,  and  at  Munich  under 
Cornelius,  and  showed  so  much  talent  in  his  early 
essays  that  he  was  relieved  from  military  service, 
and  granted  a  government  pension  for  further  study 
in  Italy.  He  stayed  four  years  at  Rome,  and  while 
there  painted  (1831)  his  '  Raising  of  the  Widow's 
Son,'  now  in  the  Stuttgart  Gallery.  On  his  return 
to  Munich  he  was  commissioned  to  paint  a  fresco 
on  a  large  scale  over  the  restored  '  Isarthor,'  repre- 
senting the  entry  of  Ludwig  of  Bavaria  after  the 
battle  of  Ampfing.  He  was  afterwards  engaged 
on  decorative  paintings  at  the  Court  of  Weimar, 
and  designed  a  number  of  cartoons  for  glass-paint- 
ing. In  1841  he  became  Director  of  the  Leipsic 
Academy,  and  in  1854  Director  of  the  Art  School  of 
Stuttgart.  He  died  in  1886.  His  '  Descent  from 
the  Cross '  is  in  the  Stuttgart  Gallery. 

NEHER,  Joseph,  a  decorative  painter,  born  at 
Buchan  in  Wurtemburg  in  1788.  He  painted  at 
Stuttgart,  and  must  not  be  confounded  with  an 
artist  of  the  same  name,  the  father  of  Michael 

NEHER,  Michael,  was  born  at  Munich  in  1798, 
and  the  son  of  Joseph  Neher,  a  citizen  and  painter 
of  that  city,  but  of  a  family  from  Biberacb. 
Michael  received  a  classical  education,  and  was 
instructed  in  the  rudiments  of  painting  by  Mitterer, 
and  in  1813  entered  the  Academy  at  Munich. 
From  1816  to  1818  he  studied  under  Matthias 
Klotz,  and  was  then  employed  by  Angelo  Quaglio 
in  his  theatrical  work.  After  having  worked  for 
some  time  as  scene-painter  at  the  Court  Theatre, 
he  went  to  Trent,  Milan,  and  Trieste,  and  painted 
portraits.  In  1819  he  was  encouraged  by  Hierony- 
mus  Hess,  at  Rome,  to  devote  himself  to  genre 
painting.  On  his  return  to  Munich  in  1823  he 
became  Conservator  of  the  Art  Union.  In  1839 
he  painted  several  saloons  in  the  Hohenschwangen 
Schloss,  after  sketches  of  Sohwind,  Gasner,  and 
Schwanthaler.  He,  however,  in  1837  devoted  him- 
self entirely  to  architectural  painting,  and  travelled 
for  improvement  on  the  Rhine,  and  in  Belgium. 
He  was  received  an  honorary  member  of  the 
Academy  at  Munich  in  1876,  and  died  there  in  the 
same  year.  His  best  performances  are  the  following 
views : 

The  Cathedral  of  Magdeburg. 

The  Minster  at  Fribourg. 

The  Town-haU  and  St.  Peter's  Church  at  Lowen. 

The  Cathedrals  at  Frankfort,  Prague,  and  Mechlin. 

NEHRLICH.     See  Nerlt. 

NEIDLINGER,  (or  Neydlinger,)  Michael,  a 
painter  of  Niirnberg,  and  a  pupil  of  G.  Strauch, 
and  at  Amsterdam  of  J.  de  Backer.  He  went  into 
Italy  and  lived  long  at  Venice,  where  he  painted 
for  the  Monasterio  di  Santa  Anna  '  The  Apparition 
of  Jan  Lorenzo  Giustiniani ; '  and  there  are  other 
pictures  by  him  in  that  city.  Neidlinger  died  at 
Venice  in  1700. 

NEIJN.     See  De  Neyn. 

NEIJTS,  GiLLis.     See  Neyts. 

NELLI,  NiccoLd,  was  a  native  of  Venice,  and 
flourished  about  the  middle  or  latter  half  of  the 
16th  century.  From  the  style  of  his  engraving 
he  is  supposed  to  have  been  a  disciple  of  Marco 
da  Ravenna.  He  engraved  an  architectural  fron- 
tispiece,  with   figures,  for  a  book  of   plans  and 

'  views  of  cities  and  fortresses,  published  in  1568 
(it  is  inscribed  i\^i(;o/o  Nelli  Veneziano/.),a.ho  other 
subjects  and  portraits. 

NELLI,  Ottaviano  di  Martino,  (or  De  Mabtis,) 
was  the  son  of  Martino  Nelli  of  Gubbio,  and 
flourished  at  the  commencement  of  the  15th  cen- 
tury. In  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  Nuova  at 
Gubbio  is  preserved  under  glass  a  fresco  repre- 
senting the  Madonna  and  Saints,  which  is  signed 
and  dated  M.C.C.C.CIII.,  Morelli  says  IV.,  and  has 
been  chromolithographed  and  published  by  the 
Arundel  Society.  He  also  worked  for  Gian  Gale- 
azzo,  Duke  of  Milan,  at  Perugia  in  1403-4,  and 
moved  to  Uibino  in  1420 ;  his  death  took  place 
between  1445  and  1450.  The  chapel  of  the  Palace 
of  Corrado  de'  Trinci,  now  called  the  Palazzo  del 
Governo,  was  decorated  by  him  in  1424,  and  the 
work-can  still  be  seen  at  Foligno. 

NELLI,  PiETRO,  was  born  at  Massa  in  1672,  and 
was  instructed  by  Morandi,  whose  style  he  imitated 
in  his  paintings  for  several  churches  at  Rome. 
Ho  was  alive  in  1730,  and  distinguished  himself 
greatly  as  a  painter  of  portraits,  among  which 
are : 

Cardinal  Lodorico  Pico  (engraved  hy  Frey). 
Andrea  Giuseppe  Rossi  (engraved  hy  Billy). 
Bishop  Giovanni  Francesco  Tenderini  (engraved  hy  Gio- 
vanni Rossi). 

NELLI,  Suor  Plautilla,  a  lady  of  a  noble  family, 
was  born  at  Florence  in  1523,  and  probably  in- 
structed by  Fra  Paolino  of  Pistoja.  She  became 
in  1537  an  inmate,  and  afterward.s  prioress,  of  the 
Dominican  convent  of  St.  Catherine  at  Florence, 
and  painted  for  their  church  a  'Descent  from  the 
Cross,'  which  is  said  to  have  been  from  a  design 
by  Andrea  del  Sarto,  and  is  probably  the  same  as 
that  now  to  be  seen  at  the  Florence  Academy ; 
also  a  picture  of  the  '  Adoration  of  the  Magi.'  In 
Vasari's  time  a  large  collection  of  drawings  by 
Fra  Bartolommeo  was  in  her  possession,  and  at 
Dresden  is  a  drawing  by  her  of  '  St.  Anthony 
tempted  by  a  beautiful  woman,'  which  appears 
to  bo  an  imitation  of  the  Frate's  work.  She  died 
in  1588.     There  are  by  her : 

Berlin.     Mag.  of  3 f us.     A  painting  of  1524. 
Florence,      Academy.     A  Descent  from  the  Cross. 
„     iS.  M.  Novella.    A.  Last  Supper. 

NELLO  DE  DINO,  an  unimportant  Tuscan  painter 
of  the  14th  century.  He  was  a  friend  of  BufEal- 

NELLO  DI  Giovanni  FALCONE,  Bernardo,  a 
painter  of  the  14th  century,  who  is  known  by 
report  only,  as  no  authentic  work  by  him  is  in 
existence.  He  studied  under  Orcagna,  and  painted 
much  in  Pisa,  in  the  cathedral  and  in  the  Campo 
Santo,  where  there  is  a  fresco  said,  by  some,  to  be 
by  him.  Lanzi  says  he  is  supposed  to  be  the  same 
artist  as  Nello  di  Vanni. 

NENCI,  Francesco,  was  bom  about  1782,  and 
studied  at  the  Academy  at  Florence.  He  at  first 
painted  portraits,  but  abandoned  that  branch  of 
art  for  historical  painting.  His  chief  performance 
is  at  Florence  in  the  Villa  Poggio,  and  represents 
the  '  Assumption  of  the  Virgin.'  In  1821  he  made 
a  series  of  designs  for  Dante's  '  Divina  Commedia.' 
He  was  for  a  time  director  of  the  Academy  at 

NEPVEU,  Laurens  Theodor,  was  born  at 
Utrecht  in  1782.  He  was  a  politician,  and  only 
practised  painting  as  an  amateur.  His  master  in 
art  was  B.  van  Straaten.     Nepveu  died  in  1839. 



NERANUS,  A.,  painter,  flourished  about  the 
middle  of  tlie  17tli  century,  and  imitated  the 
manner  of  Rembrandt.  In  Cardinal  Fesoh's  col- 
lection there  was  a  pictuie  by  him  representing 
'Pilate  washing  his  hands.' 

NERENZ,  WiLHELM,  genre  painter,  was  born 
at  Berlin  in  1804,  first  studied  under  Wilhelm  von 
Schadow,  until  the  removal  of  the  latter  to  Diissel- 
dorf.  In  the  next  year  he  was  employed  as  picture- 
restorer  in  the  Royal  Museum,  but  in  18.33  followed 
his  master,  von  Schadow,  to  Dusseldorf,  where  he 
remained  three  years.  He  then  returned  to  Berlin, 
where  he  resided  for  the  remainder  of  his  life,  with 
the  exception  of  a  short  time  in  Dresden  and  Italy. 
He  died  at  Berlin  in  1871.  Of  his  works  may  be 
mentioned : 

Berlin.    Nat.  Gallery.    At  the  Armonrer's.    1840. 

The  Goldsmith'.s  Daughter  [from  Uhland). 
Kathchen  von  Heilbronn  [from  Kleist). 
The  end  of  the  Ji'anderjdhre. 

NERI,  Giovanni,  called  Neri  degli  Uccelli,  a 
Bolognese  artist,  celebrated  for  his  paintings  in 
miniature  of  animals,  birds,  and  fishes.  Ulysses 
Aldrovandi  had  seven  books  full  of  his  works. 
He  died  in  the  year  1575. 

NERI,  Paolo  del  Maestro.    See  Paolo. 

NERI  Di  BICCI.     See  Bicoi. 

NERITO,  Jacopo  di,  lived  early  in  the  14th 
century.  He  was  probably  born  at  Padua,  and 
a  pupil  of  Gentile  da  Fabriano.  According  to 
Rossetti,  he  painted  a  'St.  Michael  and  Lucifer' 
of  gigantic  proportions,  once  in  the  church  of 
San  Michele,  Padua.  In  the  Communal  Gallery 
of  that  city  there  are  some  panels  by  him.  No 
dates  can  be  given  of  his  birth  or  death. 

NERONI,  Bartolommeo,  or  Negroni,  called 
Maestro  Riccio,  was  a  native  of  Siena,  and  flour- 
ished from  1550  to  1573.  He  was  a  pupil,  and 
afterwards  son-in-law  and  assistant,  of  Bazzi 
(Sodoma).  He  painted  history,  but  was  more 
celebrated  for  his  perspective  and  architectural 
views.  At  the  Osservanti  at  Siena  is  a  Crucifixion, 
with  a  great  number  of  figures  ;  and  in  the  church 
of  the  Derelitte,  a  '  Descent  from  the  Cross,'  which 
is  painted  entirely  in  the  style  of  his  master.  Two 
large  paintings  by  him  in  the  Academy  of  that 
city  are  Florentine  in  style.  He  was  also  dis- 
tinguished as  a  sculptor,  architect,  and  painter  of 
scenery.  One  of  his  scenes  has  been  engraved  by 

DETTO LANDI  was  equally  celebrated  both 
as  sculptor  and  painter.  He  belonged  to  the 
noble  family  of  Landi,  who  are  described  as 
of  PoKgio  Malevolti,  to  distinguish  them 
from  the  family  of  Landi  Sberghieri.  He 
was  born  in  1447,  and  died  in  1500.  He  was 
twice  married  :  first,  to  Elizabetta,  daughter  of 
Antonio  Cigalini,  who  died  in  1483  ;  and  secondly, 
in  1493,  to  Lucrezia,  daughter  of  Antonio  Paltoni, 
who  bore  him  several  gons,  one  at  least  of  whom 
was  a  painter  like  his  father.  He  was  a  contem- 
porary of  Francesco  di  Giorgio,  and  probably  a 
pupil  of  Lorenzo  di  Pietro  (Veccbietta).  Like  both 
those  artists,  he  left  behind  him  works  in  both 
mediums  of  surpassing  loveliness,  and  is  one  of 
the  greatest  and  most  typical  of  the  Sienese  artists 
of  the  15th  century.  Mr.  Berenson,  in  '  The  Cen- 
tral Italian  Painters  of  the  Renaissance,'  says  of 
him:  "  He  was  Sinione  (Martini)  come  to  life  again. 
Simone's  singing  line,  Simone's  endlessly  refined 
feeling  for  beauty,  Simone's  charm  and  grace — you 

lose  but  little  of  them  in  Neroccio's  panels,  and 
you  get  what  to  most  of  us  counts  more,  ideals 
and  emotions  more  akin  to  onr  own,  with  quicker 
suggestions  of  freshness  and  joy."  There  are 
many  records  extant  of  commissions  given  to  him 
for  statues  and  monuments  still  existing  in  Siena, 
the  most  celebrated  of  which  are  a  St.  Catherine  of 
Alexandria  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Giovanni  in  the 
Duonio  ;  the  tomb  of  Tommaso  del  Testa  Piccolo- 
mini  in  the  same  place,  and  a  wooden  elBgy  of  St. 
Catherine  of  Siena  in  the  Oratory  of  that  Saint  in 
Fontebranda.  In  1483  he  designed  the  fine  figure 
of  the  '  Hellespontine  Sibyl'  for  the  cathedral 
pavement.  His  pictures  are  rarely  to  be  found 
outside  Siena,  but  the  Academy  there  contains 
some  beautiful  examples.  The  collection  in  the 
Palazzo  Saracini  in  Siena  boasts  of  two  good 
'  Madonnas  with  Saints  '  by  him,  and  a  particulariy 
charming  'Virgin  and  Child  with  SS.  Michael  and 
John  the  Baptist'  is  in  the  upper  sacristy  of  the 
Confraternity  della  SS.  Triniti  iu  the  same  city. 
We  gather  from  documents  dealing  with  commis- 
sions for  work  given  him  that  he  died  at  some 
date  between  1488-1502,  but  the  exact  year  of  his 
death  is  not  known.  Among  his  pupils  were 
Giovanni  Battista  di  Bartolommeo  Alberti,  Gio- 
vanni di  Tedaklo,  Leonardo  di  Ser  Anibrogio  de' 
Maestrelli  (called  MescoHno),  Taldi  di  Vittore,  and 
Achille  di  Pietro  di  Paolo  del  Crogio. 

Bergamo.  <^"/'f  "l"  \  Madonna. 

Morelli,  47.  J 
Berlin,  63a.     Madonna  and  Saints. 

Florence.      Uffizi,  1304.     Prcdella.     Episodes   from  the 
Life  of  St.  Benedict. 

Frankfort-  StiiM.  \  jj^donna  and  two  Saints. 

on-Main.   InsittutCy  4.  J 

„       5a.     Madonna  with  SS.   Catherme 
and  Sebastian. 
London.  Mr.  C.  Butler.     Madonna. 
Meiningen.  Holy  Family. 

Newhaven  U.S.A.  |  Annunciation. 

Jams  Collectton,  m.  J 
Paris.  M.  G.  jDrevfns,65.     Claudia. 

„  31.  Martin  Le  Roi/.     Tobias  and  the  Angel. 
Siena.  Sala  I'l.  8.     Madonna  with  sis  Saints.  1492. 

11.     Madonna  with  SS.  Bernardino 

and  Jerome. 
13.     Madonna  with    SS.   Catherine 
and  Bernardino. 
„       14.    Madonna  with  SS.  Catherine 
and  Jerome. 
„  „       19.     Triptych.     1479. 

22.     Madonna  with  two  Saints. 
'I  Sala  "vil.  2.     Cassoue.     Triumph  of  Diivid. 

"  ^,         8.     Fragment  of  an  Aununciatiou. 

Archivio.     Book  cover  :  Madonna  protect- 
"  ing  Siena.     1480. 

,,     Falazzo  Saracini.     Madonna  with   St.    Catherine 
and  the  Magdalen. 
„  Madonna  with  Baptist  and  the 

„  ConfratemMdelldy  ji^aouna  with  St.  Michael  and 
^S.TnmtA.  V     thg  Baptist. 

(Sacnsti/  upstinrs.)  J 
„     J)uomo  I'in-cment.  )  HeUespontme  Sibyl.     1483. 

^  ^    '  R.H.H.C. 

NERVESA,  Gaspako,  painter,  a  native  of  Friuli, 
and,  according  to  Ridolfi,  a  pupil  of  Titian.  No 
picture  by  him  can  now  be  pointed  out,  but  he  is 
known  to  have  painted  at  Spilimbergo,  and  perhaps 
at  Trevigi,  about  the  middle  of  the  16th  century. 

NES,  Jan  Van,  (or  Nees,)  was  born  at  Delft 
probably  about  the  year  1600,  and  was  one  of  the 
best  scholars  of  Michiel  J.  van  Mierevelt.  He 
travelled  in  France  and  Italy,  and  studied  some 
time  at  Rome  and  at  Venice.  On  his  return  to 
Holland  he  painted  some  historical  pictures,  which 


H.  Burtoii  photo ^ 



//.  /iurtuii  photo]  Lltu)\k  of  the  Imuhenti,  Siena 



were  deservedly  admired  ;  and  he  would  probably 
have  distinguished  himself  in  that  branch  of  the 
art,  bad  not  the  general  demand  for  his  portraits 
induced  him,  for  the  sake  of  emolument,  to  devote 
himself  entirely  to  them.  The  date  of  his  death 
is  uncertain,  but  he  is  said  to  have  worked  as  late 
as  1670. 

NESBITT,  Charlton,  an  English  wood-engraver, 
born  in  1775,  at  Swalwell,  Durham.  He  was 
apprenticed  when  fourteen  to  Beilby  and  Bewick, 
and  gained  two  premiums  at  the  Society  of  Arts. 
Specimens  of  the  work  done  by  him  while  witli 
Bewick  are  to  be  found  in  the  tail-pieces  of  '  British 
Birds,'  and  in  the  edition  of  Goldsmith  and  Par- 
nell  of  1795.  At  the  end  of  his  apprenticeship  he 
engraved  a  block  15  inches  by  12  from  a  drawing 
by  his  fellow-pupil  Robert  Johnson.  About  179'J 
he  moved  to  London,  where  he  obtained  an  ex- 
tensive practice.  Among  the  works  he  illustrated 
were  editions  of  '  Hudibnis'  and  of  '  Shakespeare,' 
Sir  Egerton  Bridges'  works,  Ackerman's  '  Re- 
ligious Emblems,'  Northcote's  '  Fables,' &c.  From 
1815  to  1830  helived  at  Swalwell,  and  then  returned 
to  London.     He  died  at  Brompton  in  1838. 

NESFIELD,  William  Andeew.  This  artist, 
the  father  of  the  well-known  architect  of  the  same 
name,  was  the  son  of  the  rector  of  Brancepetb, 
and  was  educated  at  Winchester,  and  at  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge.  He  entered  the  army  at  Wool- 
wich in  1809,  served  in  tlie  Peninsula  under  Wel- 
lington, and  was  afterwards  aide-de-camp  to  Sir 
Gordon  Drummond  in  Canada.  On  retiring  from 
the  army  he  devoted  his  talents  to  painting  in 
water-colours,  and  was  elected  an  associate  ex- 
hibitor of  the  Society  of  Painters  in  Water-colours 
in  1828.  The  following  year  he  became  a  member 
of  the  Society  and  one  of  its  most  constant  con- 
tributors. A  drawing  of  '  Bamborough  Castle  '  at 
South  Kensington  is  a  good  example  of  his  style. 
Later  in  life  he  gave  his  chief  attention  to  land- 
scape gardening,  and  many  of  the  improvements 
in  the  Horticultural  Gardens  at  South  Kensington, 
Kew  Gardens,  and  in  St.  James's  Park  are  due  to  his 
skill.     He  died  in  1881,  at  the  age  of  87,  in  London. 

NETO,  EsTEVAO  GoNSALVES,  a  Portuguese  archi- 
tect and  painter  in  miniature.  Nothing  is  known 
of  his  birth,  but  he  was  chaplain  to  the  Bishop  of 
Vizen  and  a  canon  in  1622.  A  missal,  beautifully 
illuminated  by  him  between  1610  and  1622,  is  pre- 
served in  the  Academy  of  Sciences  at  Lisbon.  He 
died  the  29th  of  July,  1627. 

NETSGHEE,  Caspar,  was  born  at  Heidelberg 
in  1639,  and  died  at  the  Hague  in  1684.  His 
father  was  a  sculptor,  and  an  engineer  in  the  Polish 
service,  who  died  in  Prague  when  he  was  only  two 
years  of  age,  leaving  a  widow  with  three  children, 
of  whom  Caspar  was  the  youngest.  The  calamities 
of  war  obliged  her  to  fly  from  Germany,  and  make 
the  best  of  her  way  towards  Holland.  Two  of  her 
children  died  on  the  road,  and  she  arrived  at  Arn- 
heim  in  Guelderland  in  a  state  of  the  utmost 
destitution.  There  an  opulent  physician,  named 
Tullekens,  took  pity  on  her,  and  adopted  the  young 
Netscher.  He  educated  him  with  the  intention 
of  his  following  the  medical  profession,  but  his 
genius  strongly  inclining  to  the  art  of  painting,  it 
was  judged  best  to  give  way  to  it ;  he  was  in  con- 
sequence placed  under  Koster,  a  painter  of  dead 
game  and  still-life,  but  he  did  not  remain  long 
with  him,  as  these  were  not  subjects  suited  to  his 
powers.  He  became  a  disciple  of  Gerard  Terburg, 
and  his  progress  under  that  master  was  great.    On 

leaving  Terburg,  he  determined  to  visit  Italy,  and 
with  that  intention  embarked  at  Amsterdam  for 
Bordeaux,  where  he  was  induced  to  remain  some 
time,  by  the  encouragement  he  received  as  a  painter 
of  portraits,  as  well  as  by  an  attachment  he  conceived 
for  Marie  Godin,  the  niece  of  the  person  at  whose 
house  he  lodged.  They  were  married,  and  this 
union  preventing  his  proceeding  to  Italy,  he  re- 
turned to  Holland,  where  his  talents  promised  him 
a  more  certain  success.  The  pictures  of  Netscher 
usually  represent  domestic  subjects  and  conversa- 
tions, which  are  treated  in  a  style  reminding  us 
of  the  productions  of  Frans  Mieris  and  Terburg. 
His  handling  is  a  little  woolly  and  wanting  in  life, 
but  like  his  master,  he  particularly  excelled  in 
painting  white  satin,  silk,  ermine,  &c.  He  some- 
times painted  historical  and  fabulous  subjects,  but 
they  were  not  favourable  to  his  powers  ;  he  was 
more  successful  in  miniature  portraits  of  a  small 
size.  Walpole  says  he  visited  England  on  the 
invitation  of  Sir  William  Temple,  in  the  reign  of 
Charles  II.,  but  did  not  remain  here  long.  The 
following  list  includes  most  of  Netscher's  more 
accessible  works : 

Amsterdam.       Gallery. 
Berlin.  Museum. 



Darmstadt.         Gallery. 
Dresden.  Gallery. 



Four  portraits. 

The  Lute-player. 

The  Kitchen. 

Vertumnus  and  Pomona. 

Two  portraits. 

His  own  portrait. 

A  Lady  with  a  Violonoello. 
(And Jive  more.) 

Portrait  of  a  Boy  with  a  Dog. 

Lady  at  the  Piano. 

The  Letter-writer  (said  to  be 
thepainter^s  own  i>ortrait). 

The  Doctor's  visit. 

Tlie  Duet. 

Portrait  of  Madame  de  Monte- 

Portrait  of  Madame  de  Monte- 
span  and  her  son,  the  Duo  de 

Lady  with  a  Dog. 

Peasant  "Woman  spinning. 

The  Lace-maker. 

A  Lady  in  a  white  satin  dress. 

Nymphs  adorning  a  statue  of 

A  Princess  of  Orange. 

His  own  portrait,  with  his  Wife 
and  Daugliter. 

Mr.  and  Mme.  van  Waalwijk. 

ChUtben  blowing  Bubbles. 

Maternal  Instruction. 

Lady  at  a  Spinning-wheel. 

Portrait  of  George,  Earl  of 

Interior  with  two  Ladies  and  a 

Vertumnus  and  Pomona  (said 
to  heportraits  of  St.  Evremond 
and  the  Duchesse  de  Mazarin). 

A  Music  Party. 

A  Girl  feeding  a  Parrot. 

Bathsheba  at  the  Bath. 

Night  scene. 

A  Shepherd  with  a  Girl  on  his 

The  Singing  Lesson. 

The  Lesson  on  the  Double-bass. 

Portrait  of  Mary  II.  of  England. 

Portrait  of  the  painter. 

Family  scene. 

Two  portraits. 

There  are  several  of  his  miniatures  in  the  Col- 
lection at  Welbeck  Abbey,  and  the  Queen  of 
Holland  has  three. 


Hague.  Mitseum. 

Loudon.     JVat.  Gallery, 

„  BridyewaUr  Gall. 

Munich .  Ga  llery. 

Paris.  Louvre. 

Petersburg.  Hermitage. 
Rotterdam.         Gallery. 


NETSCHER,  Constantine,  the  younger  son  of 
Caspar  Netscher,  was  born  at  the  Hague  in  1669 
or  1670.  He  learned  the  first  principles  of  art 
from  his  father,  but  when  he  had  reached  the  age 
of  fourteen,  death  deprived  him  of  that  instructor. 
It  does  not  appear  that  he  studied  under  any  other 
mast«r,  but  (ontented  himself  by  imitatins:  the 
pictures  left  by  his  father.  He  was  very  exten- 
sively employed  in  painting  portraits,  and  was 
encouraged  by  the  principal  personages  of  his  time. 
Among  his  other  patrons,  were  the  families  of 
Wassenaer  and  Duivenvoorden,  whose  portraits  he 
painted,  with  those  of  the  Earl  and  Countess  of 
Portland.  Descanips  reports,  that  the  earl  used 
every  persuasion  to  prevail  on  him  to  visit  England, 
but  he  declined,  on  account  of  the  infirm  state  of 
his  health.  His  talents  were  not  confined  to  por- 
traits, as  he  occasionally  painted  domestic  subjects 
and  conversations  ;  but  in  these  he  was  very  in- 
ferior to  his  father.  He  was  received  into  the 
Society  of  Painters  at  the  Hague  in  1699,  and  was 
afterwards  appointed  the  Director.  His  '  Children  of 
Baron  Suasso '  may  be  mentioned  as  one  of  his 
best  portraits.  His  works  are  to  he  found  at 
Rotterdam,  St.  Petersburg,  Copenhagen,  and  in  the 
La  Caze  collection  in  the  Louvre.  He  died  at  the 
Hague  in  1722. 

NETSCHER,  Theodob,  the  elder  son  and 
scholar  of  Caspar  Netscher,  was  born  at  Bordeaux 
in  1661.  At  the  age  of  eighteen  he  visited  Paris, 
under  the  patronage  of  Count  Davaus,  who  had 
been  ambassador  from  France  to  Holland.  He 
here  received  great  encouragement  as  a  portrait 
painter  during  a  residence  of  twenty  years,  which 
caused  him  to  be  known  at  home  as  '  The  French- 
man.' He,  however,  returned  at  last  to  Holland, 
fixed  his  residence  at  the  Hague,  and  was  employed 
by  the  principal  personages  of  the  court.  Des- 
camps  says  he  visited  England  in  1715,  as  pay- 
master to  the  Dutch  auxiliaries.  He  died  at  Hulst 
in  1732.  A  portrait  by  him,  dated  1681,  is  in  the 
Rotterdam  Museum.  In  his  larger  pictures  he 
introduced  fruit,  flowers,  Turkey  carpets,  and  other 
decorations,  and  he  was  particularly  successful  in 
representing  grapes  and  peaches. 

NETTLESHIP,  John  Trivktt.  This  distin- 
guished painter  of  animals  was  born  at  Kettering, 
Feb.  11,  1841  and  was  the  second  of  the  sons  of 
Mr.  Henry  John  Nettlesliip,  a  solicitor  of  Kettering, 
Northamptonshire.  He  was  educated  at  Durham 
school,  and  after  devoting  a  brief  period  of  his  life 
to  other  pursuits,  studied  painting  at  Heatherley's, 
and  at  the  Slade  School.  Mr.  Nettleship  devoted 
his  attention  mainly  to  art,  and  for  a  considerable 
period  exhibited  regularly  at  the  Academy,  the 
Grosvenor  Gallery,  and  at  a  later  period  at  the 
New  Gallery.  It  was  to  Burlington  House  that  he 
sent  his  'Puma  Devouring  a  Peacock,'  which  was, 
in  most  respects,  his  strongest  and  most  character- 
istic work.  "  His  many  pictures  of  wild  animals 
were  remarkable  for  their  breadth  and  freedom— 
his  beasts  were  always  vigorous  and  well  drawn, 
thoroughly  alive,  and  instinct  with  action.  His 
conceptions  were,  however,  better  than  his  execu- 
tion, which  was  often  ra.irged  and  suggestive,  rather 
than  finished."  Other  important  works  which  he 
produced  were  'Blind,'  'Refuge,'  'Flood,'  'A 
Death  Grip,'  'Crouching  to  Spring,'  'A  Mighty 
Hunter'  (1892),  'A  Big  Drink'  (1893),  'The  Blood 
Trail'  (1895),  'The  Honey  Stealer'  (1896),  and 
'La  Joiede  Vivre' (1895).  He  was  the  second  of  a 
very  remarkable  quartette  of  brothers.  The  eldest 

brother,  Henry,  was  a  classic;il  scholar  of  the  first 
rank,  and  from  1878  until  his  death  in  1893  held 
the  Corpus  Professorship  of  Latin  at  Oxford.  He 
was  also  a  fine  musician,  and  his  knowledge  of  the 
theory  and  methods  of  the  great  German  school  of 
composers  was  surpassed  by  very  few.  The  third 
brother,  Richard  Lewis,  became  a  Fellow  of  Balliol 
in  1869,  and  was  philosophy  tutor  in  that  college 
until  he  lost  his  life  from  exposure  on  Mont  Blano 
in  1892.  The  fourth  brother  is  the  eminent  oculist, 
Dr.  Edward  Nettleship,  the  only  one  of  the  four 
now  surviving.  John  T.  Nettleship  devoted  his 
spare  time  and  energy  to  literature,  and  one  of  the 
first  books  on  the  poetry  of  Browning  was  from  his 
pen.  It  was  a  piece  of  very  thoughtful  and  most 
acceptable  criticism.  In  1890  Mr.  Nettleship 
issued  a  new  edition  of  his  '  Robert  Browning : 
Essays  and  Thoughts,'  and  eight  years  later  he 
wrote  an  interesting  book  upon  'George  Morland 
and  the  Evolution  from  him  of  some  later 
Painters.'  He  was  greatly  attracted  to  the  work 
of  Morland  by  reason  of  the  love  which  that  artist 
had  for  animals  and  the  admirable  manner  in  which 
he  depicted  them.  The  hook  was  the  most  luminous 
essay  on  the  work  of  the  great  English  master  that 
had  yet  appeared.  Mr.  Nettleship  married  in  1876 
the  daughter  of  the  late  Mr.  James  Hinton  the 
aural  surgeon.  He  died  in  1903,  at  his  residence 
in  Wigmore  Street,  aged  sixty-one. 

NEUBERGHE,  Christopher,  a  Tyrolese,  who 
painted  historical  pictures  in  the  Vatican  and  at 
the  Palazzo  Borghese.  He  was  employed  by  the 
Empress  of  Russia  to  copy  all  the  most  beautiful 
pictures  in  the  Vatican,  and  was  living  at  Rome  in 

NEUBERT,  LuDWlG,  German  painter  ;  born 
Feb.  28, 1846,  at  Leipzig  ;  studied  at  the  Weimar 
Art  School,  being  a  pupil  of  Schmidt  and  of 
Kalkreuth  ;  completed  his  artistic  education  in 
Italy  and  France  ;  much  of  bis  work  shows  the 
influence  of  Bocklin  ;  mostly  painted  landscapes, 
to  which  he  gave  a  certain  quiet,  mournful  charm. 
He  died  at  Sonnenschein-bei-Pirna,  March  25,  1892. 

NEUE  (Nrve).     See  De  Neve. 

NEUFCHATEL,  Colin  de,  called  Luctdel,  a 
corruption  of  the  German  translation  of  his  family 
name,  born  in  the  lordship  of  Mons,  Hainault, 
about  1525.  He  is  inscribed  in  the  register  of  the 
Antwerp  Guild  of  St.  Luke  as  apprenticed  to  Peter 
Coucke  of  Alost,  He  settled  at  Nuremberg  about 
1560.  He  painted  portraits  only,  which  he  signed 
in  Latin  Nicolaus  de  Novocastello.  They  are  re- 
markable for  the  care  with  which  every  detail  is 
executed,  and  for  their  refined  feeling  for  colour. 

Althorp.     Earl  Spencer.    Anna  von  Botzheim. 
Berlin.  Museum.     A  yo>ing  man ;  half-length. 

London.      Kat.  Gallery.     A    young    lady;     half-length. 

Munich.         Pinakothek.     The  Mathematician,  John  Neu- 

dorfer.    1561. 
„  ,,  A  man  in  a  furred  robe. 

Prague.      Count  Nostitz.     A  young  lady  and  child. 
Vienna.  Museum.     A  young  man. 

And  portraits  at  Darmstadt,  Prague,  Pesth,  and 

NEURATTER,  Augustin,  was  a  German  en- 
graver, who  resided  at  Prague  about  the  year  1715. 
He  engraved  a  set  of  figures,  entitled  '  Status 
Poutis  Pragensis,'  published  in  that  year.  He 
worked  from  1704  to  1749,  when  he  died.  His 
plates  are  found  in  many  books,  some  of  which  it 
is  said  he  published  at  his  own  expense. 


Woodbury  Co.  photo'\ 


[^National  Gahery 


NEURBUTHER,  Eugen  Napoleon,  painter, 
etcher,  and  book  illustrator,  wns  born  at  Munich 
on  January  13,  1806.  He  studied  at  the  Munich 
Academy  under  Professor  von  Kobell,  and  later 
assisted  Cornelius  in  his  frescoes  for  the  Glypothek 
and  the  Konigsbau  of  his  native  town.  From  1829 
to  1839  he  published  his  illustrations  to  Goethe's 
poems,  winning  the  praise  of  the  poet  himself.  In 
this  and  much  of  his  other  work  he  adopted  the 
style  of  marginal  illustration  with  arabesque  treat- 
ment, once  so  unfortunately  popular.  In  1838  he 
produced  the  first  illustrated  edition  of  Herder's 
'Cid,'  and  besides  these  works  issued  a  large 
number  of  separate  etchings.  The  principal  works 
illustrated  with  lithographs  or  etchings  by  Neu- 
reuther  are  as  follows :  '  Randzeichuungen  zu 
Goethe's  Balladen  und  Romanzen '  (1829-39) ;  '  Sou- 
venir du  27-29  Juillet,  1830'  (1831);  '  Baierisohe 
Gebirgslieder  '  ( 1 829-34)  ;  '  Randzeichnungen  zu 
den  Dichtungen  der  deutschen  Chissiker'  (1832- 
35);  'Der  Nibelungen  Noth'  (1843);  '  Gbtz  von 
Berlichingen '  (1846);  'Randzeichnungen  zu 
neueren  Deutschen  Dichtungen'  (1853);  and 
'Randzeichnungen  zu  Liedern  von  Uichtern  der 
Gegenwart' (1860).  In  1868  he  was  made  Pro- 
fessor of  the  Kunstgewerbeschule  at  Munich. 
Many  buildiugs  in  Munich  were  decorated  with 
his  frescoes,  and  among  his  oil  paintings  may  be 
mentioned,  'The  Dying  Man'  and  '  Peter  Cornelius 
among  his  Pupils,'  both  in  the  Munich  Gallery. 
He  died  on  March  23,  1882.  M,  H 

NEUSTATTER,  Louis,  a  German  painter,  born 
at  Munich,  September   5,  1829  ;  was  a  pupil   of 
Peter   Lutz,  the   engraver ;  then   studied    at   the 
Munich  Academy  ;  also  with  Bernhardt,  the  por- 
trait painter ;  travelled  in  1852;  worked  in  Paris 
under  Cogniet,   and   visited   Naples   and   Rome ; 
established  himself  in  Vienna  as  a  fashionable  por- 
trait painter;  in  1864  returned  to  Munich,  where 
he  devoted  himself  to  genre  subjects  such  as  'Heim- 
kehr  vom  Walde,' '  Der  Findling,'  '  Katzenmusik,' 
and  others.     He  obtained  the  Gold  Cross  of  Merit, 
the  Bavarian  Order  of  St.  Michael,  &c.     He  died 
at  Tiitzing,  on  the  Starnberg  Lake,  May  24,  1899. 
NEUVEL,  Simon,  (or  Neuvelt,)   who   usually 
went  by  the  name  of  Novellands,  was  a  designer 
and    engraver   of    Cologne    towards  the  close  of 
the  16th  century.     In  conjunction  with  Franz  Ho- 
genberg  he    etched    twenty-one   plates    of   '  The 
Fimeral  Pomps  of  Frederick  II.  of  Denmark,'  pub- 
lished in  1592.     He  also  etched  several  of  the  plates 
for  Braun's  '  Civitates  Orbis  Terrarum,'  published 
at  Cologne  in  1572;  as  well  as  'The  History  of 
Tobias,' in  eiglit  plates,  and  'The  Good  Samaritan,' 
(with    Hogenberg,)    in     six.      His    son,    A^GIDIUS 
Neijvel,  also   engraved    at  Cologne  in   the  early 
part  of  the  17th  century  ;    one  of  his  plates  is  a 
'  Christ  on  the  Cross.' 

NEUVILLE,  Alphonse  Marie  de,  was  bom  at 
Saint  Omer  in  1836.  His  family  was  "  noble  "  and 
well  to  do  in  the  world,  and  they  wished  him  to 
embark  on  an  official  career.  But  he  had  set  his 
heart  on  the  army  as  a  profession,  and  he  was  there- 
fore sent  to  the  preparatory  school  at  Lorient.  The 
drawing-master  at  Lorient  is  said  to  have  at  once 
discovered  his  unusual  talent  with  the  pencil,  and  to 
have  prophesied  his  future  success.  After  he  left 
Lorient  he  entered  a  law  school  in  Paris,  to  please 
his  family.  There  he  staid  three  years,  passing 
most  of  his  time  in  picking  up  such  knowledge  of 
military  life  as  he  could.  After  this  he  finally 
made  up  his  mind  to  be  a  painter,  and  after  a  year 

of  contention  with  his  family,  his  father  consented 
to  consult  various  well-known  artists  on  his 
chances.  They  all  discouraged  tlie  idea,  but  Nou- 
ville,  nothing  daunted,  took  a  small  studio  and  set 
to  work.  He  made  the  acquaintance  of  Delacroix, 
then  in  his  decline,  and  was  very  kindly  treated  by 
him.  In  1859  he  won  a  medal  for  his  first  exhibited 
picture,  and  a  year  later  he  was  commissioned  by 
the  "Cercle  Artistique,"  to  paint  them  'Garibaldi 
taking  Naples.'  This  picture  was  a  failure.  In 
1861,  however,  he  took  a  second-class  medal  at  the 
Salon  with  a  'Chasseurs  de  la  Garde,'  and  from 
that  time  onward  his  work  attracted  notice.  His 
great  opportunity  came  with  the  war  of  1870-71. 
His  weak  constitution  prevented  him  from  bearing 
an  important  part  in  it,  but  he  became  its  chronicler 
in  paint.  From  the  time  that  he  exhibited  his  pic- 
ture, '  The  Last  Cartridge,'  there  was  scarcely  a 
better  known  artist  in  Europe.  Neuville  made  a 
great  many  designs  for  woodcuts,  and  at  his  death 
was  occupied  with  the  drawings  for  an  important 
work  in  illustration  of  the  incidents  of  a  hard-fought 
campaign.  He  died  in  Paris  in  1885.  Among  his 
works  we  may  name  : 

Fighting  in  the  Streets  of  Magenta.     1864. 
Chasseurs-a-Pied      crossing     the     Tchernaija     {Lillt 

Museum).     1868. 
Bivouac  before  Le  Bourget  (Dijon  Museum).     1872. 
The  Last  Cartridge.     1873. 

Attack  on  a  Barricaded  House  at  Villersexel.    1874. 
Surprise  near  Metz.     1875. 
Battle  of  Forbach.     1877. 
Cemetery  of  St.  Privat. 
Le  Bourget. 

Defence  of  Rorke's  Drift. 
Cuirassiers  at  Rezonville. 
The  Storming  of  Tel-el-Kebir. 
Le  Parlementaire  [his  last  picture) . 

NEVE,  Cornelius,  an  English  portrait  painter, 
who  practised  in  the  reign  of  Charles  I.  He 
painted  a  group  of  himself  and  his  family,  which 
is  now  at  Petworth.  He  painted  also  Lord  Buck- 
hurst  and  Mr.  Edward  Sackville  in  one  piece  in 
1637.  It  is  at  Knole.  In  1664  he  painted  Mr. 
Ashmole  in  his  herald's  coat. 

NEVE,  (or  Neue,)  Frans  van.  There  were 
several  painters  of  this  name,  probably  father, 
son,  and  grandson.  The  first  was  inscribed  in  the 
books  of  the  Guild  of  St.  Luke  at  Antwerp  in 
1630,  and  the  third  in  1691.  It  was  therefore  pro- 
bably the  second  who  was  born,  according  to 
Balkema,  at  Antwerp  in  1625,  and  died  in  1681. 
He  studied  the  works  of  Rubens  and  Vandyck, 
and  at  Rome  those  of  Raphael,  and  became  a 
better  designer  and  colourist  than  many  of  his 
contemporaries.  There  are  many  of  his  pictures 
at  Antwerp.  At  Vienna  are  the  portraits  of  the 
Archduke  Leopold,  Governor  of  the  Netherlands, 
and  Charles  II.  of  Spain,  with  the  Archduchess 
Maria  Anna.  In  the  Lichtenstein  Gallery  are  '  The 
Judgment  of  Solomon  '  and  '  The  Massacre  of  the 
Innocents.'  There  are  a  number  of  etchings  signed 
'  F  de  Neve,  inv  et  fecit.'  Probably  they  are  by  the 
second  Van  Neve,  as  the  figures  are  well  drawn, 
and  in  the  landscapes  the  foliage  particularly  well 

NEVEU,  Mathijs,  (or  Naiveu,)  was  born  at 
Leyden  in  1647,  and  was  first  a  scholar  of  Abraham 
Torenvliet,  but  he  had  afterwards  the  advantage 
of  being  instructed  by  Gerard  Don.  He  painted 
domestic  subjects  and  conversations,  and  Hou- 
braken  highly  commends  a  picture  by  him  at 
Amsterdam,  representing  the  'Works  of  Mercy,' 



a  composition  of  a  great  number  of  figures  in- 
geniously grouped.  He  died  at  Amsterdam  in 
1721.  Some  of  liis  pictures  have  been  imported 
into  England,  but  for  the  most  part  they  are 
confined  to  his  own  country.  There  is  a  '  St.  Je- 
rome' by  him  in  the  Amsterdam  Museum. 

NEVEU,  Noel.  A  painter  of  this  name  won  the 
second  Grand  Prix  of  the  Paris  Academy  in 
1692,  with  an  '  Abraham  dismissing  Hagar.' 

NEWCOME,  Frederick  Clive,  a  landscape 
painter,  chiefly  in  water-colours,  was  born  at 
Penketh,  near  Warrington,  January  1(5,  1847,  one  of 
a  family  of  thirteen.  His  real  name  was  Frederick 
Harrison  Suker,  and  he  adopted  his  Thackerayan 
pseudonym  to  distinguish  him  from  Lis  father, 
John  Suker  (born  at  Chester,  December  6,  1807, 
died  April  10, 1886),  and  his  brother,  Arthur  Suker, 
also  painters.  Another  brother  assumed  for  the 
same  reason  the  name  John  Sinclair.  John  Suker, 
wlio  only  embraced  art  as  a  profession  in  middle 
life,  came  of  a  markedly  artistic  stock,  Tlioinas 
Crane,  the  father  of  Mr.  Walter  Crane,  being  a 
cousin.  Cuming  to  Liverpool  early  in  life.  New- 
come  studied  at  the  Mount  Street  School  of  Art 
under  Mr.  John  Finnic  ;  afterwards  he  was  in- 
fluenced by  Whitaker  and  Syer.  At  the  Liverpool 
Academy  Exhibition  of  1867  Nevvcome  showed  two 
pictures  (medium  not  stated)  of  'Cox's  garden  at 
Bettws '  and  '  The  Moorland  Stream,'  priced  ten 
guineas  each.  This  was  not  improbably  bis  first 
appearance  as  exhibitor.  To  the  first  Liverpool 
Autumn  Exhibition  (1871)  he  contributed  two  oils  : 
'  The  Eagle  Rock,  Cumberland,'  and  '  Lake 
Guillion,'  each  £40.  His  next  contributions  were 
two  drawings  of  Lake  District  subjects  in  1874, 
each  £40.  In  1875  he  appeared  at  the  Royal 
Academy  with 'The  Head  of  a  Highland  Glen' 
(water-colour),  which  attracted  the  notice  of  Ruskin, 
who  in  his  '  Notes  on  the  Academy  '  described  it  as 
the  best  study  of  torrent,  including  distant  and 
near  water,  that  he  found  in  the  rooms.  He  added : 
"  The  rest  of  this  mountain  scene  is  also  carefully 
studied,  and  very  right  and  good."  At  Liverpool 
he  showed  in  1875  an  important  oil,  '  Floodgates 
of  a  Highland  River '  (£250),  and  two  drawings. 
Newcome  exhibited  occasionally  at  the  Royal 
Academy,  the  last  of  his  nine  contributions  being 
'  A  lonely  Mountain  Tarn '  (water-colour)  in 
1887.  His  last  picture  at  the  Walker  Art 
Gallery  was  in  1884.  Newcome's  earliest  sketch- 
ing-ground was  at  Bettws-y-Coed,  and  he  after- 
wards worked  in  Scotland,  Warwickshire,  Devon- 
shire, and  the  Lake  District.  The  last  was  his 
favourite,  and  in  1880  he  made  Keswick  his  head- 
quarters. A  number  of  his  best  works  were  painted 
in  Arran  for  the  Dnke  of  Hamilton,  and  have  never 
been  exhibited.  He  painted  the  scenery,  and 
especially  the  waters  of  wild  mountainous  country, 
with  great  ability,  and  in  a  manner  that  secured 
him  immediate  and  continuing  recognition.  Un- 
fortunately he  was  of  a  careless,  pleasure-loving 
disposition,  and  although  he  was  of  strong  physique 
and  constitution,  his  health  was  prematurely 
undermined,  and  he  died  at  Coniston  (to  which  he 
had  removed  from  Keswick)  in  February  1894.  He 
left  a  widow  and  one  daughter.  E.  R.  D. 

NEWCOURT,  Richard,  an  English  draughtsman 
in  the  17th  century,  who  drew  some  of  the  illus- 
trations for  Dugdale's  '  Monasticon  Anglicanum.' 

NEWPjLL,  Edward  John.  For  a  short  time  this 
remarkable  Irish  spy  practised  as  a  painter,  and  he 
must  therefore  be  mentioned  in  this  volume.     He 


was  born  at  Downpatrick  in  1771,  was  apprenticed 
to  a  painter  and  glazier,  and  followed  the  trade  of 
a  glass  stainer  for  some  years,  both  in  Dublin  and 
Limerick.  A  little  later  on  he  took  up  with  the 
profession  of  miniature  painting,  which  he  practised 
with  some  considerable  success  at  Belfast,  but  at 
length,  neglecting  his  business  for  the  sake  of  the 
United  Irish  movement,  he  lost  almost  all  his 
clients,  and  had  to  seek  a  maintenance  in  other 
ways.  As  a  painter  in  miniature  his  work  was 
eminently  creditable  and  his  success  was  a  deserved 
one,  but  as  a  common  informer  or  spy,  in  which  he 
had  still  further  success,  his  conduct  was  despic- 
able to  the  last  extremity.  He  was,  however,  a 
man  of  no  shame,  and  in  his  biography  which  he 
issued  in  1798  he  gloried  in  his  infamy.  He  was 
assassinated  in  that  same  year  by  some  persons 
whom  he  had  betrayed,  and  in  Ireland  universal 
execration  is  given  to  his  name  and  career. 

NEWELL,  Robert  Hasell,  the  son  of  a  Col- 
chester surgeon,  born  in  1778,  educated  at  St. 
John's  College,  Cambridge,  lecturer  and  dean  of 
his  College,  and  finallj'  curate  for  some  twenty- 
five  years  of  Great  Hormead.  He  died  in  1852. 
He  was  a  clever  amateur  artist  who  will  be  best 
remembered  by  the  drawings  which  he  made  for 
Goldsmith's  '  Deserted  Village,'  and  which  were 
engraved  in  aquatint  by  Aiken.  He  also  illustrated 
a  volume  on  North  Wales  which  he  had  himself 
written,  and  the  illustrations  of  which  were 
engraved  by  Sutherland. 

NEWENHAM,  Feederice,  an  English  portrait 
and  subject  painter.  He  exhibited  at  the  Royal 
Academy  from  1844  to  1865.  There  is  a  portrait 
of  H.  M.  Queen  Victoria  by  him  at  the  Junior 
United  Service  Club.  Newenham  was  born  in 
1807,  and  died  in  1859. 

NEWMAN,  Alfred.  He  was  a  pupil  of  George 
Hawkins,  and  drew  architectural  subjects  on  stone, 
illustrating  a  valuable  series  of  works,  principally 
on  Gothic  Architecture.  Among  these  are  '  Bever- 
ley Minster,'  '  Johnson's  Relics  of  English  Archi- 
tecture,' '  W.  E.  Nesfield's  Medieval  Architecture,' 
&c.  Alfred  Newman  died  in  London,  13tli  March, 
1866,  aged  39. 

NEWTON,  Alfred  P.,  painter  in  water-colours. 
He  was  born  in  1830.  In  1858  he  was  elected  an 
associate,  and  in  1879  a  full  member  of  the  Royal 
Society  of  Painters  in  Water-colours.  He  died  in 
1883  at  Rock  Ferry.  He  was  a  prolific  exhibitor 
in  the  rooms  in  Pall  Mall  East,  sending  in  the  last 
year  of  his  life  no  less  than  sixteen  drawings,  the 
records  of  a  visit  to  Greece.  His  work  was  re- 
markable for  its  delicacy,  and  for  a  certain  poetry 
of  expression  rather  than  for  its  vigour. 

NEWTON,  Edward,  is  the  name  of  an  engraver 
affixed  to  a  portrait  of  William  Tansur,  the  musi- 
cian, published  with  his  'Melodia  Sacra.' 

NEWTON,  Francis  Milner,  was  born  in  Lon- 
don in  1720,  and  was  a  pupil  of  Marcus  Tuscher. 
He  confined  himself  to  portrait  painting,  in  which 
he  was  considerably  employed,  though  by  no  means 
an  able  artist.  At  the  foundation  of  the  Royal 
Academy  he  was  chosen  a  member,  and  was  ap- 
pointed the  first  secretary  to  that  institution,  which 
situation  he  filled  until  1788,  when  he  resigned. 
He  held  for  some  time  the  oflSce  of  '  Muster  Mas- 
ter' for  England,  and  generally  wore  the  Windsor 
uniform.  He  died  in  1794,  upon  an  estate  which 
had  been  left  him,  near  Taimton. 

NEWTON,  Gilbert  Stdart,  was  born  at  Halifax, 
in  Nova  Scotia,  in  1795.    He  commenced  his  studies 


^Colicciton  of  Lady  Uanbuiy 
MR.  T.   B.   BEALE,    1824 


with  Gilbert  Stuart,  who  was  his  maternal  uncle, 
at  Boston.  He  made  a  tour  in  Ital}'  in  1817,  and 
then  visited  Paris,  and  in  the  course  of  the  same 
year  he  came  to  England  and  entered  as  a  student 
of  the  Royal  Academy.  He  at  first  adopted  Wat- 
teau  as  his  model,  and  produced  several  small 
pictures  much  in  the  style  of  that  master.  His 
tirst  works  that  attracted  notice  were  '  The  For- 
saken,' exhibited  at  tlie  British  Institution  in  1821, 
and  '  The  Lovers'  Quarrel,'  engraved  for  the 
'Literary  Souvenir'  of  1826.  The  'Prince  of 
Spain's  Visit  to  Catalina '  was  engraved  in  the 
same  annual  in  18.31,  and  he  received  500  guineas 
from  the  Duke  of  Bedford  for  the  picture.  His 
other  works,  best  known  to  the  public  by  the 
engravings,  are  ' Shylork  and  Jessica,'  '  Yoriok  and 
the  Grisette,'  in  the  National  Gallery  ;  '  The  Abbot 
Boniface,'  '  Portia  and  Bassanio,'  in  the  South 
Kensington  Museum  ;  and  '  Lear  attended  by  Cor- 
delia and  the  Pliysician.'  He  also  painted  a  small 
picture  of  '  Abelard  in  his  Study,'  which  he  de- 
posited as  liis  diploma  work  on  his  election  as 
B.A. ;  '  The  Vicar  of  Wakefield  restoring  his 
Daughter  to  her  Mother  ;  '  '  The  Poet,  reading  his 
Verses  to  an  impatient  Gallant,'  a  piece  of  genuine 
humour  ;  '  Macheath,'  and  a  few  portraits.  The 
'  Macheath '  was  purchased  by  the  Marquis  of 
Lansdowne  for  500  guineas.  His  last  picture, 
'  Abelard  '  was  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy 
in  1838,  and  it  was  about  this  time  that  he  evinced 
signs  of  aberration  of  mind,  and  these  were  fol- 
lowed by  unequivocal  insanity,  from  which  he 
recovered  only  four  days  before  his  death.  This 
occurred  on  the  5th  of  August,  1835,  at  Chelsea. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Royal  Academy  from 
1832.  It  is  said  that  he  was  irritable  and  capricious  ; 
but  he  enjoyed  the  steady  friendship  and  esteem 
of  Washington  Irving  and  Charles  R.  Leslie.  His 
pictures  are  weak  in  drawing,  but  many  of  them 
are  very  fine  in  colour. 

NEWTON,  James,  an  engraver,  resided  in  Lon- 
don about  the  year  1778.  He  was  the  son  of  an 
engraver,  Edward  Newton,  of  whom  nothing  is 
known.  We  have,  among  others,  the  following 
prints  by  him  : 


Sidney  Parkinson,  Draughtsman   on  boarJ  of  the  En- 
deavour, Capt.  Cook. 

■\VilUam  Newton,  Clerk  of  the  "Works  at  Greenwich 

Edward  Sargeant,  Secretary  to  the  Protestant  Associa- 
tion in  1780. 


Two  Vie-ws  in  Italy  ;  after  Marco  Ricci. 

A  Landscape,  with  Cattle  passing  a  River  ;  after  Claude. 

The  Herdsman,  a  pastoral  Landscape  ;  after  ZuccareUi. 

NEWTON,  Mary  (Mrs.  Charles  T.).  She  was 
the  daughter  of  Joseph  Severn,  the  artist  and 
H.M.  Consul  at  Rome,  and  studied  figure  painting 
under  Mr.  G.  Richmond,  R.A.  Slie  was  born  at 
Rome  in  1832,  and  was  taught  drawing  by  her 
father,  who  set  her  to  copy  old  master  drawings 
and  celebrated  engravings.  She  became  in  later 
years  a  pupil  of  Ary  Scheffer,  and  was  highly 
praised  by  that  artist.  Her  earlier  works  are  in 
crayons  and  water-colours,  her  later  in  oils.  Her 
contributions  to  the  Exhibitions  of  the  Royal 
Academy  include  pictures  named  'Chess,'  dated 
1855;  'Summer'  and  'Winter,'  1864;  and  the 
portrait  of  herself  in  1863.  She  married,  in  1861, 
Mr.  C.  T.  Newton  (afterwards  Sir  Cliarles),  super- 
intendent of  Greek  and  Roman  Antiquities  at  the 
VOL.  IV.  c 

British  Museum,  and  turned  her  attention  to  paint- 
ing from  the  sculptures,  vases,  &c.,  in  that  institu- 
tion. In  that  branch  of  art  she  attained  remarkable 
skill.  Very  much  of  her  time  was  given  up  to 
preparing  drawings  for  the  illujtrations  of  her 
husband's  books,  but  some  of  her  sketches  of 
scenery  in  Greece,  near  Smyrna,  and  on  the 
Euphrates  and  Tigris,  were  of  remarkable  beauty 
and  excellence.     She  died  in  London  in  18G6. 

NE\yTON,  Richard,  a  caricaturist,  and  painter 
in  miniature.  His  works  generally  represent  con- 
vivial scenes.  '  The  Blue  Devils,'  1795,  drawn  and 
etched  by  himself,  is  perhaps  his  best  production. 
He  died  in  London  when  only  21,  the  9th  December, 

NEWTON,  Sir  William  John,  Kt.,  was  the  son 
of  James  Newton  tlie  engraver,  and  was  born  in 
London  in  1785.  He  was  a  successful  painter  in 
miniature,  and  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  in 
1808,  and  subsequently.  He  was  miniature  painter 
to  Queen  Adelaide,  and  was  knighted  in  1837.  He 
died  in  London  the  22nd  January,  1869. 

NEYN.     SeeDElNEYN. 

NEYTS,  ^GlDios  or  Gillis,  a  Flemish  painter, 
who  flourished  at  Antwerp  from  about  1647,  in 
which  year  he  was  named  a  master  of  the  Painters' 
Guild,  to  1690.  He  was  a  disciple  of  Lucas  van 
Leyden,  but  next  to  nothing  is  known  of  his  life. 
In  the  Dresden  Gallery  there  are  two  pictures 
by  him,  a  '  Mountain  Landscape  with  Figures,' 
signed  jE.  Neyts,/.  1681  ;  and  a  'Mountain  Land- 
scape with  Ruins,'  signed  G-  Neyts  f.  He  has  left 
the  following  etcldngs : 

The  Wooden  Bridge. 
Man  and  Dog. 
View  of  Lille. 
A  Peasant's  Cottage. 

Besides  the  above  signatures  he  also  made  use  of 

the  annexed  monogram  :  ViX?^ 

NIBBS,  Richard  Henry,  was  a  popular  painter 
of  marine  subjects.  His  tirst  picture,  'Lord  Mayor's 
Day,'  appeared  at  the  Academy  of  1841,  but  next 
year  he  sent  a  sea-piece,  and  to  that  branch  of 
art  he  afterwards  remained  constant.  He  died  at 
Brighton  in  1893,  in  the  seventy-eighth  year  of  his 

NICAISE,  a  French  painter,  who  flourished  at 
Cambrai  in  1448.  He  was  commissioned  by  the 
Duke  of  Burgundy  to  write  the  verses  and  paint 
the  scenery  for  an  '  Histoire  morale  sur  la  Danse 
Macabre,'  which  was  performed  in  1449  before  the 
Ducal  court. 

NICAISE,  Jean,  a  French  miniaturist,  who 
worked  in  1375-6,  for  Jeanne,  Duchesse  de  Brabant. 

NICANOR,  a  painter  of  Paros,  who  flourished 
411  B.C.     He  is  mentioned  by  Pliny. 

NICC0L6  Dl  SEGNA,  is  thought  to  have  been 
the  son  of  Segna  di  Buenaventura,  and  is  the 
author  of  a  '  Crucifix,'  signed  and  dated  1345,  in 
the  Academy  of  Siena. 

NICCOLET.     See  Nicolet. 

NICCOLINO  (or  Messer  Niccol5).  See  Dell' 

NICCOLO.     See  Semitecolo. 

NICC0L6  DELL'  ABBATE.  See  Dell'  Ab- 

NICCOLO,  Gela^io  di,  was  an  ununportant  Fer- 
rarese  painter  of  the  13th  century,  who  imitated 
the  style  of  Giotto.  ,„ 


NICCOLd  DA  BOLOGNA.    See  Bologna. 

NICC0L6  DA  VERONA.     See  Verona. 

NICC0L6  DA  FOLIGNO.     See  Liberatore. 

NICC0L6  Di  PIETRO.     See  Gerini. 

NICERON,  Jean  FRANgois,  a  French  monk,  who 
painted  the  walls  of  hia  convent  in  fresco,  in  1643. 

NICHOLLS,  Sutton,  an  English  engraver,  re- 
sided in  London  early  in  the  18th  century.  He  was 
chiefly  employed  by  the  booksellers,  for  Avhom 
he  executed  a  considerable  number  of  plates.  His 
best  prints  are  slight  etchings  of  shells,  and  other 
trifling  subjects  ;  when  be  made  use  of  the  burin, 
his  productions  were  very  poor.  In  1725  he  pub- 
lished '  Prospects  of  the  most  considerable  Buildings 
about  London  ;'  he  also  engraved  the  metropolitan 
views  for  Stowe's  '  Survey.' 

NICHOLS,  Joseph,  an  English  painter,  who  is 
remembered  by  two  pictures  painted  in  1738,  '  A 
View  of  the  Fountain  in  the  Temple,'  and  '  The 
Stocks'  Market  in  the  City.'  The  latter  is  an  ex- 
cellent work,  and  was  for  some  time  attributed  to 

NICHOLSON,  Alfred,  an  English  landscape 
painter  in  water-oolours,  born  at  Whitby  in  1788. 
He  was  the  son  of  Francis  Nicholson,  and  passed 
his  early  years  in  the  navy.  Devoting  himself  to 
art,  he  went  to  Ireland  in  1813,  and  spent  some 
years  in  sketching  there.  He  settled  in  London 
as  a  teacher  of  drawing  about  1818.  The  greater 
part  of  1821  and  1822  were  spent  by  him  in 
sketching  tours,     He  died  in  London  in  1833. 

NICHOLSON,  Francis,  an  English  landscape 
painter  in  water-colours,  born  at  Pickering  in 
Yorkshire  in  1753.  His  art  instruction  was  con- 
fined to  a  few  lessons  from  an  artist  at  Scarborough. 
He  settled  at  Whitby  in  1783,  where  he  married, 
and  practised  painting  animals,  birds,  &c.,  and 
taught.  In  1792  he  went  to  Knaresborough,  Ripon, 
Weybridge,  finally  settling  in  London.  He  had 
exhibited  for  the  fiist  time  at  the  Royal  Academy 
in  1789,  and  in  1804  he  became  one  of  the  original 
members  of  the  Water-colour  Society,  where  he 
exhibited  till  1815.  In  his  later  years  he  devoted 
his  time  to  lithography,  made  above  800  drawings 
on  stone,  and  did  much  to  advance  that  art. 
After  he  retired  from  the  practice  of  his  art,  he 
amused  himself  with  experiments  on  colours,  &c. 
In  1820  he  published  '  'The  Practice  of  Drawing 
and  Painting  Landscape  from  Nature.'  He  died 
in  London  in  1844.  There  are  several  of  his  water- 
colour  drawings  at  the  Kensington  Museum. 

NICHOLSON,  Georqe,  was  bom  in  1795, 
probably  at  Liverpool,  where  he  afterwards  lived. 
His  mother,  Mrs.  Isabella  Nicholson,  was  notable  for 
skilful  copies  in  fine  needlework  of  noted  pictures. 
Several  other  members  of  the  family  practised  art. 
In  combination  with  his  brother  Samuel  (a  draw- 
ing-master) George  Nicholson  in  1821  published 
in  folio  twenty-six  lithographs  of  subjects  in  the 
vicinity  of  Liverpool.  This  was  followed  in  1824 
by  '  Plas  Newydd  and  Valle  Crucis  Abbey  '  (4to). 
George  Nicholson  exhibited  at  the  Liverpool 
Academy,  from  1827  to  1834,  numerous  landscapa 
"compositions"  in  water-colour  or  lead  pencil. 
He  did  nut  exhibit  again  until  1838,  when  he  sent 
one  drawing, '  Langdale  Pikes.'  It  may  be  inferred 
that  he  died  about  1839  of  phthisis,  from  the  fact 
that  his  sister  Isabella  exhibited  in  1840  a  drawing, 
'Mrs.  Bridgman's  Boarding-House,  Madiera,  from 
the  last  sketch  by  the  late  George  Nicholson.' 
Miss   Nicholson,   who   usually   painted    birds    or 


flowers,  was  an  exhibitor  at  the  Liverpool  Academy 
from  1828  to  1847.  Samuel,  already  mentioned, 
died  about  1825  from  the  effects  of  a  mad  dog's 
bite.  E.R..D. 

NICHOLSON,  Isaac,  an  English  wood  engraver, 
born  at  Melmerby,  Cumberland,  in  1789.  He  was 
one  of  Bewick's  apprentices,  and  imbibed  a  large 
share  of  his  master's  style.  He  died  in  1848. 
Specimens  of  his  work  will  be  found  in  : 

Sharp's  '  History  of  the  Rebellion.' 

Flower  and  Grover's  '  Visitation  of  Durham.'     1820. 

'  Robinson  Crusoe.' 

Watts'a  *  Hymns,'  kc,  &c. 

NICHOLSON,  James,  glass  painter,  was  one  of 
the  four  who  contracted  to  execute  eighteen 
windows  for  King's  College  Chapel,  Cambridge, 
in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII. 

NICHOLSON,  Peter  Walker,  was  born  at 
Cupar,  Fife,  in  1856.  Educated  at  the  Universities 
of  St.  Andrews  and  Edinburgh,  he  intended  to 
follow  his  father's  profession  of  law,  but  his  tastes 
inclined  strongly  to  art,  and  in  1878  he  resolved 
to  be  a  painter.  He  received  his  art  training  at 
the  School  of  Art,  Edinburgh  ;  the  Slade  School, 
Oxford  ;  and  Bonnat's  studio  in  Paris.  He  stayed 
for  a  time  at  Barbizon,  and  returned  in  1882,  work- 
ing on  happily  thereafter  in  Fife,  Edinburgh,  and 
the  Highlands  until  his  accidental  death  by  drown- 
ing at  Nigg,  Cromarty,  in  1885.  He  had  genuine 
literary  aptitude,  as  his  published  essay  on  D.  G. 
Rossetti  (Round  Table  Series)  attests.  In  1835  he 
began  to  exhibit  at  the  Royal  Scottish  Academy 
Exhibition,  and  in  all  he  exhibited  fifteen  pictures 
(all  but  one  in  water-colour).  '  Burning  Weeds,' 
'  In  the  Orchard,'  and  '  In  the  Summer  Woods,'  are 
his  important  works — figure  studies  of  every-day 
country  life,  with  a  tender  and  harmonious  land- 
scape setting.  An  illustrated  memorial  volume  by 
Prof.  H.  B.  Baildon  and  J.  M.  Gray  was  privately 
issued  at  Edinburgh  in  188G.  J.H.W.L. 

NICHOLSON,  T.  (?)  H.,  was  popular  as  a  book- 
illustrator  in  the  first  half  of  the  present  century. 
He  produced  a  series  of  designs  for  a  Shakespeare, 
and  was  said  to  be  the  real  author  of  Count 
D'Orsay's  statuette  of  Wellington. 

NICHOLSON,  Wii4,iAM,  a  portrait  painter  and 
etcher,  born  at  Newcastle-on-Tyne  in  1784.  He 
first  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  in  1813. 
About  1820  he  removed  to  Edinburgh,  where  he 
obtained  a  good  practice,  and  had  a  great  share  in 
the  foundation  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Academy,  of 
which  he  was  an  original  member,  and  afterwards 
secretary.  His  forte  was  in  water-colour  portraits, 
and  he  also  etched  a  series  of  portraits.  He  died  at 
Edinburgh  in  1844.  There  is  a  portrait  by  him 
of  '  Grecian '  Williams  in  the  Scottish  National 
Gallery.  In  1816  he  painted  the  portrait  of  W. 
Bewick,  wliicli  was  exhibited  at  the  Academy.  A 
series  of  his  portraits  was  published  with  short 
Biographical  Notices. 

NICIAS,  an  ancient  Greek  painter,  mostly  in 
encaustic,  was  a  native  of  Athens,  and  flourished 
from  348  to  308  before  Christ.  He  was  instructed 
by  Antidotus,  and  bis  works  were  distinguished 
for  their  excellent  light  and  shade.  Praxiteles, 
whose  statues  he  painted,  declared  that  those 
were  the  best  upon  which  Nieias  had  rendered  as- 
sistance. He  particularly  insisted  upon  nobility  in 
the  choice  of  subjects  for  pictures.  He  painted 
women  with  great  success,  as  well  as  dogs  1  One 
of  his  admired  works  represented  '  Ulysses  invok- 
ing the  Shades  of  the  Dead,'  from  the  Odyssey. 


For  this  picture,  Attalus,  King  of  Pergamus,  offered 
liim  sixty  talents,  but  sucli  was  the  patriotism  of 
the  painter,  that  he  refused  the  offer,  and  presented 
the  picture  to  his  country.  Tlie  liberality  of  his 
fellow-citizens  had,  however,  enabled  him  tlius  to 
indulge  his  patriotism,  as  he  liad  become  extremely 
rich  by  the  bountiful  remuneration  he  received  for 
liis  works.  In  the  time  of  Pliny,  a  picture  of  Bacchus, 
by  Nicias,  was  preserved  in  the  Temple  of  Concord 
at  Rome. 
NICKELE.  See  Nikkelen. 
N  ICO  LAI.  See  Swanenbubq. 
NICOLAI,  G.  D.  C,  resided  at  Vienna  in  1720. 
Conjointly  with  A.  J.  Prenner,  he  executed  part  of 
the  plates  from  the  pictures  in  the  Grand  Gallery  at 
Vienna,  which  were  published  in  four  sets  in  folio. 
NICOLAS,  Adrien,  a  painter  of  the  French 
school,  who  was  by  birth  a  Belgian.  He  was 
bom  at  Antwerp  early  in  the  16th  century, 
but,  migrating  to  France  in  his  youth,  was 
naturalized  by  Francis  I.  He  established  himself 
at  Orleans,  where  he  died  at  an  advanced  age. 

NICOLAS,  Lonis,  a  French  miniaturist  of  the 
13th  century.     He  was  at  work  in  Paris  in  1293. 

NICOLAS  LE  LoRRAiN,  a  painter  on  glass,  who 

was  employed  in  the  ducal  palace  at  Nancy  in  1515. 

NICOLAS   LE   PiCARD,    a    French   painter   and 

native  of  Amiens,  who  was  at  work  at  Avignon, 

in  the  church  of  St.  Agricol,  in  the  year  1509. 

NICOLAUS,  a  native  of  Friuli,  who  was  at 
work  at  Gemona  in  1332.  He  painted  the  fagade 
of  the  cathedral,  and  a  martyrdom  which  he 
signed  thus: — Mcccxxxii.  Magister  Nicolaus 
PiNTOR  me  fecit.  To  him  some  writers  have 
ascribed  a  large  picture  of  the  '  Presentation  in 
the  Temple,'  in  the  cathedral  of  Vengone. 

NICOLAY,  Frere,  was  a  Jesuit,  and  pupil  of 
Rubens.  He  excelled  in  making  copies  of  pictures 
by  Rubens  and  Van  Dyck.  He  also  painted  small 
figures  in  the  landscapes  of  Nayo. 

NICOLAY,  Jan  Hendrik,  was  bom  at  Leeu- 
warden  in  1766.  He  was  the  son  of  a  carriage 
painter,  and  for  a  time  followed  the  same  trade. 
He  was  also  a  great  ornithologist,  and  delighted 
in  painting  dead  birds.  He  was  a  frequent  ex- 
hibitor at  Amsterdam,  and  his  works  are  much 
esteemed  in  Holland.     He  died  in  1826. 

NICOLET,  Benedict  Alphonsiit.s,  or  Bernhard 
Anton,  (Nicollet,  Nikolet,  &c.,)  was  a  Swiss  en- 
graver, born  at  St.  Immier,  in  the  bishopric  of 
Basle,  in  1740.  He  went,  when  he  was  young, 
to  Paris,  where  his  first  performances,  after  study- 
ing under  Poilly  and  Cochin,  were  some  plates, 
engraved  in  conjunction  with  Longueil,  after  the 
marines  of  Vernet.  He  also  engraved  four  of  the 
plates  which  embellish  the  '  Voyage  Pittoresque 
du  Royaume  de  Naples,'  by  the  Abbe  de  St.  Non. 
He  died  in  1807.  The  following  are  esteemed  his 
best  prints  : 

Noel  Hall^,  Painter  to  the  King.     1775  ;  after  Cochin. 
Thomas  Le  Sueur,  Professor  of  Mathematics  at  Eome ; 

after  the  same, 
Fran9ois  de  Paul  Jacquier,  Professor  of  Mathematics 

after  the  same. 

St.  Apollonia  ;  after  the  picture  by  Giiido  ;  in  the  Or- 
leans Collection. 
Mile  of  Crotona ;  after  Giorgione  ;  the  same. 
Susannah  and  the  Elders  ;  after  Deshais. 
A  View  of  Naples ;  after  Vernet. 
A  SUpwreck  ;  after  the  same. 


A  View  of  the  Interior  of  the  Church  of  San  Gennaro 
at  Naples,  at  the  moment  when  the  miracle  of  St. 
Januarius  occurs;  after  Debrets  ;  etched  by  Martini 
and  Germain,  and  finished  with  the  graver  by  Nicolet. 

NICOLETTO  DA  MoDENA.     See  Rosex. 
NICOLUCCIO  CALABRESE,  a  Calabrian  pupil 
of  Lorenzo  Costa,  who  is  said  to  have  made  an 
attack  on  his  master  with  a  knife,  in  revenge  for 
a  supposed  caricature  in  one  of  Costa's  pictures. 

NICOMACHUS,  a  painter  of  about  400  B.C., 
was  a  native  of  Thebes,  and  the  brother  of  Arist- 
eides.  He  was  instructed  by  his  father  Aristisus. 
Of  all  the  painters  of  antiquity,  he  was  the  most 
remarkable  for  the  extraordinary  facihty  of  his 
pencil,  a  promptness  which  did  not,  however, 
diminish  the  beauty  of  his  productions ;  and  Plutarch 
compares  the  readiness  with  which  he  worked  to 
that  of  Homer  in  the  composition  of  his  verses. 
Aristratus,  the  tyrant  of  Sicyon,  having  engaged 
him  to  decorate  with  his  paintings  a  monument  he 
intended  to  consecrate  to  the  memory  of  the  poet 
Telestus,  a  particular  day  was  fixed  when  it  was 
expected  to  be  finished.  The  period  had  nearly 
elapsed  before  the  painter  had  commenced  his 
work,  when  Aristratus,  irritated  by  his  apparent 
neglect,  threatened  to  punish  him  severely  ;  but 
Nicomachus  satisfactorily  accomplished  his  under- 
taking within  the  limit  of  time.  Among  his  prin- 
cipal works  was  a  picture  of  the  '  Rape  of 
Proserpine,'  which  was  for  a  long  time  preserved 
in  the  Capitol  at  Rome.  At  the  time  of  his  death 
he  left  imperfect  a  picture  of  Helen. 

NICOPHANES,  a  painter  of  the  school  of 
Sicyon,  who  is  reckoned  by  Pliny  among  the  most 
eminent  of  his  time.  He  lived  about  316  B.C., 
and  studied  under  Pausias.  He  was  called  '  The 
Courtesan  Painter,'  for  his  models  were  usually 
members  of  the  class  of  hetairue. 

NICOTERA,  Marcantonip,  a  painter  of  the 
school  of  Naples,  scholar  of  P.  Crisnolo,  flourished 
about  1590-1600.  In  the  church  of  S.  Nicola  alia 
Dogana  at  Naples,  there  is  a  picture  by  him 
representing  '  The  Virgin  and  Child,  St.  Jerome, 
and  St.  Blaise.'  The  title-page  of  0.  Boldoni's 
'  Epigraphica,'  Augusto  Perusia  1600,  signed  M 
NIC  M.  and  containing  the  portrait  of  Cosmo  de' 
Medici,  is  said  to  be  by  him. 

NIEMANN,  Edmdnd  John,  a  landscape  painter 
of  German  extraction,  bom  at  Islington  in  1813. 
In  his  early  years  he  was  employed  at  Lloyds, 
where  he  remained  till  1839.  He  then  devoted 
himself  to  art,  settling  in  High  Wycombe,  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  which  he  found  many  subjects 
for  his  brush.  His  works  first  appeared  at  the 
Royal  Academy  in  1844.  About  1850  he  spent 
a  few  years  in  London,  through  his  connection 
with  the  short-lived  National  Institution,  of  which 
he  was  Secretary  and  Trustee.  He  then  lived  in 
England  Lane,  near  Hampstead,  on  a  site  now 
swarming  with  artists.  He  died  of  apoplexy  at 
Brixton  in  1876.  A  collection  of  forty-one  of  his 
works  was  exhibited  at  Nottingham  Castle  in  1878. 
Specimens  of  his  art  are  to  be  seen  in  the  Kensing- 
ton Museum  and  the  Liverpool  Gallery. 

NIEULANDT,  Adriaen  van,  painter,  was  bom 
at  Antwerp  in  1590.  It  has  often  been  said  that 
the  date  of  this  painter's  birth  is  unknown;  but 
underneath  a  portrait  of  Nieulandt,  published  in 
1649,  we  find  this  inscription:  "A  very  good 
painter  of  small  figures  and  landscapes ;  he  has 
also  painted  many  scenes  from  the  Old  Testament ; 



he  is  a  native  of  Antwerp ;  he  began  as  an  artist 
at  Amsterdam  under  Pieter  Isaacsz  and  Franz 
Badeus,  and  is  still  established  in  that  city.  He 
is  fifty-nine  years  of  age."  Adriaen  was  possibly 
the  brother  of  William  van  Nieulandt,  who  acquired 
a  reputation  as  a  playwright.  Adriaen  passed  most 
of  l)is  life  at  Amsterdam,  but  from  the  picture 
mentioned  below  as  in  the  Brussels  Gallery,  he 
seems  to  have  revisited  his  native  town  at  least 
once.  The  date  of  his  death  is  unknown,  but  he 
was  still  living  in  1657.  Works  : 
Brunswick.  Gallery.    Diana  and  uymphs  in  a  land- 

„  „  Diaua  and  Calli.sto. 

„  „  Landscape  with  Hunters. 

„  StiU-life. 

Brussels.  Gallery.    A  carnival  scene  at  Antwerp. 

^^  „  (Skaters  on  the  ice  in  the  town 

ditch.)  At  Madrid  a  replica 
of  this  picture,  with  some 
variations,  is  ascribed  to 
Denis  van  Alsloot. 
Copenhagen.  Gallery.  Entry  of  Christ  into  Jerusalem. 
„  „  Triumph  of  Bacchus. 

NIEULANT,  John,  born  at  Antwerp  in  1560, 
painted  historical  pictures  and  landscapes,  of  small 
dimensions,  often  on  marble.     He  died  in  1628. 

NIEULANT,  William  van,  was  born  at  Antwerp 
in  1584.     After  being  instructed  in  the  firet  prin-  j 
ciples  of  art  by  James  Savery  of  Courtrai,  he  went  j 
to  Rome,  where  he  became  the  scholar  of  Paul  i 
Bril,  under  whom  he  studied  three  years,  and  fur  1 
some  time  followed  the  style  of  that  master  ;  but 
be  afterwards   adopted   one   more   bold   and   ex- 
peditious.    On   his  return   he  was  admitted  free 
master  into  the  Guild  ofSt.Luke,lG05.    He  married 
Anne  Huystaert,  and  settled  about  1628  at  A.m- 
sterdam,  where  he  was  much  employed  in  painting 
views  of  the  ruins  of  ancient  architecture  in  the 
vicinity  of  Rome,  from  the  designs  he  had  made 
during  his  residence  in  Italy.     He  was  still  alive 
in  July    1635.     The  following   paintings   remain 
from  his  hand: 

Antwerp.  Museum.     View  of  the  Campo  Vaccine  at 

Home.    (Signed  G.  V.  Nieu- 
lant.     1611.) 
Copenhagen.     Museum.     View  of  the  Campo  Vaccino, 

Rome.     1609. 
Vienna.  Museum.     View  of  the   Campo  Vaccine, 

Rome,  with  more  than  fifty 
figures.     {Signed  gvilmo  vax 

NIEVLANT  FEC.       1612.) 

William  van  Nieulant  etched  about  sixty  plates  of 
landscapes  and  ruins,  from  his  own  designs,  and 
from  tliose  of  Paul  Bril  ;  they  are  occasionally 
strengthened  by  the  burin.  Among  others,  we 
have  the  following  by  him  : 

A  Landscape,  with  ruins,  and  figures  representing  the 

(iood  J^auKiritan  ;  P.  Bril  ine.  G.  Nieulant  fecit. 
A  Mountainous  Landscape,  with  Tobit  End  the  Angel ; 

the  same. 
Two  Views  of  the  Sea  Coast ;  the  same. 
Three  Views  of  Ruins  in  and  near  Rome ;  Guil.  Nieu- 
A  large  Print  representing  three  Bridges  on  the  Tiber, 
and  a  part  of  the  City  of  Rome ;  in  three  sheets, 
inscribed,  Guilielmus   van   Nieulant  fecit  et   excud. 
Antverpiee.     1600. 
Nieulant  also  wrote  several  tragedies. 

NIEUWENHUIZEN,  Hendrik,  born  at  Breda 
in  1747,  copied  with  the  pen  with  most  surprising 
accuracy  several  engravings  and  etchings  after 
Callot  and  Rembrandt. 

NIEUWERBORCH,   Pieter   van,   an   obscure 
Flemish  painter,  who  was  inscribed  in  the  Guild 
register  at  Bruges  in  1480. 

NIGHTINGALE,  Robert,  was  born  in  1815,  and 
devoted  himself  to  animal  painting.  His  first  work 
appeared  in  the  Royal  Academy  Exhibition  of  1846, 
a  portrait  of  '  Frolic  and  her  Pups,'  and  thereafter 
he  exhibited  frequently  at  the  Royal  Academy  and 
the  Royal  Institution  of  British  Artists,  his  work 
being  popular  and  well  loiown.  He  died  in  1895. 
^  ^  ^  J.  H.W.L 

NIKKELEN,  Isaak  van,  (or  Nickele,)  archi- 
tectural painter,  was  born  at  Haarlem  in  the  17th 
century.  He  entered  the  guild  in  that  city  in 
1660.  In  the  Sis  Collection,  at  Amsterdam,  there 
is  an  '  Interior  of  a  Gothic  church  at  Haarlem '  by 
him.  Other  productions  of  liis  are  to  be  met  with 
at  Brunswick,  Brussels,  Copenhagen,  St,  Peters- 
burg, and  Stockholm.    He  died  at  Haarlem  in  1703. 

NIKKELEN,  Jan  van,  was  born  at  Haarlem  in 
1649,  and  instructed  by  his  father  or  elder  brother 
Isaak.  He  did  not  pursue  the  same  branch  of  art, 
but  applied  himself  to  the  painting  of  landscapes 
and  game,  in  which  he  followed  the  style  of  Karel 
(lu  Jardin.  He  passed  some  time  at  the  court  of 
the  Elector  Palatine,  for  whom  he  painted  several 
pictures,  and  was  afterwards  made  painter  at  the 
court  of  Cassel,  where  he  died  in  1716.  The  Gallery 
there  contains  a  '  Roebuck  in  a  Forest '  by  him.  His 
daughter,  Jakobea  Nikkelen,  born  in  1690,  was  a 
pupil  of  Herman  van  der  Myn,  and  excelled  in 
painting  fruit  and  flowers.  She  married  Willem 
Troost,  a  portrait  painter.  The  pictures  she  painted 
at  Diisseldorf  have  been  erroneously  ascribed  to 
her  father.     See  Troost. 

NIKOLET.     See  Nicolet. 

NILSON,  F.  Christian,  painter,  was  born  at 
Augsburg  in  1811.  He  worked  chiefly  at  Munich, 
and  is  principally  known  by  his  frescoes  of  scenes 
from  the  Greek  "War  of  Liberation,"  executed 
after  designs  by  Peter  von  Hess,  in  the  "  Hof- 
garten  ; ' '  and  by  the  decorative  pictures,  from  his 
own  designs,  on  the  staircase  of  the  State  Library 
at  Munich.  His  paintings  in  illustration  of  Schil- 
ler's '  SoDg  of  the  Bell '  have  been  engraved  by 
Adrian  Sohleich.  In  his  later  years  he  abandoned 
painting  for  drawing  and  engraving.  Nilson  died 
at  Munich  the  19th  December,  1879. 

NILSON,  JoHANN  Esajas,  a  German  miniature 
painter  and  engraver,  was  born  at  Augsburg  in 
1721.  He  engraved  and  etched  several  portraits, 
and  a  number  of  figure  scenes  in  borders,  which 
are  good  examples  of  the  decorative  art  of  the  18th 
century.  He  became  Director  of  the  Academy  at 
Augsburg,  and  died  there  in  1788.  His  plates 
appeared  in  series  of  two,  four,  six,  or  twelve,  and 
are  signed  either  Nilson,  E.  N.,  J.  E.  N.,  or  with 
a  monogram.     Among  others  are  the  following; 


Clement  Xlll.,  Pontif .  Max. ;  Nilson  inv.  et  fee. 
Petrus  III.,  Russornm  Imperator. 
Catherina  Alexiewna,  Russornm  Imperatrix. 
Stanislaus  Augustus,  Rex  Pol. 

NIMECIUS,  Balthasar  Meneius,  was  an  in- 
different engraver  on  wood,  and  is  said  to  have 
been  a  native  of  Saxony.  Professor  Christ  attri- 
butes to  him  a  monogram  composed  of  a  B.,  an 
M.,  and  an  N. 

NIMEGEN  and  NIMWEGEN.     See  Ntmegen. 

NINFE.     See  Dalle  Ninfe. 

KlNllAM,  Henry,  born  at  Norwich  on  October 
15,  1793,  was  the  son  of  John  Ninham,  who  in 
1792  drew,  with  the  assistance  of  the  camera 
ob.scura,  the  ancient  gates  of  Norwich,  then  about 
to  be  demolished.    Henry  succeeded  to  his  father's 


business  as  an  heraldic;  painter  and  copper-plate 
printer,  and  was  for  many  years  employ^  d  by  the 
]  principal  coach-builders  of  the  city  to  paint 
armorial  bearings  on  their  patrons'  carriages. 
The  artistic  tendencies  of  the  father  developed 
in  the  son,  and  he  became  a  frequent  contributor 
to  the  Norwich  Exhibitions  both  in  oil  and  water- 
colours.  In  the  Norwich  Castle  Museum  is  a 
water-colour  '  Gateway  and  Castle,'  and  in  the 
possession  of  Jlr.  James  Reeve,  Mr.  Russell  Colman 
and  other  Norwich  collectors  are  several  of  his  oil 
and  water-colourpaintingsof  picturesque  old  houses 
and  churches  of  Norwich  and  its  neighbourhood. 
Ninham  was  a  good  etcher,  and  published,  without 
letterpress,  '  Eight  Etchings  of  Antiquities  of 
Norfolk,'  and  not  long  before  his  death,  'Views 
of  the  Gates  of  Norwich,'  from  drawings  made  by 
Kirkpatrick  about  1720.  He  also  etched  for  private 
circulation  a  series  of  small  but  spirited  plates  of 
Norfolk  views.  He  supplied  etched  illustrations 
for  Blomes'  '  Castle  Acre  '  and  Grigor's  '  Eastern 
Arboretum'  (1847),  and  from  1847  till  his  death 
contributed  largely  to  the  illustrations  of  'Norfolk 
Archaeology '  and  other  local  antiquarian  works. 
'  Remnants  of  Antiquity  in  Norwich  '  and  '  Norwich 
Corporation  Pageantry,'  published  by  Muskett, 
were  illustrated  by  Ninham  in  lithography  from 
his  own  drawings.  Ninham  died  at  his  house  in 
Chapel  Field,  Norwich,  on  October  23,  1874,  and 
was  buried  in  Norwich  Cemetery.  M.H. 

NINO  DE  GUEVARA.     See  Guevara. 

NIPOTE,  II.     See  Gabbieri,  Loe. 

NIQUET,  Claude,  the  elder,  was  born  in  1770. 
He  was  one  of  the  engravers  employed  on  the 
'  Galerie  du  Mus(5e  Napoleon,'  published  by  FilhoL 
He  was  still  living  in  1831.     Among  his  plates  are  : 

The  Death  of  St.  Bruno  ;  after  Le  Sueur. 

The  Triumph  of  Flora ;  after  N.  Fonssin. . 

The  ApoUo  Belvedere. 

The  Diana  of  the  Louvre. 

The  Laocoon. 

Cupid  and  Psyche. 

The  Transfiguration  ;  after  Raphael. 

NIQUEVERT,  Alphonse  Alexandre,  a  French 
historical  and  landscape  painter.  He  was  bom  in 
Paris  in  1776,  studied  under  David  and  Regnault. 
and  exhibited  at  the  Salon  from  1806  to  1824. 
He  was  a  friend  of  the  painter  Jean  Louis  Cesar 
Lair,  whose  biography  he  wrote,  and  after  whose 
death  he  retired  into  private  life.  There  are  several 
of  his  works  in  the  cathedral  of  Metz.  Niquevert 
died  2nd  December,  1860.     There  are  by  him  : 

Tobit  and  the  Angel. 

The  Siege  of  Paris  by  Henry  IV. 

Christ  before  Pilate. 

NITTIS,  Giuseppe  de,  an  Italian,  was  bom 
near  Barletta,  Naples,  in  1845,  and  was  a  pupil  of 
Gerome,  in  Paris.  He  painted  genre  subjects, 
chiefly  scenes  in  the  streets  of  Paris  and  London, 
which  are  remarkable  for  their  truth.  His  works 
are  realistic  in  the  best  sense.  He  painted  for  a 
time  in  England,  and  with  much  success.  He  won 
the  orthodox  honours  at  the  Salon,  and  was 
"  decorated  "  in  1878.  He  died  suddenly  in  1884. 
Among  his  works  we  may  name : 

Bougival.     1875. 

Paris,  Place  de  la  Concorde.     1875. 
„         „       des  Pyramides.     1876. 

Naples,  on  the  Koad  to  Castellamare.     1876. 

Paris,  from  the  Pont  Royal.     1877. 

Paris,  Arc  de  Triomphe.     1878. 

London,  The  Victoria  Embankment. 

NIVOLSTELLA,  (?  Johann  Georq,)  was  a  wood- 

engraver  of  Mayence,  who  was  at  work  towards 
the  end  of  the  16th  century.  He  is  known  by  a 
set  of  borders  after  the  designs  of  B.  Castelli  for 
the  first  Genoa  edition  of  Tasso's  '  Gerusalemme 
liberata.'  His  son,  Johann  Georg,  was  born  in 
Genoa  in  1594,  and  was  also  a  wood-engraver,  but 
his  works  are  inferior  to  those  by  his  father.  He 
produced  a  set  of  wood-cuts  for  an  edition  of  the 
'.lEneid,'  and  another  after  Anton  Tempesta's 
'  Patriarchs.'     He  died  at  Rome  in  1624. 

NIXON,  James,  an  English  miniature  painter. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Incorporated  Society, 
studied  in  the  Royal  Academy,  where  he  first  ex- 
hibited in  1772,  and  was  elected  an  Associate  in 
1778.  Nixon  received  court  patronage,  and  held 
appointments  to  the  Prince  of  Wales  and  the 
Duchess  of  York.  He  was  born  in  1741,  and  died 
at  Tiverton  in  1812. 

NIXON,  John,  an  English  engraver,  who  was 
born  in  1706,  and  was  still  at  work  about  1760. 
His  best  prints  are  small  portraits,  in  which  the 
faces  are  entirely  finished  in  stipple.  Among 
others  we  have  the  following  portraits  by  him  : 

Frederick,  Prince  of  Wales. 

Wilham  Augustus,  Duke  of  Cumberland  ;  two  plates. 

Archbishop  Tillotson. 

John,  Earl  of  Granville. 

NIXON,  John.  The  only  important  work  which 
was  done  by  this  clever  amateur  artist  was  in 
connection  with  a  series  of  views  of  county  seats 
in  England  and  Ireland  issued  by  Watts  the  en- 
graver in  1779-86.  Most  of  the  original  drawings 
for  the  series  were  the  work  of  Nixon.  He  was  a 
merchant  in  the  city  of  London,  who  was  born 
about  1760  and  died  in  1818.  He  amused  himself 
with  etching,  and  some  clever  caricatures  were 
etched  by  him  from  the  drawings  of  his  friends. 
He  often  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy. 

NIXON,  Robert.  This  artist  is  said  to  have  been 
the  brother  of  John  Nixon,  but  by  other  authorities 
it  is  stated  that  he  was  his  cousin.  He  was  a 
clergyman  and  the  father  of  a  Bishop  of  Tasmania, 
but  he  is  best  known  for  the  fact  that  it  was  at  his 
house  that  Turner  as  a  lad  completed  in  1793  his 
first  painting  in  oil-colours.  He  exhihited  frequently 
at  the  Royal  Academy,  and  his  name  appears  at 
the  foot  of  certain  drawings  in  Watts'  book  of 
county  seats  alluded  to  in  the  biography  of  John 
Nixon,  but  it  is  not  even  certain  whether  these 
drawings  were  executed  by  this  man  or  by  another 
Robert  Nixon,  an  Irishman,  who  lived  at  about  the 
same  time,  and  who  died  in  1837.  About  this 
latter  man  nothing  very  definite  is  known,  but 
some  writers  have  stated  that  there  was  but  one 
artist  of  the  name  of  Robert  Nixon,  and  that  the 
father  of  the  Bishop  of  Tasmania  was  the  Irishman 
who  died  in  1837.  The  exhibitor  at  the  Academy 
was  bom  in  1759,  but  he  is  called  a  Scotchman  in 
contemporary  documents,  whereas  the  man  alluded 
to  above  claimed  to  have  been  born  in  Cork.  The 
confusion  is  now  almost  inextricable. 

NOBLE,  George,  a  brother  of  Samuel  Noble, 
and  an  engraver  of  some  considerable  merit.  His 
chief  works  are  some  illustrations  in  Boydell's 
'  Shakespeare '  and  in  Hume's  'History  of  England.' 
He  also  engraved  many  portraits.  He  lived  at  the 
latter  end  of  the  eighteenth  century,  but  the  dates 
of  his  birth  and  death  are  not  known. 

NOBLE,  John,  an  English  painter,  bom  in  1797. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Society  of  British  Artists, 
and  occasionally  painted  Italian  landscapes.  He 
died  in  1879. 



NOBLE,  Samuel.  Better  known  aa  an  eminent 
Swedenborgian  minister,  Noble  demands  attention 
in  these  pages  for  his  work  as  an  engraver.  He 
was  born  in  1779,  tlie  son  of  Edward  Noble,  a 
bookseller,  who  was  the  author  of  a  small  volume 
on  perspective.  He  was  apprenticed  to  a  silver- 
plate  engraver,  but  soon  left  him  and  went  to 
another  man  in  the  same  profession  who  did  book 
work,  and  for  him  he  executed  several  important 
arcliitectural  plates.  In  1798  he  set  up  in  the 
profession  for  himself,  and  from  that  time  down  to 
1819  he  worked  steadil}'  at  it  and  was  a  popular 
engraver,  commanding  good  prices  for  his  archi- 
tectural and  landscape  plates.  In  1820  he  became 
a  Swedenborgian  minister  and  attained  great 
eminence  in  his  new  profession.  In  1848  he 
became  quite  blind,  and  he  died  in  1853. 

NOBLE,  William  Bonneau,  an  English  land- 
scape painter,  was  born  in  1780.  He  taught  draw- 
ing, and  exhibited  a  few  works  at  the  Royal  Academy 
in  1809-11.  Having  lapsed  into  irregular  habits, 
through  disappointment  in  love  and  art,  he  at- 
tempted suicide  in  1825,  and  died  in  Somers  Town 
in  1831.  He  left  a  MS.  poem  called,  '  The  Artist.' 
NOBLESSE,  (or  Nublet,)  Franqois,  according 
to  Nagler  was  born  at  Cahors  in  1652,  and  resided 
in  Paris,  where  he  died  in  1730.  He  excelled  in 
drawing  with  a  pen,  and  appears  to  have  formed 
his  taste  by  studying  the  works  of  Callot.  He 
etched  a  few  small  landscapes. 

NOBILI,  Antonio,  named  Straforo,  was  an 
excellent  landscape  painter  of  Verona.  He  died 
young  in  1G96. 

NOBILI,  Durante  de',  an  Italian  painter,  who 
flourished  at  Caidarola  about  1571,  and  formed 
himself  on  the  style  of  Michelangelo.  At  S.  Pier 
di  Castello,  Ascoli,  there  is  a  '  Madonna'  inscnbed 
with  his  name,  birthplace,  and  the  above  date. 

NOBLIN,  H.  and  L.  Two  indifferent  engravers 
of  portraits,  who  lived  in  Paris  about  the  year  1680. 
NOCHER,  J.  E.,  a  French  engraver,  born  in 
Paris  about  the  year  1736.  He  was  a  pupil  of 
Etienne  Fessard,  and  has  engraved  several  book- 
ornaments,  and  a  few  portraits  ;  among  the  latter 
a  '  J.  J.  Rousseau,'  after  Ramsay,  dated  1766. 

NOCRET,  Jean,  (or  Nocroit,)  a  French  painter 
and  engraver  was  born  at  Nancy  in  1618,  and  be- 
came a  scholar  of  Jean  Leclerc,  but  tinished  his 
studies  in  Italy  under  the  direction  of  Poussin. 
On  his  return  to  Fiance  he  was  much  employed  at 
St.  Cloud  and  the  Tuileries.  He  painted  the  por- 
traits of  several  of  the  royal  family  of  France, 
among  them  the  Queen  of  Louis  XIV.  as  '  Mhierva.' 
He  engraved  several  plates  after  his  own  designs  ; 
the  is  '  L'hommage  du  petit  St.  Jean.'  He 
was  principal  painter  to  the  Duke  of  Orleans,  and 
Rector  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Painting  and 
Sculpture  in  Paris,  where  he  died  in  1671.  P.  Syl- 
vestre  engraved  his  portrait  of  himself,  and  Nan- 
teuil  that  of  the  Duke  of  Beaufort.  His  son  Charles 
(born  1647,  died  1719)  painted  portraits  with  some 
success,  and  was  known  as  Nocret  Jeune. 

NODDER,  Frederick,  a  botanical  painter  and 
engraver  who  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy, 
and  who  in  1788  was  created  "  Botanical  Painter 
to  the  King."  It  is  not  known  where  or  when  he 
was  born,  but  his  name  appears  first  in  the 
catalogues  in  1786,  and  he  is  said  to  have  died  in 
1800.  He  illustrated  many  important  botanical 
books,  and  started  a  long  series  of  volumes  on 
natural  history  which  were  completed  by  other 
relations  of  his  after  his  death. 

NODDER,  R.  P.,  an   English  painter  of  horses 
and  other  animals,  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy 
from  1786  to    1820.     He  was   appointed   botanic 
painter  to  George  III.,  and  after  that  exhibited  a 
few  flower  pictures.     Nothing  is  known  of  his  life. 
NOE,    Am£d6e    Charles    Henri,   Vicomte    de. 
Tliis  brilliant  draughtsman  and  caricaturist  was  the 
second  son  of  Jude-Am6d6e,  Comte  de  Noe,  a  peer 
of  France.   The  name  of  the  family,  whose  nobility 
dates  from  the  time  of  the  Carlovingian  kings,  is 
that  of  a  small  island  near  Mirande.     There  Am6- 
d&e  Charles  was  born  the  20th  of  January,  1819. 
The  date  and  place  of   his   birth  are   thus  given 
by  G^rome,  who  no  doubt  knew  the  facts.     His 
mother  was  an  Englishwoman,  and    as   he   grew 
up  he  combined  in  his  manners  the  most  striking 
characteristics  of  the  two  nations  from  which  he 
derived  his  origin  ;  the  calmness  of  the  English- 
man with  the  vivacity  of  the  Frenchman.     It  was 
to  this  singular  union  of  very  different  qualities, 
and  to  his  ever  ready  wit  that  he  owed  his  great 
popularity.      Although  his  talent  for  design  had, 
from  his  childhood,  been  known  to  his  friends,  and 
had  led  to  his  abandoning  the  military  career  for 
which  he  had  been  educated,  to  study  under  Paul 
Delaroohe,  Charlet,  and  Lanny,  it  was  only  in  1842 
that  his  first  "album"  appeared.      It    is  entitled 
'  Calembours,  betises,  jeux  de  mots  tirfe  par  les 
cheveux.     Paris,   1842.     Par  Cham  de   N**,'  and 
affords,  it  is  said,  the  only  instance  in  which  the 
name  of  '  Cham,' that  he  rendered  so  famous,   is 
combined  with  any  hint  at  the  de  No6.     Between 
that  year  and  1879,  when  he  died,  de  No6  produced 
at  least  forty  thousand  designs,  illustrating  every 
phase  of  life  in  France  and  Algeria.     They  are  to  be 
found  in  so  many  different  publications,  that  want 
of  space  will  not  permit  us  to  name  them  separately. 
Although  '  Cham '  dealt  so  many  hard  blows,  they 
were  always  so  fair  and  honest  that  de  No6  was 
a  man  esteemed  alike  by  friends  and  foe8._    One  of 
the  former  proposed  to  inscribe  upon  his    tomb, 
"Quarante  ans  d' esprit,  et  pas  un  de  mechancete." 
His  wife,  the  Comtesse  de  No^,  died  in   1880,  six 
months  after  her  gifted  husband. 

NOEL,  AcHiLLE  Jules,  a  French  landscape  and 
marine  painter,  born  at  Quimper  in  1815.  His 
works  first  appeared  at  the  Salon  in  1840,  and  he 
was  awarded  a  medal  in  1853.  He  died  in  Paris 
in  1881.  As  one  of  his  best  works  we  may  name 
'  The  Arrival  of  the  Diligence  at  Quimper  in  the 
time  of  the  Directory.'  The  following  pictures  are 
in  the  French  public  collections : 

Besan(;on.       Museum.     View  of  Brest  Harbour.     1840. 
Bordeaux.       Museum.    Two  landscapes. 
Nantes.  Museum.     Sea-piece.     1840. 

NOEL,  Alexis  Nicolas,  designer,  lithographer, 
and  painter,  was  born  at  Clycby-la-Garenne  in 
1792.  He  studiL'd  in  Paris  under  David,  and  his 
sketches  in  oil  and  water-colours  represent  land- 
scapes, military  scenes,  hunts,  and  architectural 
views.  He  published  a  '  Voyage  Pittoresque  et 
Militaire  en  France  et  en  Allemagne,  dessini  d'apres 
nature,  par  A.  Noel :  '  most  of  the  plates  in  this  work 
were  lithographed  by  himself.     He  died  in  1848.  _ 

NOEL,  Alphonse  L£on,  a  lithographer,  born  in 
Paris  in  1807,  who  studied  under  Gros,  Hersent,  and 
Girodet.  He  began  his  career  as  a  painter,  but 
acquiring  great  skill  in  lithography,  he  devoted 
his  time  almost  exclusively  to  that  branch  of  art. 
Among  a  great  number  of  works  by  him  we  may 
name  a  set  of  lithographs  from  the  more  remarkable 


pictures  in  the  Gallery  at  Dresden.  He  reproduced 
a  number  of  Winterhalter's  portraits  of  royalty. 
He  died  in  1879. 

NOEL,  Jean  Alexandre,  a  French  marine 
painter,  was  born  in  1750,  and  became  a  scholar 
of  Joseph  Vernet.  He  visited  California  in  1768-70, 
and  afterwards  Spain  and  Portugal,  and  painted 
storms,  fogs,  conflagrations,  moonlights,  and  falls 
of  snow,  principally  in  water-colours.  He  also  made 
sketches  of  the  combat  of  the  French  corvette.  La 
Bayonnaise,  with  the  English  frigate,  L'Embuscade, 
and  of  a  French  frigate  passing  Alexandria  by  night. 
He  painted  views  of  Gibraltar  and  Lisbon  ;  and  was 
an  industrious  exhibitor  till  the  year  1822.  His 
views  of  Gibraltar  and  Cadiz  have  been  engraved 
by  F.  Hegi.     He  was  still  living  in  1831. 

NOEL,  Peteb  Paul  Joseph,  was  bom  at  Waul- 
sort  sur  Meuse,  near  Dinant,  in  1789,  and  was  there 
instructed  in  the  rudiments  of  art.  At  Antwerp 
he  studied  under  Herreyns  and  Regemorter,  and 
obtained  several  prizes  there  and  at  Brussels.  In 
Paris  he  became  a  disciple  of  Schwebach  ;  and  after 
visiting  Rome,  went  to  Brussels,  where  he  for  a 
time  painted  landscapes  with  animals  and  figures, 
and  then  devoted  himself  entirely  to  genre  subjects. 
He  died  at  Sosoye  in  18'22.     There  are  by  him  : 

A  Peasant  falling  from  a  Tree,  and  upsetting  a  Basket 
of  Fruit. 

Halt  of  Bavarian  Cavalry. 

Postilion  before  an  Ion. 

The  Market-place  of  Amsterdam.  (Amsterdam  Museum.) 

Girl  with  grapes.     (The  same.) 

A  Cavalry  Outpost.     (Brussels  Museum.) 

Repose  of  the  Shepherds.     (The  same.) 

NOFERI,  MiCHELE,  a  Florentine  painter,  of  whom 
little  is  known.  He  worked  in  the  17th  century, 
and  was  a  pupil  of  Vincenzo  Dandini. 

NOGARI,  Giuseppe,  a  Venetian  painter,  was 
bom  in  1699,  and  became  a  scholar  of  J.  B.  Pittoni 
and  Antonio  Balestra.  He  especially  devoted  him- 
self to  the  painting  of  half-length  figures,  and  from 
the  numerous  heads  by  him  which  have  been 
brought  to  England,  it  may  be  concluded  that  he 
was  an  excellent  portrait  pamter.  He  was  Director 
of  the  Academy  at  Venice,  where  he  died  in  1763. 
We  are  indebted  to  him  for  the  excellent  copies  of 
the  'Madonna  de  San  Sisto,'  after  Raphael,  at  Pia- 
cenza,  and  the  '  Notte,'  after  Correggio,  at  Modena. 
T.  Cattini  and  T.  E.  Hayd  have  engraved  after  him. 
Among  his  better  works  we  may  name : 

Dresden.     Eot/al  Gall.     An  old  Man. 

„  „  The  Bust  of  an  old  Woman. 

St.  Peter. 
Stockholm.       Gallery.     An  old  Man. 

„  „  An  old  Woman  with  a  Spindle. 

NOGARI,  Paris,  (called  Romano,)  a  painter 
and  engraver  of  Rome,  who  flourished  during  the 
pontificates  of  Gregory  XIII.,  Sixtus  V.,  and  Clement 
VIII.  He  imitated  the  manner  of  Raffaello  Motta, 
and  was  employed  in  the  Loggie  of  the  Vatican, 
and  in  the  library  and  church  of  the  Lateran.  He 
also  painted  several  pictures  for  other  churches, 
both  in  oil  and  fresco.  In  the  church  of  the 
Madonna  de  Monti  is  a  picture  by  this  master 
representing  our  '  Saviour  bearing  his  Cross  ; '  in 
San  Spirito  in  Sassia,  the  '  Circumcision  ; '  and  in 
the  Trinit4  de'  Monti,  the  '  Taking  down  from  the 
Cross.'  In  later  years  he  painted  in  miniature  and 
practised  engraving ;  his  best  plate  is  considered  to 
be  '  The  Battle  of  King  Ramirez  with  the  Moors ' 
(1588).     He  died  at  Rome  in  1596. 

NOLIN.     See  Nollin. 

NOLLEKENS,  Joseph  Francis,  (called  Old 
Nollekens,)  was  born  at  Antwerp  in  1702.  He 
came  to  England  in  1733,  and  was  for  solto  time 
a  scholar  of  Pieter  Tillemans.  He  painted  land- 
scapes and  domestic  subjects,  and  was  much  em- 
ployed in  copying  the  works  of  Watteau,  and  the 
architectural  views  of  Giovanni  Paolo  Pannini. 
Lord  Cobhara  employed  him  in  several  ornamental 
works  at  Stowe  ;  and  he  was  also  patronized  by 
the  Earl  of  Tilney.  Nollekens  died  in  London  in 
1748.  He  was  the  father  of  the  sculptor,  Joseph 
Nollekens.  His  subjects,  like  Watteau's,  were 
often  musical  and  fashionable  conversations  al 
fresco,  but  they  are  not  imitations  of  that  master: 
the  scene  is  generally  the  gardens  at  Wanstead, 
the  seat  of  Lord  Tilney.  There  is  a  painting  at 
Windsor  by  him  containing  portraits  of  Frederick 
Prince  of  Wales  and  his  sisters. 

NOLLET,  Dominique,  was  born  at  Bruges  in 
1640,  and  was  a  scholar  of  Frans  van  der  Meulen 
in  Paris.  He  painted  history,  but  was  more  dis- 
tinguished for  his  landscapes,  battles,  and  sieges. 
His  talents  recommended  him  to  the  patronage  of 
.Maximilian,  Duke  of  Bavaria,  who  sent  him  to  ac- 
company the  Duchess  to  Venice ;  the  governor  of 
the  Low  Countries  also  appointed  him  his  principal 
painter.  He  was  made  a  member  of  the  Society  of 
Painters  at  Bruges  in  1687.  In  the  church  of  the 
Carmelites  at  Bruges  is  an  altar-piece  representing 
'  St,  Louis  embarking  for  the  Holy  Land.'  There 
are  several  of  his  battle-pieces  and  landscapes  in 
private  collections  in  Belgium.  He  died  in  Paris  in 
1736.  His  pictures  on  close  inspection  have  more 
the  appearance  of  crude  sketches  than  finished 
works,  but  viewed  at  a  proper  distance,  the  colours 
become  warm,  and  the  arrangement  harmonious. 

NOLLI,  Carlo,  painter  and  engraver,  was  a 
native  of  Como,  a  son  of  Giovanni  Battista  Nolli 
the  architect,  and  a  scholar  of  Agostino  Masucci 
and  Corradi.  He  engraved  after  Guercino,  Prima- 
ticcio,  Parmigianino,  and  others.  He  was  em- 
ployed by  command  of  the  King  of  Naples,  on  the 
'  .\ntichiti  d'Ercolano  '  (Napoli,  1757-62),  and  en- 
L^raved  also  for  Hamilton's  works  on  Greek,  Etrus- 
I  an,  and  Roman  Antiquities.  He  died  at  Naples 
in  1770. 

NOLLI,  Giovanni  Battista,  the  father  of 
I'arlo  Nolli,  was  a  native  of  Italy,  and  flourished 
about  the  year  1755.  He  was  an  architect  by  pro- 
fession, but  he  engraved  nineteen  sheets  of  plans 
and  views  of  buildings  in  Rome  in  1748. 

NOLLIN,  (or  Nolin,)  J.  B.,  a  French  engraver, 
was  born  in  Paris  in  1657.  He  studied  in  Paris 
under  N.  de  Poilly,  and  in  Italy,  where  he  executed 
some  plates  after  Annibale  Carracci,  Nicholas 
Poussin,  and  other  masters.  He  engraved  several 
of  the  prints  in  a  work  entitled,  '  Vues,  plans, 
coupes  et  ^l^vations  de  Versailles.'    He  died  in  1725. 

NOLPE,  PlETER,  a  Dutch  painter  and  engraver, 
was  born  at  the  Hague  about  1601.  Of  his  works 
as  a  painter  little  is  known  apparently  beyond 
a  'Dutch  Landscape'  in  the  Copenhagen  Gal- 
lery ;  but  we  have  several  prints  by  him.  They 
are  usually  begun  with  the  point,  and  finished 
with  the  burin.  His  best  productions  are  his 
landscapes.  He  usually  signed  his  prints  with 
his  name  at  length,  joining  the  initials  P.  and 
iV.  together,   and    in    a   few  instances  with    this 

monogram  ^J.    or    J^''.,  only.     He  is  said  to 

have  engraved    as  early   as    1616,  and  as  late  as 
1670.     The  following  are  esteemed  his  best  works  : 



The  Portrait  of  Johann  Adler  Salvius,  Swedish  Minister 

A  set  of  eight  Cavaliers  ;  etched. 
A  set  of  eighteen   etchings  of  Beggurs ;  in  the  style  of 

P.  Quast. 
St.  Peter  delivered  from  prison  ;  after  J,  V.  I'ucht. 
Judah   and   Tamar,   in    a   large   landscape  ;  from  his 

own    design.      The    same   figures   were    afterwards 

introduced   into   another    landscape,   of    a   smaller 

The  Broken  Dyke  ;  from  his  own  design  (a  masterpiece). 
Daniel  in  the  Den  of  Lions  ;  after  Blancert. 
An  Allegorical  Print  on  the  Marriage  of  the  Prince  of 

Orange  with  the  Princess  Mary  of  England. 
A  set  of  six  Landscapes  ;  after  Adriaan  van  Nieidant. 
A  set  of  six  Landscapes ;  after  R.  Rogman. 
Eight  Months  of  the  Year  ;  Pieur  ^'olp''  fee.  et  exc. 
The  Prophet  Elijah  and  the  T^idow  of  Sarepta. 
St.  Paul,  the  Hermit,  fed  by  an  Eagle  in  the  Desert ; 

after  Pieter  Potter. 
The  Cavalcade  of  1838  at  Amsterdam,  on  the  entry  of 

Mary  de'  Medici  into  that  city ;  after  C.  ilolyn ;  a 

large  print  in  six  sheets. 
A  Landscape  in  the  style  of  Van  Goyen.     1616. 
Six  plates  of  Costumes  ;  a;fter  P.  Quast. 
Six  plates  on  the  Entry  of  the  Prince  of  Orange  ;  after 

J.  Wildens. 
Ten  plates  on  the  Entry  of   Maria  de'  Medici;  after 

Moijart  de  Jonghe.    1639. 
Thirty  plates  on  the  funeral  of  Prince  Frederic  Henry  ; 

after  P.  Post.    1651. 

NON,  DoM.  Viv.  de.     See  Denon. 

NON,  J.  C.  R.  DE  Saint.     See  Saint  Non. 

NONOTTE,  (or  Nodnotte,)  Donat.  This  painter 
was  born  at  Besan^on  in  1707,  and  became  a 
favourite  pupil  of  Lemoine,  who  employed  him  on 
many  of  his  works,  and  whose  biography  he 
eventually  wrote.  The  death  of  his  protector,  the 
Duke  d'Antin,  prevented  his  accomplishing  a 
long-desired  journey  to  Rome.  He  was  made 
painter  to  the  King,  and  a  member  of  the  Academy 
of  Paris  in  1741.  In  1754  he  was  appointed  painter 
to  the  city  of  Lyons,  where  he  established  a  free 
school  of  design,  tlie  model  of  all  subsequent 
institutions  of  the  kind  in  France.  He  published  a 
'  Complete  Treatise  on  Painting,'  in  four  parts,  and 
was  in  a  literary  capacity  Associate  of  the  Academies 
of  Rouen  and  Lyons.  He  died  at  the  latter  city 
in  1785.  His  historical  pictures  are  of  the  style 
of  his  age,  displaying  an  abuse  of  allegory.  One 
of  them  is  the  'Taking  of  Besan^on  by  the 
Protestants.'  But  after  the  earlier  portion  of  his 
career,  he  abandoned  this  branch  of  art  for  por- 
traiture.    Among  his  portraits  we  may  name: 

Eobert  le  Lorrain,  sculptor  {engraved  ly  J.  A". 

Gentil  Bernard,  {engraved  by  DauUe). 

NONZIO,  (or  Annunzio,)  an  Italian  miniaturist, 
was  born  at  Trent,  but  lived  and  worked  at  Milan 
in  the  last  half  of  the  16th  century.  His  daughter, 
Fede  Galizia  {q.v.),  was  born  at  Trent  in  1575. 

NOOMS,  Renieb,  (or  Remigius,)  conimonly 
called  Zeeman,  was  born  at  Amsterdam  about  161'2 
Very  little  is  known  of  his  life.  It  is  supposed 
that  at  one  time  he  worked  with  the  elder  Willein 
van  de  Velde.  He  resided  for  a  long  time  in 
Berlin,  where  he  was  painter  to  the  Elector 
Frederick  William  ;  he  also  visited  England  and 
France.  On  etchings  published  by  him  in  Amster- 
dam, we  find  the  dates  1652,  1654,  and  1656  ;  on 
others  published  in  Paris,  1650  and  1652.  He 
also  etched  three  plates  of  the  naval  fights 
between  the  English,  French,  and  Dutch,  which 
took  place  in  1673.  The  paintings  of  Nooms 
betray  the  influence  chiefly  of  Backliuysen  and 

Claude.  The  date  of  his  death  is  not  known,  but 
it  must  have  been  later  than  1673.  Isaak  and 
Enoch  Zeeman,  who  were  working  in  London  about 
the  middle  of  the  18th  century,  were  most  likely 
related  to  Nooms.  Paul  Zeeman  was  the  son  of 
Enoch.  (See  Zeeman.)  Among  the  better  works  of 
Nooms  we  may  nanje  : 

Amsterdam.      JJuseuin.     Sea-fight   near  Leghorn,    14th 
March,  1653. 
„  „  "View  of  Amsterdam. 

Berlin.  Museum.     A  Quiet  Sea. 

„  „  Seashore  with  Boats. 

Paris.  Loitvre,     View  of  the  old  Louvre,  from 

the  South  bank  of  the  Seine 
(rt     masterpiece ;     etched    by 
Vienna.  Belvedere.    A  Sea-piece. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  his  plates: 

Two  plates  of  Block-houses. 

Landscape  with  Canal  and  Boats. 

The  Dutch  Herring  Fleet. 

A  set  of  eight  plates  of  Shipping ;  designed  and  en- 
graved by  Remy  Zeeman.     1632. 

A  set  of  four  Views  in  Amsterdam.     1636. 

A   set   of  four  Sea-ports   in   Holland ;    published    at 
Amsterdam  in  1656. 

The  Four  Elements  ;  in  four  plates  ;  Reinier  Seem(in,fec. 

Two  Views  in  Puri.s,  one  of  the  Faubourg  St.  Marceau, 
the  other  of  the  Gate  of  St.  Bernard. 

A   set   of  twelve   Views   of   Shipping ;   published   in 
London  by  Ar  Tooker. 

NOORDE,  CoENELis  VAN,  painter  and  engraver, 
was  bom  at  Haarlem  in  1731.  He  was  the  scholar 
successively  of  F.  Decker  and  F.  H.  Jalgersma, 
and  afterwards  became  master  of  the  Haarlem 
school  of  design.  He  died  in  1795.  Among  his 
works  may  be  named  : 

His  own  portrait,  in  chalk  and  Indian  ink. 
,,  „        a  woodcut. 

Portrait  of  Frans  Hals,  a  mezzotint. 

A  View  of  Haarlem,  engraving  after  J.  Van  Eych. 

A  Landscape  with  Cow  (etching). 
Van  Noorde  signed  himself  C.  V.  N. 

NOORDERWIEL,  Hendrik,  a  painter  on  glass, 
who  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  '  Pictura'  fra- 
ternity at  the  Hague  in  1656. 

NOORDT,  Jan  van,  was  a  painter  of  the  17th 
century,  who  produced  emblematical  subjects, 
bathing  nymphs,  and  also  portraits,  some  of 
which  have  been  engraved.  Strutt  cites  him 
as  an  engraver,  on  account  of  an  etching  dated 
1645,  of  a  '  Landscape  with  Ruins,'  probably  after 
P.  Lastmann.  Bartsch  mentions  another  after  P. 
van  Laer ;  and  the  portrait  of  Prince  Baltazar 
Carlos  of  Spain,  inscribed,  '  Jitan  de  Noort  fecit,' 
is  probably  by  him. 

NOORT,  Adam  van,  painter,  was  born  at 
Antwerp  in  1557.  He  was  the  son  of  Lambert 
van  Noort,  and  shares  with  Otho  Van  Veen  and 
others  the  Iionour  of  guiding  the  youthful  steps  of 
Rubens.  The  facts  of  his  life  are  obscure.  He  has 
sometimes  been  represented  as  a  brutalized  victim 
of  dissipation,  but  considerable  doubt  hangs  about 
many  of  the  traditions  to  that  effect.  He  is  said 
to  be  the  author  of  the  'Tribute  of  St.  Peter,' 
in  the  church  of  St.  James  at  Antwerp,  in  which 
case  he  must  have  had  a  genius  for  colour  only 
inferior  to  that  of  Rubens.  Van  Noort's  daughter 
became  the  wife  of  Jordaens,  who  was  his  pupil. 
Pictures  under  the  name  of  Van  Noort  are  very 
rare,  although  in  his  long  life  he  must  have 
produced  a  great  number.  They  pass,  no  doubt, 
as  a  rule,  under  the  names  of  his  various  pupils. 
Van  Noort  died  at  Antwerp  in  1641.  Among  his 
works  we  may  name  : 


Brussels.  Gallery.     Christ  blessing  the  Children. 

Ghent.  S.  Michael's  \  ^^^  ^^^^^  ^j  ^^^  Lame  Man. 

LhuTcn. ) 

A  '  Standard-bearer '  at  Munich,  ascribed  to 
Hendrik  Goltzius,  is  perhaps  by  Adam  van  Noort. 

NOORT,  Arthus  van,  a  painttr  on  glass,  who 
flourished  at  Nymegiien  in  the  16th  century. 

NOORT,  lAMBEET  VAN,  historical  painter,  was 
born  at  Aniersfort  about  1620,  and  became  a 
master  of  the  guild  at  Antwerp  in  1547.  He  was 
the  father  of  Adam  van  Noort.  He  died  iu  1571. 
In  the  Antwerp  Museum  there  is  a  'Nativity'  by 
him,  signed  Lambertus  a  Noort,  Inveii :  pingehat 
Ao.  1555,  as  well  as  fifteen  other  pictures.  At 
Brussels  the  Museum  possesses  an  '  Adoration 
of  the  Shepherds,'  and  a  '  Descent  from  the  Cross.' 
Lambert  designed  the  windows  in  St.  John's 
Church  at  Gouda,  and  himself  painted  two  of 
them,  which  were  dated  1551  and  1559.  He  also 
practised  with  success  as  an  architect. 

NOORT,  PiETER  VAN,  a  little  known  Dutch 
painter  of  the  17th  century,  who  painted  fish  and 

NOORTIG,  Jan,  (or  NooRTBTS,)  a  native  of  Fries- 
land,  and  painter  of  genre  subjects  in  the  manner 
of  Bega.  According  to  Kramm  he  was  an  amateur. 
He  flourished  about  1660. 

NOOTT,  Wemmer,  a  native  of  Arnhem,  who 
flourished  between  1670  and  1750.  He  lived  chiefly 
at  Emmerik,  where  he  painted  perspectives,  and 
excelled  in  the  imitation  of  sculptured  surfaces. 

NOP,  Gerrit,  an  obscure  painter,  who  was 
born  at  Haarlem  late  in  the  16th  century.  He 
lived  for  a  time  in  Germany  and  Italy,  where  he 
painted  history  and  portraits.     He  died  in  1622. 

NORBERT,  Pater.     See  Baumgaetner,  Joh. 

a  painter  and  etcher,  was  born  at  Misy,  near  Sens, 
in  Burgundy,  in  1745.  He  was  a  pupil  of 
Casanova.  In  1774  lie  visited  Poland,  and  founded 
a  school  for  painters  at  Warsaw  ;  he  also  became 
court-painter  to  King  Stanislaus,  by  whom  he  was 
subsequently  knighted.  He  returned  to  France 
in  1804,  and  died  in  1830.  His  most  important 
works,  seventy-seven  etchings  of  scenes  from  the 
Bible,  heads,  and  landscapes,  are  in  the  style  of 
Rembrandt.  He  signed  his  plates  with  the  initials 
N ;  N.  /.;  N.  1776.  W.  (that  is  Warsowiae),  or 
a  monogram. 

Louis  Guilladme,  the  son  of  Jean-Pierre  and  an 
historical  painter,  was  born  at  Warsaw  in  1796. 
Taken  to  Paris  when  young,  he,  studied  under 
Regnault  and  Blondel,  and  iu  the  Ecole  des  Beaux 
Arts.  In  1823  he  obtained  the  second,  and  in 
1825  the  first,  grand  jirix  ;  which  enabled  him  to 
pursue  his  studies  in  Rome.  He  returned  to  France 
in  1882.  There  are  several  of  his  works  in  the 
church  of  St.  Louis  en  I'IsIe,  in  Paris,  and  the 
Orleans  Museum  possesses  his  'Death  of  Ugolino.' 

NORBURY,  R.,  painter  and  sculptor,  was  born 
at  Macclesfield  in  1815.  He  held  successively  the 
posts  of  assistant  master  to  tlie  Schools  of  Design 
at  Somerset  House  and  at  Liverpool.  After  his 
resignation  of  the  latter  appointment  he  was 
elected  President  of  the  Liverpool  Water-Colour 
Society.  He  was  also  a  member  of  the  Liverpool 
and  Cambrian  Academies.  He  painted  a  large 
number  of  portraits,  and  was  also  much  employed 
in  decorative  design  and  in  book  illustration,  prac- 
tising at  Liverpool,  but  frequently  exhibiting  in 
London.     He  died  April  25,  1886. 

NORCINO  (or  Norcini).     See  Parasole. 

NORDEN,  Frederick  Ludwig,  a  Danish  naval 
captain  and  draughtsman,  was  born  at  Gliickstadt 
in  1708.  He  travelled  for  Christian  VI.  in  Egypt 
and  Nubia,  and  coming  to  England,  he  published 
with  his  illustrations,  'Travels  in  Egypt  and 
Nubia,'  and  'Ruins  at  Thebes'  (1741).  He  died 
in  1742.  There  is  another  edition  in  French 
(Copenhagen,  1755),  in  which  the  plates  are  en- 
graved by  M.  Tycher. 

NORDEN,  John,  an  English  artist,  was  an 
eminent  engraver  of  topographical  subjects.  An- 
thony Wood  conjectures,  with  great  probability, 
that  he  was  the  author  of  several  tracts  which  he 
enumerates,  and  thinks  he  was  born  in  Wiltshire, 
about  the  year  1546.  He  was  a  commoner  of 
Hart  Hall,  Oxford,  in  1564,  and  took  the  degree  of 
Master  of  Arts  in  1573.  He  resided  at  Hendon,  in 
Middlesex,  was  patronized  bj-  Lord  Burleigh,  and 
his  son,  Robert,  Earl  of  Salisbury,  and  was  sur- 
veyor of  the  King's  lands  in  1614.  He  died  about 
1626.  His  principal  work,  as  an  engraver,  was  his 
'  Speculum  Britanniae,'  or  an  Historical  and  Topo- 
graphical Description  of  Middlesex  and  Hertford- 
shire, with  a  frontispiece  and  maps.  He  also 
engraved  a  'View  of  London'  in  1609,  with  a 
representation  of  the  Lord  Mayor's  Show ;  and  a 
series  of  costumes. 

NORDENBERG,  Bengt,  Swedish  painter;  born 
April  22,  1822,  at  Kompikalla  (Sweden)  ;  for  seven 
years  he  followed  the  trade  of  carpenter,  and  then 
began  to  study  art  at  the  Stockholm  Academy, 
subsequently  going  to  Diisseldorf,  where  he  was  a 
pupil  of  Th.  Hilclebrandt ;  painted  genre  episodes 
of  Swedish  peasant  life  ;  in  1853  went  to  Dale- 
carlia;  in  1857  was  in  Paris,  visiting  Italy  in 
1859.  His  works  include:  'Holy  Coniiiiunion  in 
the  Village  Church,'  '  A  Golden  Wedding,'  and 
'  A  Forest  Fire.'  He  obtained  a  medal  at  Lyons 
in  1866  ;  medals  at  Stockholm  in  1845,  1847,  and 
1848  :  an  honourable  mention  at  the  Paris  Salon 
in  1864  ;  also  at  the  Vienna  Exhibition  of  1873  ; 
and  a  gold  medal  in  London  1879.  He  died  in 
June  1903. 

NORGATE,  Edward,  "limner,"  was  the  son 
of  Dr.  Robert  Norgate,  master  of  Bennet  College, 
Cambridge,  where  he  was  born.  He  was  brought 
up  by  Nicholas  Felton,  Bishop  of  Ely,  who  married 
his  mother.  He  showed  early  a  strong  inclination 
for  Heraldry  and  Illumination.  As  he  became  cot 
only  one  of  the  best  artists  in  the  latter  branch  of 
art,  but  also  an  excellent  judge  of  pictures  by  the 
old  masters,  he  was  sent  to  Italy  by  the  Earl  of 
Arundel  to  make  purchases  for  him  in  that  country. 
Fuller  speaks  of  hiin  as  the  best  illuminator  of  his 
time,  and  he  became  Windsor  Herald  and  Clerk 
of  the  Signet.  Fuller  says  that  he  died  at  the 
Herald's  OflBce  the  23rd  December,  1650,  but  Dal- 
laway  says  that  his  'Miniature,  or  the  Art  of  Lim- 
ning,' in  his  own  hand,  is  dated  1654.  Among  his 
best  works  were  a  letter  from  James  I.  to  the 
'Sophy 'of  Persia,  and  the  letters-patent  appointing 
the  Earl  of  Stirling  Governor  of  Nova  Scotia.  The 
latter  was  found  in  the  last  century,  and  was  at 
first  attriliited  to  Van  Dyck. 

NORIEGA,  Pedro,  a  Spanish  historical  painter 
of  little  note,  who  was  living  at  Madrid  in  1668. 

NORMAND,  Charles  Pierre  Joseph,  designer, 
engraver,  and  architect,  was  born  at  Goyencourt 
(Lourme)  in  1765.  He  was  instructed  by  M. 
Thierry  and  Gizors,  and  in  1792  obtained  a  prize 
and  went  to  Rome,  where  he  pursued  his  studies. 



He  exhibited  in  the  Louvre  in  1800  and  1802, 
published  a  number  of  works  with  plates,  and  pre- 
pared others  for  the  'Annales  du  Mus^e,'  '  Les 
vies  des  peintres,  par  Landon,'  and  '  Nouveau 
parallfele  des  ordres  d'architecture  des  Grecs,  des 
Komaine,  et  des  auteurs  modernes  '  (1819).  Among 
his  other  plates  may  be  mentioned  : 

The  Miracle  of  the  Loaves  ;  after  Eaphatl. 

The  CeUiiig  of  the  Sistine  Chapel ;  after  Michelanyelo. 

He  died  in  Paris  in  1840. 

NORMA ND,  Loujs  Maiue,  son  of  the  above,  was 
taught  design  by  Lafitte,  and  engrnving  by  his 
father.  He  was  born  in  Paris  in  1789.  Besides 
the  plates  for  a  large  number  of  books,  he  engraved 
the  '  Marriage  at  Caua,'  after  Paul  Veronese,  and 
other  important  works. 

NORKIS,  Charles,  an  eccentric  well-to-do 
amateur  artist  who  resided  in  Pembrokeshire  and 
whose  claim  to  fame  rests  upon  his  drawings  of 
the  architectural  antiquities  of  Wales,  and  especi- 
ally upon  those  of  the  Cathedra!  of  St.  David's, 
which  he  published  in  1811.  He  was  also  a 
talented  etcher,  and  did  many  delightful  plates 
illustrating  Tenby  and  the  castles,  such  as  Manor- 
bere  and  Llamphey,  in  its  neighbourhood.  He 
was  born  in  London  in  1779,  early  left  an  orphan 
with  a  considerable  estate,  was  an  officer  in  the 
army  for  a  few  years,  but  on  his  marriage  resigned 
his  position  and  gave  up  his  time  to  art  and  to 
the  study  of  architecture.  He  died  at  Tenby  in 

NORSINI  (or  Norsino).     See  Parasole. 

NORTH,  Marianne,  the  sister  of  Mrs.  John 
Addington  Symonds,  and  perhaps  one  of  the  best 
and  most  accurate  flower  painters  who  ever  lived, 
was  born  at  Hastings  in  1830,  and  died  in 
Gloucestershire  in  1890.  She  was  the  daughter 
of  Frederick  North,  member  for  Hastings,  who  in 
1865  retired  from  Parliament,  and  she  travelled 
with  him  through  many  lands,  and  from  him 
acquired  her  passionate  love  of  flowers.  She 
painted  them  in  every  quarter  of  the  globe, 
exploring  the  forests  of  Java  and  Borneo,  Australia 
and  Chili,  in  search  of  new  blossoms  which  she 
could  depict  with  loving  skill.  Her  whole  collec- 
tion she  presented  to  Kew,  adding  to  her  generosity 
the  gift  of  a  gallery  in  which  they  might  be 
exhibited,  and  arranaing  them  herself  with  the 
utmost  patience  and  diligence.  She  is  believed  to 
have  been  offered  a  peerage  by  Queen  Victoria, 
who  very  highly  esteemed  her,  and  who  was  most 
grateful  for  her  generosity  to  the  nation  and  her 
services  to  botanical  science.  She  was  a  woman 
of  marvellous  charm,  great  refinement,  and  con- 
siderable learning,  but  united  with  the  pleasant 
and  even  affectionate  manner  in  which  she  treated 
her  friends  a  very  stiff  and  formal  if  not  stilted 
demeanour  to  others.  Her  work  cannot  be  too 
highly  praised  for  its  perfect  accuracy,  and  students 
of  botanical  science  owe  very  much  to  her  profound 
knowledge  and  her  assiduous  industry  and  patience. 
She  ruined  her  own  health  by  her  travels  in 
tropical  regions  in  search  of  flowers,  and  a  tropical 
fever  which  siie  first  of  all  obtained  in  Borneo 
was  the  eventual  cause  of  her  decease.  Her  auto- 
biography, edited  by  her  sister,  Mrs.  J.  A.  Symonds, 
appeared  in  1893  in  two  vols.,  called  '  Recollections 
of  a  Happy  Life,'  and  in  the  same  year  was  issued 
'Further  Recollections  of  a  Happy  Life,'  being 
selections  from  her  journal,  edited  by  the  same 
sister.  G.  C.  \V, 

NORTHCOTE,  James,  an  English  historical  and 


portrait  painter,  was  born  at  Plymouth  in  1746. 
His  father  was  a  watchmaker,  and  he  for  some 
time  assisted  in  the  same  business,  but  with  his 
whole  mind  bent  upon  being  a  painter.  The  fame 
of  his  countryman,  Joshua  Reynolds,  inflamed  his 
desire  ;  and  the  kind  view  that  some  of  his  towns- 
men took  of  his  attempts  in  art,  and  their  friend- 
ship or  acquaintance  with  the  President,  introduced 
Northcote  to  his  notice.  In  liis  25tli  year  he  was 
permitted  to  enter  the  studio  of  Sir  Joshua,  and  he 
remained  in  the  employment  of  that  master  for 
about  five  years.  In  1777  he  went  to  Rome,  to 
see,  as  his  biographer  says,  "  if  fame  reported  truly 
of  the  prime  works  of  the  chiefs  of  the  calling."  The 
journey  at  least  enabled  him  to  talk  of  Michelangelo, 
Raphael,  and  Titian.  This  he  never  ceased  doing, 
and  his  productions  served  as  commentaries.  North- 
cote returned  to  England  in  1780,  and  applied  him- 
self to  the  long  life's  work  which  did  not  come 
to  an  end  till  more  than  fifty  years  had  passed. 
Among  his  best  pictures  may  be  named,  'The 
Death  of  Wat  Tyler'  (City  of  London  Gallery)  ; 
'  The  Murder  of  the  Children  in  the  Tower  ; '  '  The 
Entry  of  Bolingbroko  and  Richard  11.  ;'  '  Hubert 
and  Arthur  ;'  '  The  Earl  of  Argyll  asleep  ; '  '  Lady 
Jane  Grey  ;'  'Prospero  and  Miranda  ;'  '  A  Vulture 
and  Snake  ; '  'A  Lion  Hunt,'  and  some  others  of 
the  like  kind,  in  which  he  showed  a  considerable  gift 
for  animal  painting.  His  portraits  are  numerous  ; 
but  whatever  veneration  he  felt  for  Titian,  or  for 
his  master  Sir  Joshua,  he  failed  to  emulate  their 
works.  In  1796  he  published  a  series  of  ten  en- 
gravings from  his  own  pictures,  the  subject  being 
the  contrasted  careers  of  'A  Diligent'  and  'A 
Dissipated  Maidservant,'  a  sort  of  female  version 
of  Hogarth's  '  Idle  and  Industrious  Apprentice.' 
It  is  a  very  feeble  performance.  There  is  a  por- 
trait of  Northcote,  by  himself,  in  the  National 
Portrait  Gallery,  and  another  in  the  gallery  of 
Haarlem.  In  the  former  collection  there  are  also 
portraits  by  him  of  Jenner  and  Lord  Exmouth. 
Northcote  was  elected  A.R.A.  in  1786 ;  R.A.  in 
1787  ;  and  died  in  1831. 

Northcote  exercised  the  pen  as  well  as  the  pencil. 
His  earliest  known  literary  productions  are  some 
papers  published  in  '  The  Artist,'  entitled  '  Origin- 
ality of  Painting;'  'Imitators  and  Collectors;' 
'  A  Letter  from  a  discontented  Genius  ; '  'Character 
of  John  Opie;'  'Second  Letttr  of  a  discontented 
Genius  ; '  'On  the  Imitation  of  the  Stage  in  Paint- 
ing ; '  'The  History  of  the  Slighted  Beauty;'  'The 
Dream  of  a  Painter,  an  allegory.'  His  most  im- 
portant performances  as  a  writer,  are  his  '  Life  of 
Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,'  containing  anecdotes  of  many 
distinguished  personages,  and  a  brief  analysis  ;  to 
which  are  added,  '  Varieties  on  Art,'  published  in 
1813,  in  quarto.  A  supplement  appeared  in  1815; 
and  an  octavo  edition  in  1819,  with  considerable 
additions.  In  1828  he  published  an  octavo  volume 
of  '  One  hundred  Fables,'  original  and  selected, 
with  engravings  on  wood  from  his  own  designs.  In 
1830  appeared  the  '  Life  of  Titian  ; '  and,  after  his 
decease,  a  second  volume  of  Fables,  published  under 
the  title  of  'The  Artists'  Book  of  Fables,'  and 
illustrated  with  numerous  woodcuts,  executed 
under  the  direction  of  Har\'ey.  The  curious 
process  Northcote  made  use  of  in  designing  these 
cuts  has  been  often  described.  He  clipped  figures 
of  animals  out  of  all  kinds  of  ixjoks,  papers,  &c., 
and  selecting  such  as  fitted  the  fable  to  be  embel- 
lished, pasted  them  down  to  paper  in  the  required 
places,  filling  in  backgrounds  with  his  pencil.  The 


designs  thus  made  were  freely  interpreted  by  the 

NORTHEN,  Adolf,  battle  painter,  was  born  at 
Miinden  in  Hanover,  in  1828,  studied  from  1847 
to  1851  at  the  Academy  of  Diisseldorf.  In  liis 
first  productions  he  painted  scenes  from  the  wars 
of  Napoleon  I.,  and  brought  himself  especially  into 
notice  by  his  '  Battle  of  Waterloo'  (1855),  which 
is  in  possession  of  the  King  of  Hanover,  and  at  a 
later  date  he  executed  several  lively  and  charac- 
teristic sketches  from  the  Franco-German  war. 
He  died  at  Dusseldorf  in  1876.  The  following  are 
some  of  his  best  pictures  : 

Guerillas  with  captured  French  Soldiers.     1852. 

The  Skirmish  on  the  Gohrde.     Hildesheim  3Ius.     1852. 

Napoleon's  Ketreat  from  Russia. 

Episode  at  Gravelotte. 

The  Prussian  Guards  at  Konigratz. 

Attack  of  the  16th  UhUm  Regiment,  near  Vionville, 

NORTON,  Christqpher,  an  English  engraver  in 
the  latter  half  of  the  18th  century.  He  studied  in 
the  St.  Martin's  Lane  Academy,  and  at  Rome  in 
1769,  gaining  a  Society  of  Arts'  premium  the  same 
year.  There  are  plates  by  him  after  Pillement, 
Vaudevelde,  Canot,  &c. 

NOSADELLA.    See  Brizzi,  Franc. 

NOTER.     See  De  Noter. 

NOTER,  AoGUSTE  Herman  de,  the  son  of  P.  F. 
Noter,  was  born  at  Ghent  in  1806.  He  painted 
landscapes  and  scenery  in  winter  in  the  style  of 
the  Wouvermans.     He  died  in  1839. 

NOTER,  Pierre  FRANgois  de,  was  born  at  Wal- 
hem,  near  Malines.  He  was  the  son  of  an  architect 
and  a  pupil  of  Van  Gheel  the  sculptor,  but  in  1811 
devoted  himself  entirely  to  painting,  in  which  he 
rose  to  some  eminence.  His  pictures  represent 
landscapes,  shipping,  and  above  all  streets  and 
the  interiors  of  churches.  In  1824  he  was  a 
member  of  the  Academy  of  Amsterdam,  and  Pro- 
fessor in  that  of  Ghent.  In  most  of  the  Museums 
of  Belgium,  Holland,  and  the  north  of  France  his 
pictures  are  to  be  found.     He  died  in  1842. 

NOTERMANN,  Emanuel,  animal  and  genre 
painter,  was  born  at  Oudenarde  in  1808,  and 
studied  in  the  Academy  at  Ghent,  but  in  1830  he 
became  a  scholar  of  Maes-Canini,  and  finished  his 
art  education  under  Peter  Kremer.  Ilis  paintings 
represent  domestic  scenes  by  day-  and  candle-light, 
consecrations  of  churches,  carnivals,  &c.  He  died  in 
1863.  His  best  known  works  are  :  '  A  Spaniel,'  and 
'  A  Poacher  bewailing  the  Loss  of  his  Dog.'  Among 
his  etchings,  which  are  rare,  '  The  Death  of  Anton 
Van  Dyck,'  after  P.  Kremer,  is  the  best. 

NOTHNAGEL,  Johann  Andreas  Benjamin,  a 
German  painter  and  engraver,  was  born  at  Buch, 
in  the  principality  of  Saxe-Coburg,  in  1729.  He 
resided  at  Franl;fort,  and  worked  at  the  manufacture 
of  wall-papers  under  Lentzner,  after  whose  death 
he  married  his  widow  and  continued  the  business 
himself.  He  acquired  considerable  reputation  as  a 
painter  of  landscapes  with  merry-makings,  in  the 
style  of  Teniers  ;  but  he  is  now  more  known  as  an 
engraver.  His  best  productions  are  a  immber  of 
heads  and  busts,  in  which  he  has  imitated  the  style 
of  Rembrandt  with  great  success.  His  plates 
amount  to  sixty-five,  marked  with  N.  and  a  nail, 
or  B.N.F.     He  died  at  Frankfort  in  1804. 

NOTTI,  Ghesardo  dalle.     See  Honthorst. 

NOUAILHIER,  (or  Notlier,)  was  the  name  of 
a  family  of  enamel  painters  of  Limoges  from  the 
16th  to  the  19th  century: — Godly,  or  Colin,  was 
burgomaster  from  ^513-31.     Jacques  was  born  in 

1605,  and  flourished  under  Louis  XIV.  ;  he  painted 
the  'Adoration  of  the  Magi,'  after  Van  Aken,  in 
the  Louvre  at  Paris.  Pierre,  was  born  in  1657, 
and  flourished  1686—1717.  jEAN-BArriSTE  was 
born  in  1752,  and  died  in  1804.  A  collection  of 
the  works  of  these  artists  is  in  possession  of  M.  de 
Lille-Loture  at  Orleans. 

NOVA,  Pecino  db.  There  were  several  artists 
at  Bergamo  of  this  name.  Tassi  quotes  documents 
which  prove  that  Pecino  and  Piero  de  Nova  were 
two  diiierent  men.  The  former  was  the  son  of 
Alber-io  de  Nova,  a  painter.  Pecino  worked  at 
intervals  at  Santa  Maria  Maggiore,  Bergamo,  from 
1363  to  1381.  In  1375  Piero,  who  was  probably  the 
brother  of  Pecino,  Pecino,  and  Michele  de  Roncho, 
a  Milanese,  were  all  working  in  conjunction  at  the 
above  church.  Fragments  of  frescoes  by  one  of 
the  Novas  can  still  be  seen  in  the  belfry,  together 
with  a  'Virgin  and  Saints,'  'Tlie  Epiphany,'  and 
other  Scripture  subjects.  On  the  front  of  a  house 
in  the  Contrada  Sant'  Andrea,  Bergamo,  some  re- 
mains of  frescoes  by  one  of  the  Novas  can  also  be 
seen.  We  may  also  name  two  altar-pieces  at 
Bergamo : 

Virgin  and   Child,  with   SS.  Catharine,  Francis,  and 

Virgin  and  Child,  with  SS.  Bartholomew  and  Agatha. 

Tliere  are   other  works  of  theirs  in  the  Locchis 
Carrara  Gallery. 

Pecino  de  Nova  was  still  working  at  Bergamo 
in  1399,  and  was  buried  there  6th  June,  1403 

NOVARRA.     See  Ricci. 

NOVELIERS,  Pierre.  In  1605,  a  painter  of  this 
name  was  appointed  conservator  of  the  pictures  in 
the  p  daces  of  Brussels  and  Tervueren. 

NOVELIERS,  Salomon,  son  of  the  last-named. 
In  1618  he  succeeded  to  the  office  of  his  father,  and 
was  also  named  painter  to  the  court.  In  1613  he 
was  commissioned  to  catalogue  the  pictures  left  by 
Charles  de  Croy,  Due  dArschot.  A  certain  David 
Noveliers  is  supposed  to  have  been  a  second  son 
of  Pierre. 

NOVELLANUS.     See  Neuvel. 

NOVELLARA.     See  Orsi. 

NOVELLI,  Francesco,  the  elder,  an  engraver, 
was  born  at  Venice  in  1764.  After  learning  the 
principles  of  his  art  under  his  father,  he  attended 
the  Academy  of  his  native  place  for  some  time, 
and  then  went  to  Rome.  In  conjunction  with 
Cumauo  he  etched  the  works  of  Rembrandt  with 
such  skill  that  his  copies  have  been  often  mistaken 
for  the  originals ;  he  also  imitated  the  designs 
of  Mantegna  with  success,  and  engraved  that 
artist's  'Madonna  della  Vittoria'  (about  1800), 
The  date  of  his  death  is  not  recorded.  He  was  a 
member  of  several  academies.  He  signed  his  prints 
with  a  monogram  in  a  circle.  His  son  of  the  same 
name  was  also  an  engraver. 

NOVELLI,  PiETRO,  painter  and  engraver,  called, 
from  his  birthplace,  Monrealese,  or  Morrealese, 
was  born  in  1603.  He  resided  for  a  long  time  in 
Palermo,  but  in  later  life,  it  is  said,  he  visited 
Rome,  which  city,  as  well  as  the  former,  jiossesses 
several  pictures  from  his  hand.  He  was  living  up 
to  1660.  His  masterpiece  is  the  '  Marriage  at 
Cana,'  in  the  refectory  of  the  Benedictines  at  Mon- 
reale.  Novelli's  style  is  a  little  like  tliat  of  Uara- 
vaggio.  His  life  was  published  by  Agostino  Gallo 
(Palermo:   1829). 

NOVELLO,  Giovanni  Battista,  a  painter  of 
Castelfranco,  and  pupil  of  the  younger  Palma.    In 



the  neighbourhood  of  Castelfranco  are  some  good 
altar-pieces  by  him.  He  was  the  master  of  Pietro 
Domini.     He  was  born  in  1578,  and  died  in  1652. 

NOWER,  Fean'cis,  a  lierald  painter  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  who  died  with  his  children 
and  servants  in  1670  in  a  fire  in  Bartholomew 
Lane,  London.  He  was  the  editor  of  the  fourth 
edition  of  Guillim's  '  Display  of  Heraldry,'  and  he 
supplied  all  the  new  illustrations  for  the  work. 
He  did  many  coats-of-arms  for  the  City  Companies, 
and  his  name  constantly  appears  in  their  books  of 
accounts.  He  also  painted  banners  for  the  City 
regiments,  and  for  two  at  least  of  the  City  Guilds. 

NOYLIEK.     See  Nouailher. 

NUERI,  AvANzio,  painter,  was  born  at  Castello, 
near  Rome,  studied  under  Pomerancio,  and  was 
employed  by  Sixtus  V.  His  works  are  to  be  found 
in  the  churches  of  Rome.  He  was  born  in  1562, 
and  died  in  1629. 

NUIJEN,  WiJNAND  Jan  Joseph,  (Nuyen,)  painter 
and  designer,  a  scholar  of  A.  Schelfhont,  was  born 
iu  1813,  and  died  at  the  Hague  in  1839.  In  his 
sixteenth  year  he  exhibited  a  landscape  at  Ghent, 
for  which  he  received  a  prize  ;  some  time  after  he 
obtained  a  first  prize  from  the  Felix  Meritis  society 
at  Amsterdam.  In  1838  a  winter  scene,  which  he 
exhibited  at  Ghent,  attracted  attention,  and  led  to 
his  nomination  as  a  member  of  the  Academy  of  the 
Fine  Arts  at  the  Hague.  He  was  also  a  member 
of  that  of  Antwerp  and  of  the  Netherlands  Insti- 
tute. His  premature  death  prevented  the  fall 
development  of  his  talents.  There  is  a  landscape 
with  ruins  by  him  in  the  Amsterdam  Museum, 
which  is  considered  one  of  his  finest  works. 

NULCK,  L.,  a  painter  apparently  of  the  Dutch 
schonl,  of  whose  life  nothing  is  known.  In  the 
Collection  of  M.  Ch.  Careus,  Brussels,  there  is  an 
interior  with  figures  by  him,  signed  L.Nulck,  1680. 

NUMAN,  Hermanus,  painter  and  etcher,  was 
born  at  Ezinge,  near  Groeningen,  in  1744.  He  first 
designed  and  painted  birds  and  landscapes,  but 
devoted  himself  later  on  to  portraiture  in  oil  and 
pastel,  and  studied  engraving  under  Le  Bas  at 
Paris.  He  produced  many  portraits  at  Amsterdam, 
and  pubUshed  in  1797  a  series  of  etchings  repre- 
sentins  Dutch  country  houses.     He  died  in  1820. 

NUNEHAM,  Simon  Haecourt,  Viscount,  was  an 
amateur  etcher.  There  are  various  landscape  plates 
by  him,  some  after  Paul  Sandby,  and  some  '  Views 
of  the  Kuins  at  Stanton  Harcourt.'  He  became  the 
second  Earl  Harcourt,  and  died  in  1809. 

NDNES,  Philip,  (or  Fra  Philipe  das  chazas,) 
a  Portuguese  artist,  born  at  Villa  Real  de  Tras-os- 
montes.  He  entered  holy  orders  in  1591,  and  took 
the  name  of  Fra  Philipe  das  Chazas  (of  the  wounds). 
He  was  one  of  the  most  celebrated  artists  m 
Portugal  in  his  time,  and  author  of  'Arte  de 
pintura,  symetria  e  perspectiva,'  1615. 

NUNEZ,  Juan,  one  of  the  earliest  of  the  nainters 
of  Seville,  lived  at  the  commencement  of  the  16th 
century,  and  was  a  scholar  of  Sanchez  de  Castro, 
and  married  Ana  de  Castro,  a  relation  of  that  master. 
The  greater  number  of  his  works  have  been  de- 
stroyed. In  the  catliedral  of  Seville  there  is  still 
a  picture  by  hira  representing  the  '  Virgin  with 
the  dead  Christ  in  her  arms,  accompanied  by  St. 
Michael  and  St.  Vincent  Martyr;'  in  the  fore- 
ground are  several  figures  on  their  knees  adoring 
the  Virgin.  This  picture  Cean  Bermudez  compares 
to  the  work  of  Albert  Diirer. 

NU5fEZ,  Pedro,  was  born  at  Madrid  early  in  the 

ITth  century.  He  studied  under  Juan  de  Soto, 
and  afterwards  at  Rome,  it  is  said  under  Guercino. 
On  his  return  he  painted  a  series  of  the  Spanish 
sovereigns  for  the  theatre  of  the  Alcazar  at  Madrid. 
In  1625,  by  command  of  Prieto,  General  of  the 
Order  of  Mercy,  he  executed  some  works  for  the 
cloister  of  the  convent  of  the  order.  He  died  at 
Madrid  in  1654,  having  unsuccessfully  competed 
with  Angelo  Nardi  for  the  post  of  King's  painter. 

NUNEZ  DE  VILLA  VICBNCIO,  Pedro,  a  chevalier 
of  the  order  of  St.  John,  was  born  at  Seville  in 
1635,  of  an  illustrious  family.  He  studied  painting 
for  amusement,  and  placed  himself  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Murillo,  to  whom  he  became  the  most 
attached  friend.  Such  was  his  progress  in  the  art, 
that  from  an  amusement  it  became  his  constant 
occupation.  Asa  knight  of  the  order  of  St.  John, 
he  was  obliged  to  perform  the  usual  expedition 
{las  carabanas)  ;  and  on  his  arrival  at  Malta  he 
placed  himself  under  Matteo  Preti,  called  II  Cala- 
brese,  who  was  also  a  knight  of  the  same  order ; 
and  with  him  he  increased  his  knowledge,  particu- 
larly in  chiaroscuro.  On  his  return  to  Spain  he 
rejoined  Murillo,  who  loved  him  tenderly,  and  for 
whom  he  felt  such  attachment  and  veneration  that 
he  always  resided  with  him.  The  two  conjointly 
founded  the  Academy  of  Seville.  The  master  died 
in  the  arms  of  his  scholar.  Villavicencio,  like 
Antolinez,  Tobar,  and  Meneses  Osorio,  approached 
so  near  to  the  manner  of  Murillo  in  painting  chil- 
dren, that  it  is  sometimes  difficult  to  decide  be- 
tween the  two  ;  he  was  also  an  excellent  portrait 
painter.  He  died  at  Seville  in  1700.  There  is  a 
picture  by  him  at  Alton  Towers,  the  seat  of  Lord 
Shrewsbury,  partaking  of  the  dark  manner  of  Cala- 
brese.  It  represents  the  Virgin  sewing,  and  Joseph 
embracing  the  child  Jesus.  The  Madrid  Museum 
contains  a  picture  by  him  of  '  Boys  playing  with 
Dice; '  and  the  Suermondt  Gallery  at  Cologne  had  a 
'  Child  Jesus,  in  a  Landscape.'  The  Carmen  Calzado, 
at  Seville,  has  also  some  genre  pictures  and  por- 
traits by  him,  including  his  own  portrait. 

NUNZIATA,  ToTO  (or  Antonio  del),  painter, 
was  a  pupil  of  Ridolfo  Ghirlandaio.  He  is  said  to 
have  visited  England  in  1531. 

NUSBIEGEL,  Johann,  (or  Ndssbiegel,)  an  en- 
graver, born  at  Nuremberg  in  1740,  was  a  son 
and  scholar  of  Georo  Paul  Ndsbieqel  (who  died 
1776).  He  studied  perspective  under  Stettner, 
and  attended  the  Academy  at  Nuremberg  under 
Preissler.  He  engraved  several  plates  and  por- 
traits for  Lavater's  works,  and  executed  some 
ofcfiers  after  the  designs  of  Chodowiecki.  One  of 
his  best  plates  is  the  '  Death  of  Schwerin,'  after 
Berger.     He  died  in  1818. 

NUTI,  GiDLiA,  the  wife  of  Antonio  Marini  (q-v.), 
frequently  painted  flowers  in  her  husband's  pictures. 

NUTSCHIDEL.     See  Ne'dchatel. 

NUTTER,  William,  an  English  engraver,  who 
studied  under  J.  Smith  and  Bartolozzi,  and  practised 
in  the  stippled  manner.  He  was  born  in  1754. 
There  are  plates  by  him  after  Reynolds,  Morland, 
Westall,  Hoppner,  Wheatley,  and  Russell.  He 
died  in  Somers  Town  in  1802. 

NUTTING,  Joseph,  was  an  English  engraver, 
who  resided  in  London  at  the  begirming  of  the 
17th  century.  He  was  principally  employed  by 
the  booksellers,  and  executed  among  others  the 
following  portraits: 

Charles  I.,  with  the  persons  who  suffered  in  his  cause. 

Mary  Capel,  Duchess  of  Beaufort ;  after  Walker. 

Matthew  Mead,  father  of  Dr.  Mead. 


Sir  John  Cheke. 

Lucius  Gary,  Viscount  Falkland. 

Kobert  Pierpoint,  Earl  of  Kingston. 

George  St.  Loo,  Commissioner  for  the  Navy. 

Henry  Sacheverel,  D.D. 

John  Locke. 

Aaron  Hill. 

G.  Parker,  the  Almanack-maker. 

Johannes  Jacobus  Scheuchzerus ;  after  Melchior  Fuss- 

William  Elder,  Engraver  ;  after  Faitliorne. 
Dr.  Monk,  Bishop  of  Hereford,  who  died  in  1661. 

NUVOLONE,  Carlo  Francesco,  (called  Pan- 
FILO,)  was  the  eldest  son  of  P^mfilo  Niivolone,  and 
was  born  at  Milan  in  1008.  He  received  liis  first 
instruction  from  his  father,  but  was  afterwards  a 
scholar  of  Giulio  Cesare  Procaccini.  He  abandoned 
the  principles  of  that  master  to  imitate  the  works 
of  Guido  Keni,  and  some  of  his  pictures,  particularly 
those  of  the  Virgin,  approach  so  near  to  the  style 
of  the  latter,  that  he  acquired  the  soubriquet  of 
'  the  Guido  of  Lombardy.'  In  the  oratory  adjoin- 
ing the  church  of  San  Vincenzio  at  Piacenza  is  his 
'  Purification  of  the  Virgin,'  considered  his  best 
work.  In  the  church  of  San  Vittore,  at  Milan, 
is  a  fine  picture  by  him  of  '  St.  Peter's  Miracle  at 
the  Gate  of  the  Temple.'  Other  works  of  his  are  in 
public  buildings  at  Parma  and  Cremona.  He 
also  painted  portraits  with  great  success.  In  the 
year  1649,  when  the  Queen  of  Spain  visited  Milan, 
he  was  selected  to  paint  her  portrait.  He  died  in 

NUVOLONE,  Giuseppe,  also  called  Panfilo,  was 
the  younger  brother  of  Carlo  Francesco  Nuvolone, 
and  was  born  at  Milan  in  1619.  Possessed  of  a 
fervid  imagination,  and  great  facility  of  hand,  his 
works  form  a  striking  contrast  to  those  of  his 
brother.  During  a  long  life,  he  painted  many 
altar-pieces  for  the  churches  at  Brescia,  and  other 
cities  in  the  states  of  Venice.  A  '  St.  Jerome  '  in 
the  church  of  San  Tommaso  at  Piacenza  is  regarded 
as  one  of  his  best  productions.  Towards  the  latter 
part  of  his  life  his  powers  became  languid  and 
feeble,  which  is  not  extraordinary,  as  he  continued 
to  paint  till  his  eighty-fourth  year.  He  died  in 

NUVOLONE,  Panfilo,  was  a  native  of  Cremona, 
and  flourished  about  the  year  1608.  He  was  one 
of  the  ablest  disciples  of  Giovanni  Battista  Trotti, 
and  painted  history  in  the  style  of  that  master.  In 
the  church  of  the  monastery  of  SS.  Domenico  and 
Lazzaro  at  Milan,  is  one  of  his  principal  works, 
representing  the  '  Rich  Man  and  Lazarus  ;  '  and  in 
the  cupola  of  the  church  of  La  Passione,  the  '  As- 
sumption of  the  Virgin.'  Zani  places  his  death  in 

NUVOLSTELLA.    See  Nivolstella. 

NUYEN.     SeeNniJEN. 

NUZI,  Allegretto,  (or  Ndcci  di  Ndzio,)  called 
Allegretto,  or  Gritto,  da  Fabriano,  was  born  at 
Fabriano  in  the  14th  century,  and  first  appears  on 
the  Register  of  Florence  in  1346,  at  which  date  he 
may  be  said  to  have  brought  to  that  city  the  man- 
ner of  the  Umbrian  school.  Nothing  is  known  of 
the  details  of  his  life,  and  the  earliest  picture  signed 
and  dated  by  him  is  a  '  Madonna  and  Child,  between 
the  Archangel  Michael  and  St.  Ursula,'  with  the 
six  donors  kneeling  on  each  side  of  the  throne, 
which  bears  the  date  of  1365.  In  1369  he  executed 
the  altar-piece  now  in  the  sacristy  of  the  catliedral 
of  Macerata  ;  and  in  1372  he  completed  the  '  Virgin 
and  Child,'  now  in  the  possession  of  Signer  Romo- 
aldo  Fornari,  of  Fabriano;    the  same  gentleman 

also  possesses  an  '  Ecce  Homo  '  that  can  be  assigned 
to  Allegretto.  In  the  Gallery  at  Berlin  are  two 
panels  by  this  artist,  viz.,  a  'Virgin  and  Child, 
between  SS.  Catherine  and  Bartholomew,'  and  a 
'  Crucifixion.'  Crowe  and  C'avalcaselle  have  attri- 
buted to  tills  artist  an  altar-piece  now  in  the 
sacristy  of  the  Fabriano  cathedral,  containing  the 
'  Virgin  and  Child,  with  SS.  Bartholomew,  John 
the  Evangelist,  and  Mary  Magdalene  ; '  as  also  the 
'  St.  Augustine  between  SS.  Nicholas  of  Tolentino 
and  Stephen,'  in  the  sacristy  of  Sant'  Agostino, 
in  the  same  city.  According  to  Ricci,  Allegretto 
is  the  author  of  the  frescoes  in  Santa  Lucia  of 
Fabriano,  which  represent  the  '  Death  and  Coron- 
ation of  the  Virgin,'  the  '  Crucifixion,'  and  other 
sacred  subjects,  executed  between  1345  and  1349. 
Other  paintings  by  him  are  to  be  found  at  Cancello, 
near  Fabriano.  in  which  church  he  was  buried  in 
1385.  He  signed  his  pictures,  Aller/rettus  N^ttii 
de  Fabriano. 

NUZZI,  Mario,  called  Mario  da'  Fiori,  or  Mario 
DELLA  Penna,  was  bom  at  Penna,  in  the  diocese 
of  Fermo,  in  1603,  and  was  a  scholar  of  his  uncle 
Tommaso  Salini,  a  flower  painter.  He  chiefly 
resided  at  Rome,  where  his  pictures  of  fruit  and 
flowers  were  held  in  the  highest  estimation.  But 
from  using  something  of  a  noxious  quality  in  the 
preparation  of  his  colours,  his  works  soon  lost  their 
original  freshness,  and  many  of  them  have  almost 
entirely  perished.  He  was  in  1657  made  a  member 
of  the  Academy  of  St.  Luke,  and  died  at  Rome  in 
1673.  He  was  much  employed  in  painting  garlands 
to  decorate  figures  of  the  Virgin,  Saints,  and  other 
religious  subjects.  The  church  of  Sant'  Andrea 
della  Valle  at  Rome  contains  a  wreath  of  flowers 
painted  by  him  round  Andrea  Camassei's  portrait 
of  St.  Cajetanus.  A  '  Bird  Concert '  was  engraved 
after  him  in  mezzotint  by  Earlom. 

DiONlJS  VAN,  son  and  scholar  of  Elias,  was  born  at 
Rotterdam  in  1705.  He  painted  similar  subjects 
to  those  by  his  father,  and  also  excelled  in  por- 
traiture, it  is  related  that  at  the  age  of  eighty- 
one  he  painted,  without  the  aid  of  spectacles,  a 
perfect  likeness  of  a  young  lady.  His  cniyon 
drawings  are  also  much  esteemed.  He  died  in 
1798  or  1799. 

NYMEGEN,  Elias  van,  was  born  at  Nymeguen 
in  1667,  and  was  taught  the  first  elements  of  the 
art  by  his  elder  brother,  who  was  an  indifferent 
painter  of  flowers  and  portraits  ;  but  on  the  death  of 
his  instructor,  when  he  was  little  more  than  fourteen 
years  of  age,  he  resolved  to  dispense  with  further 
assistance,  and  applied  himself  to  the  study  of 
nature  till  he  became  a  tolerably  correct  desigiier 
of  the  figure,  and  acquired  a  competent  acquaint- 
ance with  perspective  and  architecture.  He  also 
excelled  in  painting  landscapes  and  flowers.  His 
principal  occupation  was  ornamenting  the  ceilings 
and  saloons  of  mansions  in  Holland,  with  emblem- 
atical and  historical  subjects,  embellished  with 
bas-reliefs  and  other  accessories.  His  talents  re- 
commended him  to  the  patronage  of  the  Princess 
of  Orange,  who  employed  him  in  adorning  the 
apartments  of  her  difterent  palaces,  in  which  he 
was  occupied  several  years.     He  died  at  Rotterdam 

in  1755.  ,  ,^.     .. 

NYMEGEN,  Gerard  van,  was  the  son  of  Dionijs, 
and  was  born  at  Rotterdam  in  1735.  He  was  in- 
structed by  his  father,  and  at  a  very  early  age  painted 
the  portrait  of  Prince  William  V.,  which  was  en- 
graved by  Beauvarlet ;  but  he  applied  himself  mora 



particularly  to  landscape,  in  which  he  made  the  works 
of  Ruysdael,  Everdingen,  and  Pynacker  his  models. 
His  best  pieces  are  mountainous  landscapes,  and 
forest  scenery  with  rivulets,  ornamented  witli 
animals  an<i  figures.  He  painted  many  portraits, 
and  made  drawings  and  copies  after  Jacob  Kuys- 
dael,  Wynants,  Hackaert,  and  Hobbema.  There 
exist  twenty-one  etchings  of  landscapes  by  liim. 
He  died  at  Rotterdam  in  1808. 

NYMEGEN,  Sdsanna  Catharina  van,  born 
VlJGH,  the  wife  of  Gerard  van  Nymegen,  has  left 
several  drawings  of  landscape  of  some  merit.  She 
died  in  1805. 

NYMEGEN,  Tobias  van,  the  younger  brother  of 
Elias  van  Nymegen,  was  born  at  Nymeguen  about 
the  year  1670.  His  technical  education  was  similar 
to  that  of  Elias  ;  and  he  pursued  the  same  branch 
of  the  art.  He  was  invited  to  the  court  of  the 
Elector  Palatine,  in  whose  service  he  remained  till 
his  death,  the  date  of  which  is  not  ascertained. 

NYMEGEN,  (or  NIMWEGEN,)  Willem  van, 
of  Haarlem,  was  admitted  as  master  into  the 
Guild  of  St.  Luke,  at  Delft,  in  1684.  He  was  cele- 
brated for  imitating  engravings  with  the  pen.  He 
died  in  1698. 

NYPOORT,  Jdstus  van  (or  van  der),  painter  and 
etcher,  a  little-known  artist,  who  is,  nevertheless, 
of  some  importance.  He  painted  scenes  of  peasant 
life,  often  humorous,  several  of  which  he  etched 
in  the  style  of  Ostade.  He  flourished  about  1680. 
Plates  : 

Pat.  Joan.  Maldonatus ;  an  Angel  beside  him  and  Death 
in  the  distance. 

Zoylns ;  "  De  giistibus  non  est  disputandum." 

Peasants  in  a  Room. 

Interior  of  Farm-house,  with  the  Farmer  and  his  Family. 

A  Knife-grinder  before  a  Farm-house. 

A  Peasant  with  his  Wife  and  Child. 

Peasants  drinking  and  playing  Cards. 

Peasants  and  Children  in  an  interior. 

Three  Peasants  smoking  and  drinking. 

Group  of  three  Boors  in  a  Cottage. 

The  Fruit-dealer. 

A  company  of  Peasants 

Three  Card-players. 

A  Boor  looking  into  an  empty  Jug. 

A  village  Surgeon  aud  a  Boor  with  toothache. 

Landscape,  with  a  Sacrifice. 

A  Genius  laying  a  Halberd  on  the  breast  of  a  wmgoU 
old  man  asleep  under  a  tree.  . 

A  book-plate  for  the  Prince-Bishop,  Carl  von  Olmutz. 

NYS,  Jacqdes  de.     See  Denys. 
NYTS.     See  Neyts. 


0.     See  Van  der  0. 

OAKES,  John  Wright,  a  landscape  painter  of 
eminence,  was  born  at  Sproston  House,  Middlewich, 
Cheshire,  the  home  of  his  family  for  several  genera- 
tions, on  July  9, 1820.  Early  in  life  he  was  brought 
to  Liverpool,  where  he  was  educated,  and  appren- 
ticed to  a  house  painter.  In  1839  Cakes  rnade  his 
first  appearance  as  an  exhibitor,  at  the  Liverpool 
Academy,  wnth  a  picture  of  'Fruit,'  priced  5 
guineas.  His  residence  in  the  following  year  and 
until  1846  was  4,  Parker  Street.  He  continued  to 
exhibit  fruit  pieces  for  several  years,  but  in  1843 
he  began  modestly  as  a  landscapist  with  a  three- 
guinea  '  Sketch  on  the  Lancashire  Coast.'  W.  J. 
Bishop  is  credited  with  being  his  chief  preceptor  in 
art,  and  he  seems  to  have  attended  classes  at  the 
Liverpool  Academy,  but  his  training  was  in  all 
probability  desultory.     Oakes  continued  a  house 


painter,  until  success  as  a  picture-maker  enabled 
him  to  dispense  with  ladders  and  pails.  This  pro- 
bably was  about  1846,  when  he  exhibited  ten 
landscapes,  of  local  or  Welsh  subjects,  at  the 
Liverpool  Academy.  In  the  following  year  he  was 
elected  an  associate  of  that  body,  removed  to  100, 
Bold  Street,  and  exhibited  '  Nant  Frangcon,  Car- 
narvonshire,' at  the  British  Institution.  About  this 
date  Oakes  maiTJed  a  lady  who  had  a  prosperous 
business  as  a  dressmaker.  In  1848  his  pictures  at 
Liverpool  included  some  subjects  in  the  Lake 
District,  one  of  them,  'On  the  river  Greta,  Keswick,' 
having  previously  been  shown  (his  first  appear- 
ance) at  the  Royal  Academy.  'Thereafter,  with  a 
single  exception,  he  was  always  represented  at  the 
Royal  Academy,  where  in  all  (according  to  Mr. 
Graves)  he  showed  ninety  works ;  his  London 
record  otherwise  being  twenty-eight  at  the  British 
Institution,  eleven  at  Suffolk  Street,  and  twenty-six 
at  other  Exhibitions.  In  1850  Oakes  became  a  full 
member  of  the  Liverpool  Academy,  and  the  sub- 
jects of  his  work  at  its  Exhibition  give  evidence  of 
a  visit  to  Scotland.  Two  years  later  he  exhibited 
some  Irish  subjects.  In  1853  Oakes  became 
Secretary  of  the  Academy,  a  post  he  filled  until 
1855,  when  he  removed  to  28,  Victoria  Road, 
Kensington,  London.  The  innovation  of  printing 
prices  in  the  exhibition  catalogue  of  1853  was 
probably  due  to  the  practical  sagacity  of  Oakes. 
None  i^f  his  own  four  exhibits  were  for  sale.  In 
1854  his  highest  price  was  150  guineas  for 
'The  Vale  of  Bersham';  in  1855,  1001.  each 
for  '  Twll-du '  and  '  Loch  Eanza,  Arran.'  After 
going  to  London,  Oakes  remained  a  non-resident 
member  of  the  Liverpool  Society,  and  continued  to 
send  to  its  Exhibitions.  In  1858  he  showed  at  the 
Royal  Academy  '  The  Warren,'  and  '  Maldreatb 
Sands — rain  passing  off,'  in  1859  'Marchllvn- 
Mawr,'  in  1860  'Aberaifraw  Bay,'  and  in  1861 
'  A  Carnarvonshire  Glen,'  which  all  rank  among 
his  finest  achievements.  '  The  Forest,  Glen  of  the 
Gardewalt,'  shown  in  1865,  is  evidence  of  a  foreign 
tour,  and  it  was  followed  in  1866  by  '  Morning  at 
Angera,  Lago  Maggiore.'  In  the  next  year  there 
were  three  Scottish  subjects  (two  of  the  Bass 
Rock),  and  in  1868  he  showed  nothing.  In  1869, 
the  first  year  of  Burlington  House,  '  Early  Spring' 
was  Oakes'  sole  contribution.  It  is  said  to  be  in 
the  Glasgow  Corporation  Gallery,  but  the  curator 
states  that  this  is  incorrect ;  that  it  at  one  time 
belonged  to  the  Glasgow  Institute  of  Fine  Arts, 
and  was  sold  with  all  the  other  pictures  belonging 
to  that  institution  about  1880.  Its  present  location 
has  not  been  traced.  In  1871  the  '  Linn  of 
Muick,  near  Ballater,'  was  one  of  three  pictures  at 
the  Royal  Academy,  and  to  the  first  Corporation 
Autumn  Exhibition  at  Liverpool,  Oakes  sent  four 
works,  of  which  the  most  important  was  '  Morning 
in  the  Bay  of  Ceri,  Lake  of  Lucerne '  (Royal 
Academy,  1870),  which  was  priced  £367  10s.  in 
the  catalogue.  In  the  following  year  he  again 
sent  four  pictures  to  Liverpool,  and  '  A  North 
Devon  Glen,  Autumn  '  (£367  10s.)  was  purchased 
for  the  Permanent  Collection.  It  is  now  in  the 
Walker  Art  Gallery.  The  size  is  48  by  96 
inches.  In  1873,  when  he  removed  to  Leam 
House,  Addison  Road,  '  A  Mountain  Stream,  Glen 
Derry,  Aberdeenshire'  (£367  10s.),  was  shown  both 
at  the  Royal  Academy  and  at  Liverpool.  In  the 
following  year  Oakes  was  elected  Associate  of  the 
Institute  of  Painters  in  Water-Colours,  but  in  1875 
he   resigned,  doubtless  having   in  view  the  As- 


Bociateship  of  the  Royal  Academy,  which  fell  to 
hira  in  1876. 

In  1883  Oakes  was  elected  an  honorary  member 
of  the  Hoyal  Scottish  Academy.  Two  or  tliree 
years  before  this  he  had  fallen  into  chronic  ill 
health  due  to  asthma,  wliich  interfered  with  the 
practice  of  his  art.  He  continued  to  exhibit 
regularly,  however,  at  the  Royal  Academy,  his  last 
contributions,  in  1887,  being  '  Barnton  Mill'  and 
'  Hailstorm  at  the  Devil's  Bridge,  Pass  of  St. 
Gothard.'  He  died  at  Leam  House  on  July  9, 
1887,  and  was  buried  at  Brompton  Cemetery.  In 
the  1888  Exhibition  at  Burlington  House  Oakes  was 
represented  for  the  last  time  by  '  The  Warren.'  On 
March  10, 1888,  his  remaining  pictures  were  sold  at 
Christie's:  they  realized  £3,848.  The  range  in  land- 
scape of  Oakes  is  fairly  well  indicated  by  the  titles  of 
pictures  which  have  already  been  quoted.  He  had 
a  passion  for  the  scenery  of  mountainous  country, 
and  particularly  loved  North  Wales,  but  he  also 
chose  subjects  from  Scotland,  Ireland,  the  Isle  of 
Man,  England,  and  occasionally  the  Continent. 
Extensive  prospects  pleased  him  better  than  "  bits," 
and  he  exhibited  in  his  treatment  of  such  themes 
a  brilliant,  almost  unerring,  sense  of  composition, 
a  fine  perception  of  light,  atmosphere,  and  colour, 
and  the  poetry  of  nature.  The  work  of  his  early 
years  was  particularly  brilliant,  but  after  going  to 
London  he  did  not  progress  as  his  early  admirers 
anticipated.  Although  he  was  closely  associated 
with  the  Liverpool  pre-Eaphaelites,  the  style  of 
Oakes  was  not  aflEected  by  them.  One  of  his  con- 
temporaries has  described  him  as  a  man  of  sturdy 
appearance,  more  like  a  sea-captain  than  a  painter, 
much  marked  by  small-pox,  and  addicted  to  wear- 
ing black  satin  waistcoats.  He  habitually  had  his 
left  hand  in  his  pocket.  Unlike  most  artists  he 
would  never  allow  any  one  to  see  him  paint.  A 
son,  Frederick  Oakes,  was  intended  for  an  artist, 
and  did  some  good  work  in  his  youth,  but  event- 
uallj'  entered  upon  a  business  career.  He  died 
young.  E.E.D, 

OAKLEY,  Octavius,  a  painter  in  water-colours, 
was  bom  in  1800.  After  having  practised  as  a  por- 
trait painter  at  Leamington  and  at  Derby,  he  came 
to  London  in  1842,  was  elected  an  Associate  of  the 
Water-colour  Society,  and  a  full  member  in  1844. 
His  pictures  consist  chiefly  of  rustic  figures,  groups 
of  gypsies,  &c. ,  and  in  his  later  years  of  landscapes. 
He  began  to  exhibit  at  the  Royal  Academy  in  1826, 
and  ceased  in  1860.  Most  of  his  contributions  to 
that  exhibition  were  portraits.  Oakley  died  at 
Bayswater  in  March,  1867. 

OAKMAN,  John,  an  English  wood  engraver, 
born  at  Hendon,  who  practised  about  the  middle 
of  the  18th  century.  He  was  chiefly  employed 
on  illustrations  for  children's  books.  In  his  later 
years  he  turned  ballad  and  novel  writer,  and  died 
in  indigence  in  1793. 

OBACH,  Kaspar,  painter,  engraver,  and  litho- 
grapher, was  born  at  Zurich  in  1807,  and  was  a 
pupil  of  Fiissli.  He  went  to  Stuttgart  in  1825, 
and  made  many  landscape  sketches  in  pencil,  which 
he  reproduced  in  water-colours  or  lithographed. 
He  died  at  Stuttgart  in  1865. 

OBEET.  A  good  Flemish  picture  of  still-life 
(fruit,  oysters,  and  goblets)  in  the  Madrid  Museum 
bears  this  name. 

OBERMANN,  Antonis,  painter  and  etcher,  was 
born  at  Amsterdam  in  1781,  and  died  in  the  same 
city  in  1850.  He  painted  landscapes,  horses  and 
cattle,  flowers    and   fruit,  and  was  a  member  of 

the  Academy  of  his  native  place.  At  Haarlem 
there  is  a  '  Vase  of  Flowers'  by  him.  He  etched  a 
series  of  twenty  '  Studies  of  cattle,  sheep,'  &c. 

OBERMULLNER,  Adolf,  Austrian  painter; 
born  September  3,  1833,  at  Wels,  Upper  Austria ; 
studied  at  the  Vienna  Academy  under  Steinfeld 
and  subsequently  with  Zimmermann  ;  travelled 
through  France  and  Holland  :  then  returned  to 
Vienna,  where  he  settled  in  1860,  painting  Alpine 
scenery,  glaciers  and  the  like  with  striking  truth 
and  vigour.     He  died  at  Vienna,  October  29,  1898. 

OBERTO,  Francesco  da,  an  artist  wlio  painted 
at  Genoa  in  1368.  His  name  appears  in  the  Register 
of  Painters  of  Genoa  immediately  before  that  of 
Lodovico  Brea,  but  nothing  is  known  of  his  life. 

OBIDOS,  JosEPHA  DE,  a  Portuguese  artist,  was 
the  daughter  of  Balthazar  Gomes  Figuiera,  said  to 
have  also  been  a  painter,  and  was  born  at  Seville 
about  1630.  She  must  have  studied  painting  and 
other  arts  in  Spain  ;  but  she  was  still  young  when 
her  father  returned  to  Obidos,  in  Portugal,  taking 
her  with  him.  She  painted  in  that  country  a 
number  of  pictures  in  oil  for  the  churches  ;  also  a 
portrait  of  Marie  Fran^oise  Isabell  de  Savoie,  which 
was  sent  to  Victor  Amcd^e,  Due  de  Savoie,  before 
their  marriage.  She  likewise  painted  flowers,  fruit, 
&c.,  and  engraved  ;  for  in  the  '  Statutes  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Coimbra,  1654,'  there  is  an  engraving 
signed  '  Josepha  Ayala  (her  mother's  name)  Obidos, 
1653.'  In  the  church  of  Saint  Peter  at  Obidos, 
where  she  died,  and  in  which  she  was  buried  in 
1684,  there  are  many  of  her  pictures;  also  in  the 
Academy  at  Lisbon,  at  Evora,  &c.  A 'St.  John,' 
described  as  being  in  the  manner  of  Velvet  Breu- 
ghel, is  dated  1680. 

OBREGON,  Pedro  de,  the  younger,  was  born 
at  Madrid  about  1597.  He  was  a  disciple  of  Vin- 
cencio  Carducho,  and  proved  a  reputable  painter  of 
history  and  genre  subjects,  particularly  in  pictures 
of  an  easel  size,  of  which  there  are  several  in  the 
private  collections  of  Madrid.  Of  his  larger  works. 
Palomino  particularly  notices  his  picture  of  'The 
Trinity,'  in  the  convent  of  La  Merced,  and  '  The 
Immaculate  Conception,'  in  the  church  of  Santa 
Cruz.  He  died  at  Madrid  in  1C59.  He  was  an 
excellent  engraver ;  as  were  also  his  two  sons 
Diego  and  Marcos  Obregon,  the  former  of  whom, 
in  1683-4,  prepared  thiriy-six  plates  of  Birds  and 
Beasts  to  illustrate  a  work  by  Andres  de  Valdecebro  ; 
also  other  engravings  in  1687  and  1699.  Pedro 
DE  Obregon,  '  the  elder,'  was  a  miniaturist  and 
illuminator  of  books  of  devotion,  wlio  worked  for 
the  cathedral  of  Toledo,  in  1564  ;  but  there  are  no 
further  particulars  of  him.  He  may  have  been  the 
father  of  the  younger  Pedro.  Marcos  de  Obregon 
became  priest,  and  lived  until  1720. 

OBRY,  Adrien,  a  French  designer  and  painter 
of  windows,  who  was  at  work  in  the  year  1532  at 
the  Chateau  d'Auxy. 

OBRY,  Jean,  was  a  French  miniaturist  of  some 
talent,  who  embellished  many  manuscripts  about 
the  \-ear  1484.     He  was  a  native  of  Amiens. 

OCCHIALI,    Dagli.      See    Ferrantini  ;    also 


OCH,  Georges,  an  obscure  French  landscape 
p.iinter,  who  flourished  at  the  beginning  of  the 
19th  century.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Cioeri.  His  chief 
work  was  a  view  of  Paris  from  the  towers  of  Notre 

OCHILICH,  Johann  Conrad,  a  painter  of  land- 
scapes, animals,  and  portraits,  who  flourished  at 
Nuremberg  at  the  end  of  the  18th  century.     His 



education  was  partly  gained  at  Munich.  His  works 
were  mostly  copies  from  the  old  masters. 

OCHOA,  Francisco,  a  painter  of  Seville  and 
pupil  of  Murillo.  He  is  believed  to  be  identical 
with  Francisco  Antolinez  y  Sarbia  (q.  v.). 

OCHS,  Fbibdeioh,  was  born  in  Basle,  and  studied 
in  Paris  under  Augustin.  He  migrated  to  St. 
Petersburg,  where,  about  1812,  he  had  a  consider- 
able reputation.  His  miniatures  were  good  and 
expressive  likenesses,  and  agreeable  in  colour.  The 
date  of  his  birth  and  death  are  unknown. 

OCHTERVELT,  Jacob,  (sometimes  wrongly 
called  jA>f,  and  Uchtervelt  or  Achtervelt,)  was 
born  perhaps  at  Rotterdam.  In  1667  he  was  a 
candidate  for  the  presidency  of  the  Brotherhood  of 
St.  Luke  in  that  city.  In  1672  he  was  still  working 
there.  In  1674  be  painted  the  portraits  of  the 
Regents  of  the  lepers'  hospital  at  Amsterdam.  He 
died  before  1710.  He  formed  himself  on  the  ex- 
amples of  Metsu  and  Terburg,  more  especially  of 
the  latter.  In  some  respects  his  best  work  does 
not  fall  far  below  the  level  of  the  last-named  artist. 
Good  pictures  by  Ochtervelt,  in  good  condition, 
are,  however,  very  scarce.  The  following  list 
includes  most  of  them  : 

Amsterdam.       Museum.     The  Governors  of  the  Zf/jro^^n- 
Iniis.      (Signed  /.    ochtervelt 
feat,  1674.) 
Berlin.  Museum.    The  Last  Testament. 

Brussels.  Arenhurg  Coll.     Interior  of  a  Kitchen. 
Cologne.      Walraff  3[us.     Two  Musicians. 
Copenhagen.       Jfuseutn.     Lady  playing  the  violm. 
Dresden.  Gallery.     "Woman   with  a  Girl  and  Dog 

(purchased  as  hy  Jerhard  auf 
der  Feld !). 

Hague.  Museum.    Lady  buying  Fish  (a  very  good 

Rotterdam,         Museum.     *  La  Collation  ;  *  young  man  and 
woman  eating  oysters.    {Per' 
haps  his  masterpiece.) 
Petersburg.      Hermitage.    Buying  Fish. 
„  „  Buying  Grapes, 

n  „  Young  Man  singing  to  a  young 

„  „  The  Breakfast  Party. 

OCLE,  Robert,  (or  Okyll,)  member  of  a  family 
of  painters  settled  at  Norwich,  painted  a  '  Life  of 
St.  Katberine'  on  panel  in  1415-16,  for  which  he 
was  paid  34s.  id. 

O'CONNOR,  James  A.,  an  Irish  landscape  painter, 
born  at  Dublin  in  1793.  He  was  brought  up  as  an 
engraver  by  his  father,  who  followed  that  profes- 
sion. In  1813  he  came  to  London  with  his  friend, 
Francis  Danby,  but  his  means  were  soon  exhausted, 
and  he  made  his  way  on  foot  to  Bristol,  whence 
he  contrived  to  get  a  passage  back  to  Dublin.  In 
1822  he  returned  to  England,  and  from  that  time 
he  chiefly  resided  in  London,  with  the  exception 
of  visits  to  Brussels,  Paris,  and  Rhenish  Prussia. 
But  his  abilities  were  not  recognized,  and  he  had 
a  hard  struggle  for  existence.  He  occasionally 
exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  from  1822  ;  also 
at  Suffolk  Street.  He  died,  in  embarrassed  circum- 
stances, at  Brompton  in  1841.  There  are  eight  of 
his  pictures  in  the  Kensington  JIuseura.  In  style 
they  may  be  classed  with  the  work  of  Richard 

O'CONNOR,  John,  a  very  talented  scene  painter, 
born  in  Ireland  in  1830.  He  was  early  left  an 
orphan,  and  liad  to  work  hard  for  a  livelihood.  He 
was  first  of  all  errand  boy  and  call  boy  in  a 
Belfast  theatre,  but  began  scene  painting  when 
quite  a  youth.  In  1848  he  was  in  England,  and 

employed  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre  and  the  Hay- 
market.  Later  on  be  painted  a  diorama  and  then 
took  lip  water-colour  subject  painting,  and  in  that 
field  of  art  acquired  more  than  a  passing  renown. 
He  was  also  drawing-master  to  a  London  literary 
institution,  but  held  his  position  for  a  very  few 
years.  For  many  years  he  was  chief  scene 
painter  at  the  Haymarket,  and  as  a  master  of 
architectural  design  and  an  admirable  colourist 
had  few  equals  in  that  branch  of  art.  He  was  a 
very  popular  snd  most  genial  man,  and  made 
hosts  of  Iriends,  who  were  always  introducing  to 
him  fresh  commissions  for  decorative  work.  He 
decorated  two  rooms  at  Eaton  Hall  for  the  Duke  of 
Westminster,  designed  costume  and  scenery  for 
Shakesperian  tableaux,  made  drawings  of  many 
important  Court  ceremonials,  and  painted  wonder- 
ful scenery  for  various  performances  of  Greek 
plays  both  in  London  and  at  Cambridge.  His 
architectural  drawings  were  numerous  and  of 
great  beauty.  One  of  his  chief  friends  was  Lord 
Ronald  Sutherland  Gower,  the  eminent  sculptor, 
with  whom  we  worked  for  some  years,  and  most  of 
the  facts  in  the  foregoing  narrative  are  derived  from 
his  old  friend.  O'Connor  on  leaving  London 
moved  into  Hampshire,  and  there  he  died  of 
paralysis  in  1889. 

OCTA'VIEN,  Francois,  a  French  painter,  was 
born  at  Rome  about  1695.  He  was  received  into 
the  Paris  Academy  in  1725,  as  a  genre  painter.  His 
reception  picture,  'The  Fair  at  Vesoul,'  is  now  in 
the  Louvre.  He  died  in  Paris  in  1736.  No  further 
particulars  of  his  life  are  known. 

ODAM,  GiROLAMO,  was  an  artist  who  resided  at 
Eome,  and  distinguished  himself  at  the  beginning 
of  the  18th  century  as  a  painter,  sculptor,  and 
architect.  He  was  born  in  1681,  and  was  a  pupil 
of  Carlo  Maratti.  He  drew  portraits  in  crayons, 
engraved  on  copper,  and  copied  small  cameos  on  a 
larger  scale.  He  was  made  a  Knight  of  St.  George 
by  the  Duke  of  Parma,  and  was  a  member  of  the 
Academia  degl'  Arcadi. 

ODASI,  Giovanni,  (or  Odazzi,)  was  born  at 
Eome  in  1663,  and  studied  for  some  time  under 
Bloemart  and  Ciro  Ferri,  but  afterwards  was  a 
scholar  of  Giovanni  Battista  GauUi.  Of  his  works 
at  Rome,  the  most  creditable  are  his  picture  of  the 
'  Prophet  Hosea,'  in  San  Giovanni  in  Laterano  ; 
'St.  Bruno,' in  Santa  Maria  degli  Angeli ;  and  an 
altar-piece,  representing  '  The  Fall  of  Lucifer,'  in 
the  church  of  the  Santi  Apostoli.  He  also  executed 
some  paintings  in  the  cupola  of  the  cathedral  of 
"Velletri.     He  died  at  Milan  in  1731. 

ODDI,  Giuseppe,  a  native  of  Pesaro  and  pupil  of 
Carlo  Maratti.     No  details  of  his  life  are  known. 

ODDI,  Mauro,  a  painter,  designer,  etcher,  and 
architect,  who  was  born  in  1639  at  Parma,  where 
he  was  instructed  in  the  first  principles  of  art.  He 
went  afterwards  to  Rome,  where  he  studied  six 
years,  under  Pietro  da  Cortona.  On  his  return  to 
his  native  city  his  talents  recommended  him  to  the 
patronage  of  the  Duke  of  Parma,  who  employed 
him  in  ornamenting  the  ducal  palace,  and  the  Villa 
di  Colorno;  giving  bim  also  the  appointments  of 
court  painter  and  builder.  He  drew  two  thousand 
medals  in  the  ducal  cabinet  of  coins,  and  painted 
some  altar-pieces  for  the  churches  of  Parma,  Pia- 
cenza,  and  Modena.  Kiisel,  N.  Dorigny,  and  others 
have  engraved  after  his  works.  Two  etchings  by 
him  are  also  known,  '  The  Adoration  of  the  Shep- 
herds,' after  Parmigiano  and  Caraglio,  and  'The 
Rape   of  Europa,'  after   Agostino   Carracci.      His 


death  occurred  in  1702  or  1703.  He  signed  his 
works  with  a  monogram  composed  of  a  Maltese 
cross  between  M.  and  0. 

ODEBRECHT,  Otto  Friedrich  Hermann,  land- 
scape painter,  was  born  in  Greifswald  in  1833. 
He  was  principally  formed  in  the  studio  of  Prof. 
Ang.  Weber  at  Diisseldorf,  where  he  died  in  1860, 
from  the  effects  of  a  poisonous  sting.  In  the  Berlin 
National  Gallery  there  is  a  'Moonlight  View  on 
the  Konigs-See,  with  a  ferryman,'  by  In'm. 

OUEKERKEN,  Willem,  a  painter  of  Delft,  who 
lived  about  the  middle  of  the  17th  century.  His 
wife  was  one  Maria  Sasbouts  van  der  Dussen.  His 
works  are  very  scarce.  He  is  said  to  have  very 
accurately  copied  a  picture  by  Metsu  which  repre- 
sents a  '  Cook  in  her  Kitchen,  surrounded  by  culin- 
ary utensils.'  A  work  of  that  class  by  him  has 
lately  (1885)  been  added  to  the  collection  in  the 
Rijks  Museum,  Amsterdam.  He  also  painted 
still-life.  His  activity  extended  from  1642  to 

ODERICO  DA  SIENA,  flourished  about  1213. 
He  was  a  canon  of  Siena,  and  painted  miniatures 
in  the  Byzantine  manner. 

ODERICO,  Giovanni  Paolo,  was  born  in  1613, 
of  a  noble  family  of  Genoa.  According  to  Soprani 
he  was  a  scholar  of  Domenioo  Fiasella,  and  painted 
liistory  with  some  success,  but  was  more  distin- 
guished for  his  portraits.  Of  his  historical  works, 
the  most  esteemed  is  his  picture  of  the  'Guardian 
Angel,'  in  the  church  of  the  Padri  Scolopi  at 
Genoa.     He  died  in  1657. 

ODERIGI  da  GUBBIO,  (Oderisco,  Oderisio,) 
was  born  at  Gubbio,  in  1240.  His  only  known  works 
are  two  mass-books  of  the  Virgin  and  St.  George  ; 
but  some  miniatures  in  the  Archivio  de'  Canonici 
di  San  Pietro,  at  Rome,  are  supposed  to  be  by  him. 
He  is  said  to  have  painted  at  Gubbio  in  1264,  at 
Bologna  in  1268,  and  in  1295  at  Rome,  where  Vasari 
says  he  made  the  acquaintance  of  Giotto.  Oderigi 
died  in  Rome  in  1299.  He  is  mentioned  by  Dante, 
who  represents  him  as  expiating  in  Purgatory  the 
pride  with  which  his  skill  inspired  him. 

ODERISIO,  RoBERTDS  DI,  was  a  Neapolitan,  and 
the  author  of  a  '  Crucifixion  '  in  the  church  of  San 
Francesco  d'Assisi,  at  Eboli.  He  lived  in  the 
14th  century,  and  is  said  to  have  been  a  pupil 
of  Giotto. 

ODEVAERE,  Joseph  Dionisids,  an  historical 
painter  and  critic,  was  born  at  Bruges  in  1778. 
After  receiving  a  good  scholastic  education  at  the 
college  of  the  Augustins,  and  obtaining  several 
prizes  at  the  Academy  of  Design,  he  was  sent  in 
1728  to  Paris  to  study  painting  under  Suv^e  and 
David.  In  1804  he  obtained  the  prix  de  Rome 
for  his  picture  of  the  'Death  of  Phocion.'  On 
his  return  to  Bruges  he  was  received  in  triumph, 
and  treated  with  every  mark  of  distinction  by  the 
Academy,  the  municipality,  and  the  public.  Shortly 
afterwards  he  returned  to  Paris  ;  and  the  following 
year,  1805,  went  to  Italy,  where  he  remained  for 
about  eight  years,  and  executed  several  pictures 
of  large  dimensions.  In  1814  he  was  again  in 
Bruges,  and  painted  for  William  I.,  King  of  the 
Netherlands,  the  picture  of  '  The  Peace  of 
Utrecht;'  and,  after  the  battle  of  Waterloo,  an- 
other representing  that  action  at  the  time  the 
Prince  of  Orange  received  his  wounds.  For  this 
and  others  relating  to  the  history  of  the  country  he 
received  special  marks  of  the  Royal  favour.  His 
pictures  are  numerous,  and  are  to  be  found  at 
Paris,   Brussels,    Ghent,    and    Bruges.     They   are 

VOL.  IV.  D 

generally  large,  one  painted  for  the  King  of  the 
Netherlands  measuring  twenty-four  feet  long  and 
sixteen  feet  high.  Odevaere  while  in  Italy  col- 
lected materials  for  a  history  of  the  state  of  the 
arts  in  that  country  from  the  revival  of  painting  to 
the  time  of  Raphael  ;  his  MS.  still  hes  in  the  Royal 
Library  at  Brussels.  He  died  at  Brussels  in 

ODIEUVRE,  Michel,  was  a  French  engraver 
and  printseller,  who  resided  at  Paris  about  the  year 
1735.  He  began  life  as  a  tailor.  He  etched  and 
pubhshed  in  1738  a  set  of  portraits  entitled,  '  Por- 
traits^des^ Personages  illustres  de  I'un  et  de  I'autre 
Sexe.'  These  are  usually  found  in  the  large  paper 
quarto  editions  of  the  '  Memoires  de  Sully'  and 
'  Memoires  de  Commines.'  Odieuvre  died  at 
Rouen  in  1756. 

OECHS,  Joseph  Dominicus,  a  painter  of  excel- 
lent portraits  in  oil  and  iu  miniature,  and  a  designer, 
was  born  at  Erbach,  near  Ehingen  in  Wiirtemberg, 
in  1776.  He  studied  under  his  brother,  A.nton 
Oechs,  at  Ratisbon,  under  Frost  in  Nuremburg, 
and  under  A.  Graif  and  Klengel  in  Dresden.  In 
1804  he  went  to  Courland,  and  was  in  1824  made 
drawing-master  in  the  Gymnasium  at  Mitau.  His 
principal  works  were  portraits,  and  the  Provincial 
Museum  of  Courland  possesses  a  complete  set  in  oil 
by  him  of  the  Dukes  and  Duchesses  of  that  province. 
He  died  at  Mitau  in  1836. 

OEDING,  Philipp  Wilhelm,  painter  and  de- 
signer, was  born  at  Benzigerode,  near  Blankenburg, 
in  1697.  Having  studied  under  Huber  at  Halber- 
stadt,  and  Busch  at  Brunswick,  he  was  in  1722 
sent  by  Duke  Ludwig  Rudolph  to  Nuremberg, 
where  he  worked  under  Preisler,  Desmarees,  and 
Kupetzki,  and  chiefly  adopted  the  style  of  the  last- 
named  master.  In  1729  he  married  Preisler's 
daughter,  Barbara  Helena,  who,  in  addition  to 
painting,  practised  engraving,  embroidery,  and 
working  in  wax  and  alabaster.  About  1741  he 
painted  among  other  pictures  a  large  '  View  of 
Altona,'  the  'Adoration  of  the  Magi,'  and  the  'In- 
stitution of  the  Last  Supper,'  for  the  Lutheran 
Church  at  that  place  ;  where  also  he  painted  por- 
traits and  taught  drawing.  Subsequently  he  was 
appointed  a  professor  in  the  '  Karolinum  '  at  Bruns- 
wick. Preisler  engraved  after  him  the  portrait  of 
his  wife,  and  Tyrof  and  others  some  drawings  of 
antique  vases.     Oediug  died  in  1781. 

OEFELE,  Franz  Ignaz,  called  Bavarese,  was 
born  at  Posen  in  1721,  and  studied  under  various 
masters  at  Landsberg,  Augsburg,  and  Munich, 
until  he  went  to  Venice,  where  he  placed  himself 
under  Giuseppe  Nogari,  and  remained  with  him  six 
years.  Subsequently  he  went  to  Rome,  and  studied 
under  Giovanni  Barca  for  two  years.  Returning  to 
Munich,  he  was  made  painter  to  the  Elector  Masi- 
mihan  III.,  as  well  as  professor  in  the  School  of 
Design.  Of  his  works  the  principal  are,  'Joseph 
and  Potiphar's  Wife,'  the  portrait  of  the  Electress 
Adelhaid  in  tlie  Court  Chapel  of  MuTiich,  and  his 
own  portrait  in  the  Schliessheim  Gallery.  Of  his 
etchings  the  best  are,  '  The  Woman  of  Samaria,' 
and  '  The  Daughter  of  Dibutades,'  both  after  his 
own  designs.     He  died  in  1797. 

OEHME,  Ernst  Friedrich,  was  born  at  Dresden 
in  1797,  and  alter  studying  under  Professor 
Friedrich,  and  travelling  from  1819-25  in  Italy, 
became  court-painter  at  Dresden  and  died  there 
in  1854.  He  painted  chiefly  landscapes,  and 
signed  his  works  with  an  E  in  a  circle.  Among 
them  are : 



Tl'.e  Mountain  Chapel. 

View  of  the  "  Jagdschloss  "  of  Moritzburg. 

Autumn  Landscape  {H.  Pietsck,  Dresden), 

OELENHAINZ,  August  Friedrich,  (Oehlen- 
HAINZ,  &c.,)  was  born  at  Endingen,  near  ISalingen. 
in  1749,  and  after  commencing  the  study  of 
theology  at  Tubingen,  prepared  himself  as  an 
artist  in  the  same  place,  under  Meyer,  and  then 
under  Baier  at  Stuttgart.  In  1766  he  went  for 
further  improvement  to  Vienna,  where  he  painted 
the  portraits  of  the  Royal  Family,  of  several 
courtiers,  and  of  the  poet  Blumauer.  In  1789  he 
was  made  a  member  of  the  Academy,  and  he  died 
at  Falzburg  in  1804.  His  portraits  were  flatter- 
ing, and  thereby  ensured  him  piitronage.  Durmer, 
about  1796,  engraved  two  plates  after  him  for  the 
Fraiienholz  Collection  :  'The  Maiden  of  the  Black 
Forest,'  and  '  The  Bernese  Girl ; '  and  Pheifer,  the 
portrait  of  Lavater. 

OERI,  Hans  Jakob,  was  an  historical  and  por- 
trait painter,  also  a  draughtsman  and  lithographer, 
who  was  born  at  Kyburg  in  Switzerland,  in  1782, 
and  studied  under  Kuster  and  David.  He  travelled 
a  great  deal,  principally  in  Russia.  As  an  artist 
he  distinguished  himself  by  the  truth  of  his  por- 
traits, and  above  all  as  a  lithographer.  He  died  in 
1843  ('?).  '  Dsedalus  and  Icarus  '  and  '  Chloe,'  are 
two  of  his  best  paintings.  Noticeable  among  liis 
lithogrsphs  are  : 

The  Marriage  of  the  Virgin  ;  after  Baphael. 

Joseph  sold  by  his  Brethren  ;  after  Overbed. 

Madonna  with  Sleeping  Child  ;  after  Catarini. 

Christ  in  the  House  of  Martlia ;  after  Overbeck,  dated 

OERI,  Peter,  a  Swiss  artist,  and  a  native  of 
Zurich.  He  appears  to  be  the  man  of  whom 
Nagler  says  that  he  was  born  in  1737,  and  died  in 
1792.  After  studying  six  years  iii  Italy,  he  re- 
turned to  Switzerland,  where,  probably  for  want 
of  employment,  he  abandoned  painting,  to  follow 
the  occupation  of  a  chaser  and  working  goldsmith. 

OESER,  Adam  Friedrich,  a  German  painter, 
modeller,  and  engraver,  was  born  at  Presburg  in 
1717.  He  was  sent  at  thirteen  years  of  age  to 
Vienna,  but  was  compelled  to  return  home  for 
want  of  means,  and  then  found  employment  at 
the  country-seats  of  Hungarian  noblemen.  In 
1735,  however,  when  eighteen  years  of  age,  he 
returned  to  Vienna,  and  gained  the  gold  medal  at 
the  Academy.  His  talent  was  noticed  and  en- 
couraged by  Raphael  Donner,  a  sculptor,  who 
taught  him  to  model.  Dresden  was  at  that  time 
the  residence  of  several  artists  of  eminence,  and  in 
1739  he  visited  that  city,  where  his  abilities 
procured  him  the  esteem  and  friendship  of  its 
most  distinguished  residents.  Here  also  he 
tiaed  enamel  and  miniature  painting.  In  1749  he 
decorated  the  ceilings  and  walls  of  the  Hubertsburg 
Schloss.  He  formed  an  intimate  acquaintance  with 
Winkelmann,  whom  he  assisted  in  his  first  studies  of 
the  antique,  and  who  makes  mention  of  him  in  his 
first  literary  work  as  "  the  successor  of  the  Theban 
Aristides."  In  1756  he  proceeded  to  Dahlen, 
where  he  painted  in  the  Biinau'sche  Schloss;  and 
thence  removed  to  Leipsic,  where,  in  1763,  he 
became  Director  of  the  Academy.  He  settled  in 
that  city,  and  during  a  residence  of  many  years 
he  painted  some  important  works  for  public  build- 
ings and  private  collections,  both  in  oil  and  fresco. 
He  was  also  Professor  of  the  Academy  at  Dresden 
and  court  painter.  He  died  at  Leipsic  in  1799. 
Among  his  chief   productions  are  the  frescoes  in 


the  church  of  St.  Nicholas,  at  Leipsic.  There  is 
a  portrait  group  of  his  own  children  in  the  Dresden 
Gallery.  Oeeer  etclied  a  variety  of  plates  from  his 
own  compositions  and  after  other  masters  ;  among 
many  others  are  the  following: 

A   variety   of   vignettes   and   frontispieces   for  books. 

designed  and  etched  by  F.  Oeser. 
The  Circumcision  ;  after  G.  van  den  Eeclchotit. 
Saul  and  the  Witch  of  Eudor ;  after  Rembrandt. 
The  Presentation  in  the  Temple  ;  after  the  same. 
Christ  brought  forth  by  Pilate  ;  after  the  same. 
Cupid  and  Psyche  ;  piobab/i/  after  Guercino. 

OESER,  JoHANN  Friedrich  Ludwig,  son  of 
Adam  Friedrich  Oeser,  was  born  at  Dresden  in 
1751,  and  was  a  landscape  painter  and  engraver. 
He  was  for  seven  years  a  teacher  in  the  Academy 
of  Leipsic,  and  in  1774  became  professor  of 
historical  and  landscape  painting  at  Dresden,  and 
in  1780  a  member  of  the  Academy  there.  He 
executed  numerous  drawings  in  Indian  ink  and 
colours,  togetlier  with  oil  paintings,  representing 
views  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Dresden,  and 
chiefly  in  Ruisdael's  stylo.  His  principal  etchings 
are  after  Rejnbrandt,  Rubens,  and  Salvator  Rosa. 
He  died  in  1791  or  1792. 

OESTERLEY,  K.  W.,  German  painter,  was 
also  a  well-known  art  critic.  He  was  born  in 
1805,  and  was  Professor  of  the  History  and 
Theory  of  Fine  Art  at  Gottingeu.  He  died  in 
1891  at  Hanover. 

OESTERREICH,  Mathias,  a  German  designer 
and  etcher,  was  born  at  Hamburg  in  1716.  He 
learnt  the  art  of  design  under  J.  B.  Groni  at 
Dresden,  and  twice  travelled  in  Italy,  where  he 
gained  a  knowledge  of  art  which  enabled  him  to 
take  the  position  of  superintendent  of  the  Electoral 
Gallery  at  Dresden.  In  1757  he  became  Director 
of  the  Gallery  of  Sans  Souci  at  Potsdam.  He 
died  at  Berlin  in  1778.  His  principal  productions 
are  a  set  of  twenty-four  caricatures,  etched  from 
the  designs  of  P.  L.  Ghezzi,  and  published  at 
Dresden  in  1750,  entitled  '  Raccolta  di  XXIV. 
Caricature,  disegnate  coUa  penna  dal  celebre 
Cavaliere  P.  L.  Ghezzi;' these  plates  were  repub- 
lished at  Potsdam  in  1776,  with  the  afldition  of 
eighteen  from  the  designs  of  Giovanni  Battista 
Internari,  and  others.  Oesterreich  also  engraved  a 
set  of  forty  plates  from  drawings  in  the  collection 
of  Count  von  Bruhl,  published  at  Dresden  in  1752, 
under  the  title  of  '  Recueil  de  quelquea  dessins  de 
plusieurs  habiles  maitres,'  &e.  Several  of  the  plates 
in  ''The  Dresden  Gallery"  were  engraved  by 
Oesterreich.  He  marked  his  plates  M.  0-  Am- 
burgese  fecit,  with  a  monogram  composed  of  two 
interlacing  triangles,  or  with  his  initials.  He  has 
left  descriptive  accounts  of  several  collections  of 

OEVER,  Aleertine  ten,  born  Roelfsema,  was 
an  aujatenr  of  some  abihty.  She  was  a  native  of 
Holland,  and  flourished  early  in  the  19th  century. 

OEVER,  Hendiuk  ten,  a  Dutch  painter,  who 
flourished  about  1690.  No  details  of  his  life  are 
known.  A  portrait  group  of  regents  by  him  still 
hangs  in  the  church  of  St.  Michael,  at  ZwoUe.  It 
is  signed  and  dated  Hendrik  ten  Oevee,  pinxit, 

OFFERMANS,  Antonis  Jacob,  a  Dutch  animal 
painter,  was  a  pupil  of  D.  van  Donge,  and  was 
painting  at  Rotterdam  about  1800. 

OFFERMANS,  Jan,  born  at  Dordrecht  in  1646, 
painted  landscapes  for  some  time ;  but  failing  to 
succeed-  became  a  house  painter. 


Spooner  photo]  Haniplon  Court  Galleiy 



OFFIN,  Charles  d'.    See  Dauphin. 
OFHDYS,   Jan,  a  Flemish  glass  painter,  who 
flourished  in  the  first  half  of  the  16th  century. 

OGBORNE,  David.  Very  little  is  known  as  to 
this  artist,  whose  chief  works  are  views  of  the  towns 
of  Chelmsford  (his  native  place)  and  Dunmow. 
He  also  painted  a  few  portraits  and  did  some 
illustrations  for  local  guide-books.  He  called 
himself  a  "  limner,"  and  dabbled  also  in  literature 
and  the  drama,  writing  poetry,  pl;iys,  and  accounts 
of  local  sights.  He  was  born  about  1700,  and  died 
in  1768  at  a  village  near  Dunmow. 

OGBORNE,  John,  an  English  designer  and  en- 
graver, was  born  in  London  about  the  year  17"25. 
He  was  a  schular  of  Bartolozzi,  and  engraved  in 
the  dot  manner.  Several  of  the  large  plates  for 
Boydell's  Shakspeare  Gallery  are  among  his  best 
works.  He  was  chiefly  employed  on  the  pictures 
of  the  painters  of  that  time  ;  Smirke,  Stothard, 
W.  Hamilton,  A.  Kautfinann,  Westall,  and  Rom- 
ney ;  and  he  also  engraved  some  subjects  from  his 
own  designs.  In  his  later  plates  line  is  combined 
with  stipple.  He  died  about  1795.  MaryOgborne 
assisted  him  on  some  of  Ins  plates. 

OGGIONNO,  Marco  d',  was  born  at  Oggionno, 
near  Milan,  probably  about  1470.  He  was  one  of 
the  chief  pupils  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  whose 
famous  wall  picture,  '  The  Last  Supper,'  he  copied 
more  than  once.  The  best  of  these  copies  is  now 
in  the  possession  of  the  English  Royal  Academy 
of  Arts.  Among  las  most  important  works  were  a 
series  of  frescoes  in  the  church  of  S.  Maria  della 
Pace,  at  Milan.  The  two  best,  a  '  Marriage  at 
Cana,'  and  an  '  Assumption,'  are  now  in  the  Brera. 
Marco  died  in  1549.  Works: 
Berlin.  Museum.     A  '  Holy  Conversation.' 

London.       Kat.  Galleri/.     A  Madonu.T.  and  Child. 

„  Hoyal  Academy.     Copy  of  Leonardo's  '  Cenacolo.' 

„  Hampton  Court.  The  Infants  Christand  St.  John. 
Milan.  Brera.     Michael    suppressing    Lucifer. 

{A  masterpiece ;  signed  '  Mar- 

„  „        The  Assumption. 

„  „        A '  Holy  Conversation.* 

„  ..         Marriage  at  Cana. 

„  Santa  3faria  )  St.   John    the  Baptist   and   a 

detie  Grazie.  j      Donator. 

„  Samta  Eufemia.     Madonna,    St.    Enfemia,    and 


„       Santa  Maria  della  )  rm     r^       -c  • 

"  P  I  ^"^  Crucifi.xion. 

„  Bonomi-Cereda  Coll.    A  Madonna.     (A   masterpiece; 
signed  '  Marcus.^) 
Paris.  Louvre.    A  Holy  Family. 

Petersburg.     Hermitage.    Copy  of  Leonardo's  '  Cenacolo.' 
Turin.  Galleri/.     Christ  bearing  His  Cross. 

OHME,  Eenst  Friedrich,  an  obscure  German 
painter  of  landscape,  who  was  active  in  Dresden 
in  the  first  years  of  the  19th  century. 

O'KEEFE,  (or  KEEFE,)  Daniel,  was  a  painter 
in  miniature,  who  practised  in  London,  and  ex- 
hibited at  the  Royal  Academy  from  1771  to  1783. 
He  died  at  Brompton,  1787. 

O'KEEFE,  (or  KEEFE,)  John,  painted  in 
miniature,  and  was  the  brother  of  Daniel.  He 
was  born  at  Dublin  in  1748.  After  studying  in 
the  Academy  of  Dublin,  and  in  London  under 
Hudson,  he  made  a  number  of  humorous  designs. 
Relinquishing  painting,  he  became  an  actor  of 
low  comedy  in  London  and  Dublin,  and  was  also 
the  author  of  some  successful  dramatic  pieces, 
lie  died  at  Soutliainpton  in  1833.  There  is  a 
portrait  of  him  by  Lawrenson  in  the  National 
Portrait  Gallery. 

OKEY,  Samuel,  an  English  mezzotint  engraver, 

D  2 

in  the  second  half  of  the  18th  century.  He  gained 
Society  of  Arts'  premiums  in  1765-7.  About  1771 
he  emigrated  to  America,  and  settled  in  Rhode 
Island,  where  he  continued  to  practise.  Amongst 
his  engravings  are : 

Nelly  O'Brien  ;  after  Reynolds. 
Old  Man  with  Scroll ;  ajter  the  same. 
Lady  Anne  Dawson  ;  after  the  same. 
Girl  with  Lamb  ;  after  Kettle. 
William  Powle  ;  after  Bine. 

OLAGNON,  Pierre  VIctoe,  a  French  painter 
of  genre  and  portrait,  flourished  about  1786.  He 
was  a  pupil  of  Regnault.  His  best  works  are  a 
'  Vintage  at  Macon,'  and  '  Toilet  in  the  Mansarde.' 

OLANDA,  Alberto  d'.     See  Odwater. 

OLANDA,  Antonio  and  Francisco  d',  two  Por- 
tuguese artists  of  the  16th  century  who  are  famous 
for  their  illuminations.  Francisco,  who  was  An- 
tonio's son,  made  a  voyage  to  Italy,  and  on  his 
return  in  1549  presented  a  petition  to  John  XL, 
which  by  protesting  against  the  influence  of 
Flemish  art  in  Portugal,  prepared  the  way  for  that 
of  Italy. 

OLANDA,  Ghglielmo  d'.     See  Aelst,  Willem 


OLDENDORP,  Christian  Johann,  a  landscape 
painter,  born  in  1772  at  the  Castle  of  Marienborn 
in  the  "Wetterau.  He  was  almost  self-taught,  and 
studied  the  works  of  Berghem,  but  distinguished 
himself  most  by  his  firelight  pictures,  which  were 
exhibited  a-t  Weimar  in  1802,  such  as  the  burning 
of  Magdeburg,  Gorlitz,  Moscow,  &c.  Some  of  his 
other  landscapes,  views  in  Saxony,  were  engraved  ; 
and  in  1826  two  appeared  in  lithography. 

OLDERMAN,  Ernst  Friedrich,  or  Fritz,  a 
German  engraver,  was  born  in  the  village  of 
Werther,  near  Bielefeld,  in  1802,  and  was  the  son 
of  a  merchant,  who  intended  him  for  his  own 
business.  His  love  of  drawing  induced  him  to 
devote  to  it  all  his  leisure  time,  and  he  was  encou- 
raged by  a  drawing-master  whose  acquaintance  he 
made.  Convinced  that  he  could  never  settle  to 
business,  he  left  his  home  and  travelled  to  Dussel- 
dort  and  Berlin,  where  he  endeavoured  to  improve 
himself,  but  was  obliged  from  want  of  money  to 
eulist  for  a  time  as  a  soldier.  After  this  he  entered 
the  service  of  a  Hthographer,  and  commenced  as  an 
engraver  in  mezzotint.  He  died  at  Berlin  in  1874. 
Among  his  best  mezzotints  we  may  name: 

Jubal ;  after  Klohers. 

The  Compromise  of  the  Dutch  Nobles;  after  Biefve. 

Parade  before  Frederick  the  Great ;  after  Camphausen. 

Richard  III. ;  after  Stilke. 

Children  at  Play  ;  after  Meyerheim. 

After  the  Wedding  ;  after  Kindler. 

Durer  in  Antwerp  ;  after  Oer. 

Philippa  Welser  ;  after  Schrader. 

OLDONI,  Boniforte  db,  belonged  to  a  family  of 
artists  which  appears  to  have  moved  to  Vercelli 
from  Milan  in  tlie  middle  of  the  15th  century. 
Boniforte  worked  from  1463  to  1510.  He  had 
three  sons,  Ercole,  Giosufe,  and  Eleazar,  all 
painters.  In  the  parish  church  of  Verrone,  near 
Biella,  is  a  fresco  signed  by  Giosue  ;  and  in  the 
possession  of  the  Countess  Castelnuova,  at  Turin, 
IS  a  small  '  Adoration  of  the  Infant  Christ,'  signed 
by  Eleazar,  '  Eleazar  de  Oldonibus.' 

OLEN,  Jan  van.     See  Alen. 

OLENDOKF.     See  Olmdorf. 

OLESZCZYNSKI,  Anthony,  a  Polish  engraver 
and  painter,  born  in  1796  at  Krasnystow  (Lublin). 
He  at  first  studied  law  at  Warsaw,  and  then  spent 



six  years  in  the  School  of  Fine  Arts  at  St.  Peters- 
burg. With  government  aid  he  further  prosecuted 
his  studies  at  Paris,  under  Eegnault  and  Eichomme. 
He  then  passed  some  time  at  Florence,  in  the 
Academy  of  which  city  he  was  appointed  a  Pro- 
fessor. His  patriotic  tendencies  at  length  lost 
him  the  support  of  the  Russian  Government,  and 
he  then  produced  the  series  of  plates  known  as 
'Polish  Varieties.'     Among  the  best  are: 

The  Hungarian  Ambassadors  offering  the  Crown  to  the 
Son  of  Ladislaus  Jagello. 

The  German  Emperor  begs  the  assistance  of  John 

The  Entry  of  Boleslaw  into  Kief. 

Bogdan  Schmielnicki. 

The  Shoemaker  Kilinski. 

The  Enchantment  of  Twardowski. 

Portrait  of  Kosciusko. 

OLGIATI,  GiROLAMO,  an  Italian  engraver,  who 
flourished  in  the  latter  part  of  the  16th  century 
He  formed  his  style  of  engraving  by  studying  the 
works  of  Cornells  Cort.  Among  other  plates  by 
him  is  an  etched  print  representing  the  '  Trinity,' 
with  a  number  of  saints  and  angels,  after  Federigo 
Zuccaro,  inscribed  Hieronymus  Olgiatus  f.  1572 ; 
the  '  Entombment,'  after  Guido  Clovis,  and  others. 

OLIPHANT,  Francis  Wilson,  chiefly  known 
as  a  designer  of  stained  glass.  Oliphant  had  also 
a  considerable  talent  for  oil  painting,  and  was  a 
frequent  exhibitor  at  the  Royal  Academy.  He 
was  born  in  1818  at  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  but  passed 
most  of  his  life  in  London,  working  at  decoration 
and  stained  glass,  and  in  the  latter  department  of 
art  he  attained  great  renown.  Windows  in  Ely 
Cathedral,  Aylesbury  Church,  and  the  ante-chapel 
to  King's  College,  Cambridge,  are  from  his  hand. 
He  was  a  great  friend  of  William  Dyce,  R.A.,  and 
worked  with  him  in  some  of  his  frescoes  and 
cartoons.  He  was  always  a  very  weakly  man, 
and  frequently  compelled  to  leave  England  in  the 
winter,  and  he  died  at  Rome  in  1859. 

OLIS,  Jan,  a  Dutch  painter,  born  in  1610,  at 
Dordrecht  (?).  He  painted  '  Corps-de-gardes,' 
corporation  groups,  and  a  few  single  portraits.  He 
died  in  1665,  most  likely  in  Amsterdam,  where 
most  of  his  life  was  passed.  In  the  Kijks  Museum 
there  is  a  '  Kitchen  Interior '  by  him.  Though  .signed 
J-  Olis/ecit.  1646.,  it  used  to  be  ascribed  to  Sorgh. 
A  landscape  with  figures  in  the  Darmstadt  Gallery, 
given  in  the  Catalogue  to  Jan  Lis,  is  most  likely 
the  work  of  Olis. 

OLIVA,  Ignazio,  a  Neapolitan  painter  and 
scholar  of  Domenico  Gargiulo,  called  Micco  Spa- 
daro.  The  latter  was  the  fellow-pupil  of  Salvator 
Rosa  under  Aniello  Falcone,  and  they  all  painted 
landscapes  and  marine  views  much  in  the  same 
style  in  the  latter  half  of  the  17th  century. 

OLIVA,  Philip,  a  native  of  Middleburg,  was 
admitted  a  bourgeois  of  Antwerp  in  1642,  and  a 
free  member  of  the  Society  of  St.  Luke  in  1655  or 
1656.  He  died  at  Antwerp  about  1659.  In  1648-9 
an  Andreas  Oliva  was  also  inscribed  on  the  guild 
books,  and  in  1  667-8  a  Michael  and  a  second 
Philip,  all  described  as  sons  of  a  master. 

OLIVA,  PlERo,  painter,  a  native  of  Messina,  and 
pupil  of  Antonello,  flourished  about  1490. 

OLIVEIRA-BERNARES,  Ignacio  de,  belongs  to 
a  family  of  artists  in  Portugal  who  bore  this  name. 
The  first  mentioned  is  Manoel  Rodriguez,  a  painter 
who  seems  to  have  been  known  also  as  Oliveira 
Bernares.  He  had  a  son  Antonio,  and  three  grand- 
sons, Ignacio,  Fra  Jose  de  Santa-Maria,  a  monk, 
and  Polycarp,  all  painters.     Ignacio,  who  was  born 


at  Lisbon  in  1695,  was  one  of  the  young  artists 
whom  John  the  Fifth  of  Portugal  sent  to  Rome, 
where  he  wished  to  establish  a  Portuguese  Academy 
of  Painting.  At  Rome  Ignacio  studied  painting 
and  architecture  uuder  Benedetto  Luti  and  Paolo 
de  Matteis.  On  his  return  to  Lisbon  lie  was  ad- 
mitted into  the  Brotherhood  of  St.  Luke,  and 
afterwards  made  a  professor  of  thj  Academy.  He 
died  in  1781.  At  Lisbon  many  of  his  works,  both 
in  architecture  and  in  painting,  are  to  be  seen.  His 
son  Joas  Pedro  de  Oliveira,  born  at  Lisbon  in  1752, 
was  also  an  artist,  and  there  are  pictures  by  him  in 
the  Lisbon  churches. 

OLIVER,  Archer  James,  an  English  portrait 
painter,  was  born  in  1774.  He  studied  in  the  schools 
of  the  Royal  Academv,  of  which  he  was  elected  an 
Associate  in  1803.  For  some  years  he  had  a  wide 
and  fashionable  circle  of  sitters  at  his  studio  in  New 
Bond  Street,  and  he  exhibited  largely  from  1800 
to  1820.  In  1835  he  was  appointed  curator  of  the 
painting  school  in  the  Academy.  Through  ill 
health  in  his  latter  years  his  means  were  reduced, 
and  he  became  a  pensioner  of  the  Academy.  He 
died  in  1842. 

OLIVER,  D.,  supposed  by  Fiissli  to  have  been 
a  French  painter,  resided  in  London  in  the  17th 
century.  The  portrait  of  the  painter  P.  Sevin, 
by  D.  Oliverus  was  engraved  by  De  La  Croix 
in  1692. 

OLIVER,  Isaac,  an  English  mezzotint  engraver 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  17th  century.  He  was  the 
son  of  John  Oliver,  glass  painter.  Amongst  his 
engravings  are  : 

The  Seven  Bishops. 

Chiirles  II. 

George,  Prince  of  Denmark. 

E.  van  HeemsliVrk. 

OLIVER,  LsAAC.  This  eminent  miniature  painter 
was  probably  a  man  of  French  origin,  but  may 
possibly  have  been  bom  in  England.  Some 
references  have  quite  recently  been  found  by 
Mr.  Lionel  Oust  in  the  registers  of  the  French 
church,  Threadneedle  Street,  and  the  Dutch 
church,  Austin  Friars,  and  in  a  return  of  ahens  in 
London  for  1571,  which  seem  to  make  it  clear  that 
Oliver's  parents  were  one  Peter  Oliver,  a  gold- 
smith, who  was  born  at  Rouen,  and  Typhan  hia 
wife,  and  that  they  were  in  London,  lodging  in 
Fleet  Lane,  in  1571,  and  later  in  that  year  in  the 
parish  of  St.  Sepulchre's,  and  that  they  had  with 
them  one  child  named  Isaac,  who  appears  at  that 
time  to  have  been  under  six  years  old.  The  con- 
temporaries of  Oliver  appear  to  have  all  regarded 
him  as  an  Englisliman.  Sandrart,  in  his  '  Teutsch 
Academic,'  speaks  of  him  as  "  Membranarum  pic- 
tor  Londinensis,"  and  in  the  inscription  below  the 
portrait  of  him  which  was  engraved  by  Hendrik 
Hondius  he  is  styled  "  Isaacus  Oliverus  Anglus." 
In  all  probability  he  is  identical  with  one  Isaac 
Olivier  of  Rouen,  who  on  February  9,  1602,  was 
married  at  the  Dutch  church,  Austin  Friars,  to 
Sara  Gheeraerts  of  London,  the  record  of  whose 
marriage  Mr.  Oust  found  in  the  registers  of  the 
church.  If  this  was  so,  it  may  enable  us  to  iden- 
tify the  author  of  the  treatise  on  limning  which 
is  now  in  the  British  Museum,  and  which 
was_  considered  by  Vertue  to  be  the  work  of 
Hilliard.  The  anonymous  author  in  this  treatise 
refers  more  than  once  to  "  your  late  countryman 
and  my  dear  cousin,  Isaac  Oliver,"  and  therefore, 
in  all  probability,  Vertue's  attribution  was  not 
correct.     Mr.  Cust,  in  the  'Dictionary  of  National 


\_Froni  the  miniature  at  Windsor  Casile 


[Collection  of /lie  Queen  of  Holland 



Biographj','  points  cut  that  Sara  Gheeraerts, 
Oliver's  wife,  appears  to  have  been  the  daughter 
of  Marcus  Gheeraerts  the  elder  by  his  second 
wife  Susannah  de  Critz,  who  was  certainly  related 
to  John  de  Critz,  Sergeant  Painter  to  James  I. 
Francis  Meres,  in  his'Palladis  Tamia '  of  1598, 
selects  three  artists,  Hilliard,  Isaac  Oliver,  and 
John  de  Critz,  as  specially  excellent  in  the  art  of 
painting,  "  and  assuming,"  says  Mr.  Oust,  "  that 
John  de  Critz  was  the  cousin  by  marriage  of 
Isaac  Oliver,  he  may  well  have  been  the  author 
of  this  treatise  on  limning."  It  should  be  noticed, 
liowever,  that  there  is  nothing  in  this  theory  to 
prevent  the  treatise  having  been  taken  down  from 
the  teaching  of  Hilliard,  or  having  formed  part  of 
the  manuscripts  of  that  eminent  artist,  edited  as  it 
is  now  by  De  Critz. 

C)liver  frequently  spelt  his  own  name  Olivier  or 
Ollivier,  but  from  the  constant  references  to  In'm 
as  an  Englishman  by  his  contemporaries,  it  would 
seem  likely  either  that  he  was  born  in  England,  or 
else  that  he  came  to  England  at  such  a  tender 
age  that  he  was  considered  as  an  Englishman. 
Burton's  Manuscript  Collections  for  Leicester- 
shire, collected  by  Nicholls  in  his  history  of  the 
county,  connected  Oliver  with  a  family  seated 
at  East  Norton  in  that  county,  while  at  Ashby-de- 
la-Zouch  there  is  an  entry  of  the  birth  of  an  Isaac 
Olliveer  in  1651.  It  is  probable,  however,  that  these 
entries  refer  to  another  family,  and  that  Mr.  Cast's 
discoveries  bring  us  as  near  to  definite  information 
about  this  painter  as  can  be  attained.  More  than  one 
writer  has  drawn  attention  to  the  fact  that  in  the 
portrait  of  Oliver  by  Hondius  there  is  to  be  seen 
through  a  window  a  river-scene  whicli  resembles 
nothing  in  England,  but  is  very  like  the  scenery 
of  the  Seine  near  Kouen,  and  tliat  this  is  further 
evidence  of  the  connection  of  the  family  with 
France.  Haydocke's  Introduction  to  Lomazzo'e 
'Art  of  Painting'  tells  us  that  Oliver  was  the 
pupil  of  Nicholas  Hilliard,  and  from  examination 
of  his  work  it  is  clear  that  he  followed  Hilliard's 
manner  of  painting  very  closelv.  He,  however, 
excelled  his  master  in  the  painting  of  the  face 
and  hands,  and  he  in  his  turn  was  surpassed  by 
his  son  Peter.  Vertue  states  on  the  authority  of 
Nathaniel  Russel,  a  painter,  that  Oliver  also 
painted  larger  pictures  in  oil,  and  he  mentions  two 
pictures,  representing  '  St.  John  the  Baptist '  and  the 
'  Holy  Family,'  as  at  that  time  in  Russel's  posses- 
sion. Russel  appears  to  have  been  a  kinsman  to 
Oliver,  and  was  therefore  well  acquainted  with  his 
work,  but  tliere  are  no  oil  paintings  whicli  can 
now  be  definitely  attributed  to  this  artist.  There 
are  a  large  number  of  his  miniatures  in  existence, 
some  of  the  finest  being  .at  Windsor  Castle,  Mon- 
tagu House,  Chatsworth,  Sherborne  Castle,  Belvoir 
Castle,  and  Minley  Manor,  in  the  latter  house 
being  some  famous  works  of  this  artist,  which 
were  at  one  time  at  Penshurst  Place.  Perhaps 
one  of  the  finest  works  which  Oliver  ever  did  is 
the  group  of  the  three  sons  of  the  second  Viscount 
Montagu,  with  their  servant,  which  he  painted  in 
1598,  and  which  now  belongs  to  the  Marquis  of 
Exeter,  and  is  to  be  seen  at  Burghley. 

Oliver  resided  in  the  district  of  Blackfriars,  and 
he  died  in  1617.  He  was  buried  on  October  2  of 
that  year  in  the  church  of  St.  Anne,  Blackfriars, 
where  a  monument  was  erected  to  his  memory, 
with  a  bust  and  an  epitaph.  This  was  destroyed 
in  the  Great  Fire  of  London,  but  Vertue  declares 
that  he  saw  a  clay  model  of  the  bust  in  the  pos- 

session of  Russel,  together  with  several  leaves 
from  Oliver's  sketch-book.  His  will  was  dated 
June  4,  1617,  and  was  proved  on  October  30  in 
the  same  year,  and  by  it  he  appointed  his  wife 
Elizabeth  his  executrix,  and  referred  to  his  eldest 
son  Peter,  wiio  would  carry  on  his  work,  and  to 
other  sons  who  were  under  age.  In  all  probabil- 
ity Oliver  was  married  twice,  possibly  even  three 
times.  His  will  is  signed  "  Isaac  Oliver,"  and  not 
"Olivier."  His  portrait  is  to  be  seen  both  at 
Montagu  House  and  at  Windor  Castle  amongst 
the  miniatures  in  these  two  important  Collectious. 
.  .  G.  C.  W. 

OLIVER,  John,  was  born  in  1616  in  London,  and 
died  in  1701.  Some  authorities,  Walpole  among 
others,  suppose  him  to  have  been  the  son  of  James 
Oliver,  one  of  the  youngest  sons  of  Isaac  Oliver 
(q.v.);  others  speak  of  him  as  a  descendant  of  John 
Oliver,  master  mason  to  James  I.  He  is  probably 
the  John  Oliver  who  was  one  of  the  Commissioners 
appointed  to  direct  the  rebuilding  in  London  after 
the  Great  Fire  of  1666,  and  who  became  possessed 
of  the  MS.  designs  of  Inigo  Jones.  His  most 
important  achievements  were  in  glass-painting, 
but  he  also  executed  some  engravings. 

Northill  Church,  Bedfordshire :  a  window  put  up  by 
the  Grocers'  Company,  no  longer  iu  its  original  place. 
The  Royal  Arms  and  other  heraldic  devices ;  dated 
1664.  There  was  also  in  Northill  Kectory  a  sundial 
painted  with  insects,  &c.,  signed  and  dated  John 
Oliver  fecit  1664. 

Lambeth  :  a  sundial  put  up  by  Archbishop  Sheldon 
(died  1677),  with  arms  and  a  view  of  the  Sheldonian 
Theatre,  Oxford  ;  this  was  finished  iu  1669. 

Petworth  :  the  arms  of  the  Percys  in  the  great  window 
of  the  chapel. 

Oxford,  Christ  Church:  'St.  Peter  delivered  from 
Prison ' ;  dated  and  inscribed  J.  Oliver  tetat.  su/s 
84,  anno  1700, pinxit  deditque.  This  window  has  been 

The  engravings  ascribed  to  him  are  a  portrait  of 
James  II.,  in  mezzotint ;  Judge  Jeffries  as  '  Earl  of 
Flint';  and  some  others.  Also  a  'View  of  the  Hot 
Wells,  Bath,'  dated  1676;  a 'View  of  Tangiers,' 
after  Hollar ;  besides  a  '  Boy  asleep,  a  Skull  by  his 
side,'  after  Artemisia  Gentileschi.  C.  B. 

OLIVER,  Peter.  This  notable  miniature  painter 
was  the  eldest  son  of  Isaac  Oliver,  probably  by 
his  first  wife.  It  is  not  known  for  certain  when  he 
was  born,  but  that  event  probably  occurred  in 
1594.  He  died  at  Isleworth  in  Middlesex  in  1648, 
and  was  buried  beside  his  father  in  St.  Anne's, 
Blackfriars.  His  will  was  dated  December  12, 
1647,  and  was  proved  on  December  15,  1648,  and 
by  it  he  left  his  whole  estate  to  his  wife  Anne. 
He  was  a  pupil  of  his  father,  Isaac  Oliver,  but  his 
work  is  richer  in  colouring  than  that  of  his  father, 
and  the  painting  of  the  bauds  and  faces  is  of  extra- 
ordinary merit.  He  was  employed  by  Charles  I. 
to  make  water-colour  copies  of  many  of  the  more 
important  paintings  in  the  Royal  Collection,  of 
works  by  Raphael,  Titian,  Correggio,  and  Holbein 
especially,  and  these  copies  were  put  in  frames 
provided  with  locks,  and  known  in  the  old  in- 
ventories as  simtting  glasses.  These  miniature 
copies  were  taken  by  the  King  on  his  travels,  in 
order  that  he  might  enjoy  and  appreciate  the 
beauty  of  the  pictures  when  unable  to  be  near  the 
gallery.  They  were  dispersed  at  the  sale  of  the 
Collection,  but  several  of  them  still  remain  in  the 
Royal  Collection  at  Windsor.  One  exceedingly  fine 
signed  example,  still  in  its  original  frame,  is  at 
Burghley,  and  in  the  same  Collection   there  are 



three  more  copies  in  water-colour  of  old  masters' 
paintings,  wliich  were  probably  the  work  of  Oliver 
or  of  his  pupils.  Another  is  to  be  found  in  the 
Jones  Collection  at  South  Kensington,  and  yet 
another  is  at  Monfcigu  House.  Oliver  also  made 
copies  in  miniature  of  works  of  Van  Dyck,  and 
two  of  these  copies  are  at  Sherborne  Castle, 
while  one,  which  is  of  unusual  size  and  great 
beauty,  represents  Rachel  de  Riivigny,  Countess 
of  Southampton.  One  of  his  most  beautiful  works 
is  the  portrait  of  Henry,  Prince  of  Wales,  which 
is  now  at  Belvoir  Castle.  The  Prince  is  re- 
presented in  gilded  armour,  wearing  the  blue 
ribbon  of  the  Garter  and  a  fine  lace  ruff.  A 
miniature  in  the  same  Collection  of  Charles,  Prince 
of  Wales,  is  very  probablj'  the  work  of  the  same 
artist.  Peter  Oliver's  portrait  as  a  boy,  painted  by 
his  father,  is  to  be  seen  at  Welbeck,  and  another 
one  of  himself  as  a  young  man,  which  is  his  own 
work,  is  at  Montagu  House.  Tliere  are  several 
miniatures  in  the  possession  of  the  Queen  of 
Holland,  who  also  owns  some  of  the  finest  works 
of  his  father  Isaac,  and  other  examples  of  the  work 
of  Oliver  appear  in  the  Rijks  Museum  at  Amster- 
dam. A  great  many  of  his  miniatures  remained 
in  the  possession  of  his  widow  at  Isleworth,  and  it 
is  said  that  Charles  II.  heard  of  their  existence 
and  was  desirous  of  obtaining  them.  Vertue  tells 
ns  that  the  King  went  privately  and  unknown  to 
see  Mrs.  Oliver,  taking  with  him  a  man  whom 
Vertue  calls  Rogers,  but  who  was  probably  a  man 
named  Progers,  who  was  well  known  for  being 
employed  in  the  King's  private  pleasures.  Mrs. 
Oliver  showed  the  King  a  large  lunnber  of  minia- 
tures both  finished  and  unfinished,  and  when  he 
revealed  himself  to  her,  promised  to  look  over  her 
husband's  books  and  let  him  know  what  prices 
his  father  the  late  King  had  paid.  The  King  took 
away,  says  Vertue,  what  he  liked,  and  sent  a 
messenger  to  Mrs.  Oliver  with  the  option  of  a 
thousand  pounds  for  them  or  an  annuity  of  £300 
for  her  life.  She  chose  the  latter  sum,  but  it  was 
subsequently  reported  to  the  King  that  Mrs.  Oliver 
had  denounced  in  disrespectful  terms  the  Royal 
mistresses  to  whom  many  of  the  pictures  had  been 
given,  and  stated  that  if  she  had  thought  the  King 
would  have  given  them  to  such  persons,  he  would 
never  have  had  them.  From  the  moment  that  the 
story  reached  the  Court  the  poor  woman's  salary 
was  stopped,  and  she  never  received  it  after- 
wards. The  rest  of  the  miniatures  in  Mrs.  Oliver's 
possession  passed,  so  Vertue  tells  us,  into  the 
hands  of  Theodore  Russel,  the  father  of  Vertue's 

Oliver's  portrait  is  said  to  have  been  engraved 
by  T.  Chambars  ;  there  is  an  anonymous  etching 
known  which  represents  him.  In  the  Earl  of 
Derby's  Collection  there  is  a  leaf  of  a  pocket- 
book  with  drawings  by  Oliver  in  black  lead  of 
himself  on  one  side  and  of  his  wife  on  the  other. 
His  pictures  are  painted  on  cardboard,  or  on  an 
exceedingly  thin  vellum  mounted  on  card.  Several 
of  his  works  belong  to  Mr.  L.  Currie,  and  are  at 
Minley  Manor,  there  is  a  beautiful  one  at  Ham 
House,  and  an  important  one  at  the  Wallace 
Gallery,  several  at  Welbeck,  and  very  many  at 
Montagu  House.  0-  C.  W. 

OLIVER,  William,  an  English  landscape 
painter,  born  in  1805.  He  chiefly  practised  in 
water-colours,  exhibiting  at  the  New  Water-Colour 
Society,  of  which  he  was  a  member.  His  subjects 
were  mainly  taken  from  foreign  scenery.    He  died 


in  1853.  There  is  an  oil-painting  ot  Foligno,  in  the 
Papal  States,  by  him,  in  the  Kensington  Museum. 

OLIVERUS,  a  skilful  French  miniaturist  of  the 
12th  century.  He  worked  in  Paris.  The  library 
of  Douai  possesses  a  fine  MS.  illustrated  by  him. 

OLIVES,  Francisco,  a  Spanish  painter,  who 
flourished  at  Tarragona  about  1557.  He  filled  for 
a  time  the  post  of  valuer  of  works  of  art  for  the 

OLIVIER,  Adbin,  a  die-sinker  and  engraver  on 
wood,  was  born  at  Ro3'e,  in  Picardy,  in  the  first 
half  of  the  Kith  century;  and  was  Director  of  the 
Mint,  under  Henri  II.,  in  1553.  As  a  wood-en- 
graver, in  conjunction  with  Jean  le  Royer,  his 
brother-in-law,  he  engraved  the  sixty  figures  which 
illustrate  the  '  Lievre  de  Perspective  de  Jehan 
Cousin,'  the  celebrated  French  artist,  which  was 
published  in  Paris  in  1560  by  Jehan  le  Royer,  in  a 
large  folio.  The  date  of  Aubin  Olivier's  death  is 
not  known. 

OLIVIER,  Heinrich,  elder  brother  of  Johann 
H.  Ferdinand  Olivier,  was  bom  at  Dessau  in  1783. 
He  underwent  the  same  course  of  study  as  his 
brother,  and  ultimately  became  a  teacher  of  draw- 
ing and  of  languages  in  Berlin,  where  he  died  in 
1848.  In  Vienna  he  executed  a  copy  of  Pordenone's 
'St.  Justina,'  and  also  produced  original  paintings 
for  the  churches  of  his  native  town. 

OLIVIER,  Johann  Heinrich  Ferdinand,  painter 
and  lithographer,  was  born  at  Dessau  iu  1785. 
His  first  instructions  were  received  from  K.  W. 
Kolbe  and  Haldeiiw.ang,  but  in  1804  he  went  to 
Dresden,  and  studied  under  Jakob  Mechau.  In 
1807  he  accompanied  his  brother  Heinrich  to  Paris, 
and  together  they  painted  a  portrait  of  Napoleon  I. 
on  horseback,  as  well  as  '  The  Baptism  of  Christ ' 
and  a  'Last  Supper' for  the  church  of  Worlitz. 
In  1811  he  proceeded  to  Vienna,  and  in  1828  pub- 
lished a  series  of  lithographs  at  Salzburg.  His  oil 
pictures  are  for  the  most  part  either  purely  his- 
torical, or  historical  landscapes.  In  1833  he  became 
professor  of  art  history  and  general  secretary  to 
the  Academy  at  Munich,  where  he  died  in  1841. 
His  last  and  best  painting  is  a  landscape  in  the 
possession  of  Fraulein  Linder  of  that  city.  He 
usually  signed  his  work  with  a  monogram  of  F.  0. 

OLIVIER,  Michel  Barth^lkmy,  was  born  at 
Marseilles  in  1712,  and  died  in  Paris  in  1784.  He 
was  received  into  the  Academy  as  painter  of  land- 
scape and  genre,  and  became  painter  to  the  Prince 
du  Conti.  His  style  is  that  of  his  time,  the  execu- 
tion neat,  and  colour  undecided. 

OLIVIER,  Woldemar  Friedrich,  younger 
brother  of  Heinrich  and  Ferdinand  Olivier,  was 
born  at  Dessau  in  1791.  From  1811  he  studied 
under  his  brother  Ferdinand  :  but  in  1813-14  he 
served  as  an  ofiScer  in  the  Lutzow  volunteer  corps, 
and  as  such  obtained  the  iron  cross  and  the  Order 
of  St.  Anne  and  St.  George.  In  1815  he  travelled 
in  England  and  the  Netherlands,  and  proceeded  in 
1818  to  Rome,  where  he  studied  under  Overbeck 
and  Cornelius.  He  here  painted  his  picture  of 
'  Christ  with  the  Tribute  Money,'  together  with 
landscapes  with  historical  figures.  In  1824  he 
returned  to  Vienna  and  practised  .is  a  portrait 
painter,  but  removed  in  1829  to  Munich,  where  he 
worked  upon  the  frescoes  in  the  Konigsbau,  in  the 
Nihelungenand  Homer  Saloons,  and  also  designed 
a  '  Pictorial  Bible'  with  fifty  illustrations  from  the 
New  Testament.     He  died  at  Dessau  in  1859. 

OLIVIERI,  DoMENico,  was  bom  at  Turin  in 
1679.     He  particularly  excelled  in  painting  droll 


[From  the  miniature  at  one  time  at  Castle  Nozuard 












scenes,  fairs,  and  merry-makings,  in  imitation  of 
the  style  of  Peter  van  Laer,  in  which  he  displayed 
infinite  humour,  and  a  talent  for  caricature.  In 
the  gallery  of  the  court  of  Turin  were  two  of  his 
best  pictures,  in  one  of  which  he  has  represented  a 
fair,  with  an  immense  assemblage  of  figures,  of 
quack-doctors,  and  groups  of  peasants,  sporting  or 
quarrelling.  Though  chiefly  employed  in  painting 
what  are  called  Bambocciate,  he  was  not  incapable 
of  historical  painting,  as  appears  in  his  picture  of 
'The  Miracle  of  the  Sacrament,'  in  the  sacristy  of 
Corpus  Domini,  at  Turin.  He  died  in  1755.  Boni 
says  that  he  had  a  pupil  who  painted  in  the  same 
style,  and  of  whom  he  speaks  as  N.  Graneri  of 

OLIVIERI,  DoMENico,  called  S.^lvatoriello,  a 
Neapolitan,  born  in  the  last  half  of  the  17th 
century.  He  was  the  best  of  Solimena's  pupils, 
and  painted,  in  fresco,  '  Tlie  Virgin  and  Child,'  in 
S.  Maria  delle  Grazie  ;  '  Rinaldo  and  Armida,'  and 
other  pictures  on  a  large  scale.     He  died  in  1718. 

OLIVIERS,  Jacob  Frans  and  Adriaen,  two 
obscure  painters  of  Haarlem,  who  flourished  in  the 
17th  and  18th  centuries.  Jacob  was  inscribed  on 
the  Guild  in  1632.  In  1650  he  received,  from  the 
military  authorities,  a  sum  of  150  florins  for  re- 
storing pictures,  and  in  1667  a  requisition  was  made 
for  a  tomb  for  him  in  the  church  of  St.  Bavon. 
Adriaen  was  inscribed  on  the  Guild  in  1707. 

OLLMtJTZ,  Wenzel  or  Wesceslaus  von,  (Oi.- 
MtJTZ,  or  Olomocz,)  was  a  painter  and  engraver  of 
the  15th  century,  who  produced  several  extremely 
good  copies,  as  well  as  original  plates.  By  Bartsch 
he  was  supposed  to  be  identical  with  the  "  JIaster 
signing  W,"  while  some  have  endeavoured  to  iden- 
tify him  with  Michael  Wolgemut.  The  more  recent 
opinion  is  that  the  plates  with  W  upon  them 
are  the  work  of  Wolgemut,  and  that  instead  of 
being  copies  from  Diirer.  DiJrer  copied  them.  For 
a  fuller  discussion  of  the  question  see  Wolgemut. 
The  name  of  Waiceslaus  von  Olomucz  appears  on  a 
copy  from  Scliongaiier's  'Death  of  the  Virgin,' 
dated  1481.  He  was  still  working  as  late  as  the 
beginning  of  the  16th  century.  The  best  of  liis 
plates  are  in  the  above-mentioned  copy  from  Schon- 
gauer's  famous  engraving. 

OLMDORF,  Hans  von,  (or  Olmendorf,)  a  Ba- 
varian artist,  who  painted  between  1460  and  1518. 
He  was  court  painter  to  the  Duke  Sigmund.  He 
painted  at  Munich  and  at  Bhitenburg,  where  it  is 
thought  ke  made  the  designs  for  tlie  windows 
painted  by  Hans  Hebenstreit.  To  him  is  ascribed 
also  the  picture  of  'God  the  Father  with  the  dead 
Christ  on  His  knees,'  the  engraving  from  which  is 
attributed  to  The  Master  of  1466.  Some  of  his 
pictures,  on  panels  with  gold  backgrounds,  are 
at  Schleissheim.  One  of  his  best  works  is  the 
'  Crowning  of  the  Virgin,'  in  which  the  Duke  Sig- 
mund  is  introduced  on  his  knee. 

OLMO,  Giovanni  Paolo.  Siret  speaks  of  a  Ber- 
gamese  painter  of  this  name,  and  of  a  '  Vierge 
Glorieuse,'  at  Berlin,  signed  Jo.  Paidits  Vlmiis. 

OLMO,  Marco.  Burn  in  1683,  of  a  noble  family 
in  the  territory  of  Bergamo,  Marco  Olmo  showed 
early  such  a  strong  inclination  for  painting  that  he 
was  sent  to  Bologna,  and  studied  for  some  years 
under  Gio.  Giosetle  dal  Sole.  On  his  return  he 
painted  a  great  number  of  pictures  for  the  churches 
in  his  native  country,  and  many  portraits.  He 
died  in  1753. 

OMEH,  Rowland,  a  draughtsman,  born  in  Ire- 
land, who  worked  about  1750.      He  drew  many 

public  buildings  in  Dublin  and  other  parts  of  Ire- 
land, whicli  were  engraved. 

OMINO,  L'.     See  Lomeardl 

OMME,  H.  van,  a  mediocre  painter,  who  was 
active  at  Oudewater  in  1651.  In  the  orphanage 
of  that  town  tliere  is  a  large  picture  of  '  Orphans 
at  Dinner,'  by  him. 

OMMEGANCK,  B.4LTIIAZAR  Paul,  a  distin- 
guished painter  of  landscapes  and  animals,  was 
liorn  at  Antwerp  in  1755,  and  studied  under  Hen- 
dricus  Josephus  Antonissen  from  1767.  In  1789 
he  became  dean  of  the  Guild  of  St.  Luke  in  his 
native  city,  and  in  1796  professor  in  the  Academy 
there.  In  1799  lie  won  the  first  prize  for  landscapes 
in  Paris,  and  in  1809  became  a  corresponding 
member  of  the  Institute.  He  was  also  a  member 
of  the  Academies  of  Amsterdam,  Brussels,  Ghent, 
Munich,  and  Vienna.  He  died  at  Antwerp  in  1826. 
He  was  one  of  the  cumniissioners  of  1816,  appointed 
by  Belgium  to  reclaim  from  France  the  objects  of 
art  which  she  had  acquired  by  force  of  arms  during 
the  great  war.  During  his  life  his  works  were 
in  such  request  that  only  the  rich  could  obtain 
them,  and  they  are  therefore  seldom  to  be  found 
but  in  the  finest  modern  collections  of  England, 
France,  and  Holland.  And  yet  in  handling  they 
were  soft,  weak,  and  oversmooth,  in  conception 
confused,  and  in  colour  poor.  It  is  in  fact  greatly 
to  the  example  of  Ommeganck  that  the  poor  work 
done  by  Belgian  landscape  and  animal  painters  in 
the  early  part  of  the  present  century  is  to  be 
traced,  especially  their  shortcomings  in  the  matter 
of  colour.  Carpentero,  J.  F.  Lenzen,  and  some  of 
the  more  recent  Belgian  painters,  have  imitated  his 
manner  ;  a  female  painter,  long  resident  in  Holland 
and  Belgium,  has  copied  several  of  his  pictures 
very  successfully  ;  and  others  in  Engliind  and  else- 
where, under  the  auspices  of  the  dealers,  have  made 
it  a  very  profitable  speculation.  He  executed  some 
admired  drawings,  and  also  clay  models  of  sheep 
and  cows.  Among  his  oil-paintings  there  are  (be- 
sides some  at  Antwerp,  Brussels,  and  Cassel)  : 

Frankfort.      Stddel  Inst.     Landscape     with     sheep     and 

London.    StaJ^ord  House.     Cows  in  the  wat<^r. 
Paris.  Louvre.     Landscape  with  sheep. 

OMMEGANCK,  Maria  Jacoba.     See  Baesten. 

O.MPHALION,  a  painter  of  the  4th  century  B.C., 
who,  as  Pausanias  tells  us,  was  a  pupil  and  friend 
of  Nicias. 

ONA,  (or  Onna,)  Pedro  de,  a  Spanish  painter, 
born  in  Spain  about  1550,  son-in-law  to  Esteban 
Jordan,  sculptor  to  Philip  II.  He  painted  in  1590 
the  principal  altar-piece  in  the  parish  church  of 
Santa  Maria  de  Rioseco. 

ONATAS,  an  early  Greek  sculptor  of  iEgina, 
practised  painting  also  to  some  small  extent,  and 
was  employed  in  conjunction  with  Polygnotus  in 
the  temple  of  Athene  at  Platsea. 

ONATE,  Miguel,  a  Spanish  portrait  painter, 
was  born  at  Seville  in  1535,  and  studied  under 
Antony  Mor,  who  was  in  Spain  in  1551.  He  ac- 
companied his  instructor  to  Portugal,  where  he  was 
sent  to  paint  the  portrait  of  the  first  consort 
of  Philip  II.  He  then  returned  with  him  to 
Madrid,  where  he  died  in  1606,  leaving  to  his 
heirs  a  considerable  fortune  acquired  by  his  pro- 

O'NEAL,  Jeffrey  Hamet,  was  bom  in  Ireland, 
jractised  in  London  for  many  years,  and  died  early 
in  the  19th  century.  He  painted  landscapes,  birds, 
flowers,  small  conversations,  and  miniatures  ;  and 



oontributed  several  years  to  the  Spring  Gardens' 

O'NEIL,  Henry  Nelson,  was  born  at  St.  Peters- 
burg in  1817;  came  to  England  and  entered  the 
Royal  Academy  schools  in  1833.  Some  years  after- 
wards he  started  on  a  journey  to  Italy  with  Mr. 
Elmore,  with  whom  he  contracted  a  friendship  while 
in  the  schools.  On  his  return  to  England  he  rapidly 
rose  to  fame  as  a  contributor  to  the  Exhibitions  of 
the  Royal  Academy.  He  was  elected  an  Associate 
in  1860.  He  died  on  the  13th  of  March,  1880.  The 
fallowing  are  a  few  of  his  best  works  ;  they  were 
very  popular  at  the  time  they  were  painted:  'By 
the  rivers  of  Babylon,'  '  Ahasuerus  and  the  Scribes,' 
'Eastward  Ho  1 '  and  'Home  Again, 'The  Wreck 
of  the  Royal  Charter,'  and  '  The  Death  of  R:iflFaelle.' 
The  last  is  considered  his  best  picture.  Besides 
these,  he  executed  a  number  of  landscapes  and 
portraits.  He  was  also  the  author  of  various 
treatises  on  art. 

O'NEILL,  Hugh,  an  English  draughtsman,  born 
in  London  in  1784.  He  was  helped  by  Dr.  Munro, 
and  afterwards  taught  drawing  in  Oxford,  Edin- 
burgh, Bath,  and  Bristol.  His  subjects  were  archi- 
tectural antiquities,  and  his  sketches  of  Christ  Church, 
Oxford,  and  of  Bristol  were  pnblished.  He  died  at 
Bristol  in  1824.  There  are  three  water-colour 
drawings  by  him  in  the  South  Kensington  Museum. 
Fifty  of  his  sketches  of  antiquities  in  Bristol  were 
etched  by  J.  Skelton,  and  published  in  1826. 

ONGARO,  MiCHELE,  an  artist  of  the  middle  of 
the  15tli  century,  a  native  of  Ferrara.  A  picture 
of  the  '  Virgin  and  Child  '  discovered  there  in  1842, 
is  supposed  to  be  by  him. 

ONGHERS,  Jacob,  a  Dutch  painter  established 
at  Prague  in  1691.  In  1714  he  became  chief  of 
the  corporation  of  painters  in  that  citj-,  and  died 
there  about  1730. 

ONGHERS,  Oswald,  painter,  was  born  at  Mechlin 
in  1628,  and  died  at  Wiirzburg  in  1706.  He  studied 
mainly  after  Van  Dyck,  and  in  1660  settled  at 
Wiirzburg  as  painter  to  the  Prince  Bishop.  He 
produced  an  'Assumption  of  the  Virgin'  for  the 
Haug  Church,  and  a  'Mocking  of  Christ'  and 
'Martyrdom  of  St.  Kilian'  for  the  cathedral. 

ONOFRI,  Francesco,  a  Roman  unight  and  en- 
graver of  the  18th  century,  who  published  a  set 
of  twelve  etchings,  with  a  title,  after  the  works 
of  G.  L.  Bernini. 

ONOFRIO  PA  FABRIANO,  a  painter  of  the 
Umbrian  school,  who  is  said  to  have  been  contem- 
porary witli  Gentile  da  Fabriano,  and  to  have 
painted  in  1460  the  'Life  of  St.  Benedict,'  in  one  of 
the  cloisters  of  St.  Michele  in  Boseo  at  Bologna. 

ONOFRIO,  Cresoentio,  (Honophrus,  or  Hon- 
UFRIIS,)  landscape  painter  and  etcher,  was  born  at 
Rome  most  likely  some  years  later  than  1613,  the 
date  usually  given.  He  was  a  scholar  of  Giispar 
Poussin,  and  painted  landscapes  in  the  style  of  that 
master.  He  resided  chiefly  at  Florence,  where  he 
was  much  emploj'ed  by  the  court  and  for  private 
collections.  He  died  at  Florence.  Lanzi  and  Zani 
say  he  was  living  in  1712,  which  is  more  probable 
than  that  he  died  in  1688,  as  he  etched  a  fine  series 
of  twelve  plates  of  landscapes,  after  hte  own  designs, 
which  are  dated  1696  I 

OORT,  Van.     See  Noort,  Adam  van. 

OORTMAN,  Joachim  Jan,  an  engraver,  of  Dutch 
parentage,  but,  from  his  long  residence  in  Paris, 
reckoned  among  French  artists,  was  born  at  Weesp 
in  1777,  and  studied  successively  under  W.  Koch, 
C.  H.  Hodges,  and  Claessens.     He  engraved  after 


Rembrandt,  Gerard  Don,  A.  Ostade,  Jan  Steen,  and 
other  eminent  Dutch  masters ;  also  after  Titian, 
Giulio  Romano,  Caravaggio,  and  Valentino  :  and 
some  French  painters  of  more  modern  date.  He 
died  in  Paris  in  1«18.  In  addition  to  two  plates 
in  illustration  of  the  '  Lusiad,'  he  supplied  the 
following  to  Filhol's  '  Musee  Fran9ais :  ' 

Portrait  of  Eembrandt ;  aftt'r  that  artist. 
The  Death  of  the  Virgin  ;  after  Caravaggio. 
Martyrdom  of  St.  Laurence  ;  after  Titian. 
Human  Life  ;  after  J.  Steen. 

COST,  James  van,  the  elder,  son  of  John  and 
Geraldine  Weyts,  born  at  Bruges  before  1600 ; 
inscribed  in  the  register  of  the  Guild  of  St.  Luke 
as  apprenticed  to  his  brother  Francis,  and  as  free- 
master  October  18,  1621.  Shortly  after  he  went 
to  Italy,  where  he  studied  under  Hannibal  Carracoi. 
He  returned  to  Bruges  in  1629,  and  was  soon  after 
elected  milder  of  the  Guild.  In  1633-34  he  held 
the  office  of  Dean.  He  was  twice  married,  and 
died  in  1671.  He  painted  a  great  many  pictures, 
the  figures  in  which  are  generally  life-size,  and 
the  backgrounds  architectural.  Tlie  churches  of 
Bruges  contain  many  of  his  religious  paintings. 
His  portraits  are  often  excellent.  He  was  also  a 
good  musician. 
Bruges.       St.  Saviour's.     The  Flight  into  Egypt. 

,,  „  Martyrdom  of  St.  Godeleva. 

„  „  Descent  of  the  Holy  Ghost  at 

Pentecost.     1658. 
„  St.Mari/'s.     Saints  adoring  the  Infant  Jesus. 

„  St.  Janus'.     Presentation   of    the    Blessed 

Virgin.     1655. 
,,  Jltisevm.     EpiscKles  in   the   Life  of    St. 

Anthony  of  Padua. 
„  „  Portrait  of  a  religious  dictating 

to  a  clerk.     1668. 
„  St.  John's  Hospital.     A  Christian  meditating.    1647. 

„      Guitdhonse  of  St.  )  p^^trait  of  T.  Pauwels.    1667. 
Srhastian.  j 
Lisle.  Museum.     St.  John  of  the  Cross  dressing 

a  friar's  leg. 
,,  „  St.    Teresa  and   St.    Peter  of 

Alcantara   in   prayer   before 
the  Holy  Family. 
,,  „  Portrait  of  a  man. 

Paris.  Louvre.     St.  Charles  Borromeo  adminis- 

tering the  plague-stricken  in 
Vienna.  Miisfinn.     The  Nativity. 

Bihliotfraphy :  Weale,  'Catalogue  du  Musee  de 
Bruises,'' pp.  75-80.     Bruges,  1861.        W.  H.  J.  W. 

OOST,  James  van,  the  younger,  son  and  scholar 
of  James  van  Cost  the  elder,  born  at  Bruges, 
February  10,  1639.  He  studied  under  his  father 
until  he  was  tvventy,and  then  went  to  Paris  and,  two 
years  later,  Rome  for  improvement.  He  returned, 
after  some  years,  to  Bruges.  After  painting  there 
some  pictures  for  the  churches,  he  went  to  Lille, 
where  he  married  and  settled.  Having  lost  his 
wife  after  forty-one  years,  he  returned  to  Bruges, 
where  he  died  on  September  29,  1713.  He 
painted  history  and  portraits,  and  was  so  eminent 
in  the  latter,  that  his  partisans  ventured  to  compare 
his  work  with  that  of  Van  Dyck.  His  historical 
pictures  partake  more  of  the  Roman  than  of  the 
Flemish  school.     Works : 

Bruges.  Museum.     Portrait  of  a  man.     1697. 

Brassels.  Musenni.     Portrait  of  a  man.     Signed  J. 

V.  Oast  de  ionghe. 
Lille.  St.  Stephen.     Martyrdom  of  St.  Barbara. 

„  Capuchin  Ch.    Christ    contemplating  the  In- 

struments of  His  Passion. 
„  Museum,     Tw»  portraits   of    men.     168ft 

and  1693.  W'.H.  J.  W. 


Woodbury  Co.  plioto]  \_National  Gallery 

PORTRAIT  OF  A  BOY,  1650  ' 


II  \hhibnry  Co.  photo 

I  The  Louvre 



OOST,  William  van,  son  of  James,  the  elder, 
born  March  8,  1651,  entered  the  Order  of  St. 
Dominic  in  1671,  and  died  August  31,  1686. 

Bruges.  Museiun.     St.  Dominic  seated  readiug,  in 

a  landscape  painted  by  Luke 

W;  H.  J.  W. 

OOSTEN,  J.  VAN,  was  an  artist  who  painted 
small  landscapes,  with  figures  and  animals,  in  the 
manner  of  Jan  Breughel,  to  whom  they  are  usually 
ascribed  when  they  appear  in  sales.  There  are 
no  particulars  of  him  recorded.  There  is  a  good 
example  of  his  work,  a  '  Paradise,'  in  the  "Liechten- 
stein Collection,  at  Vienna.  It  is  signed  J.  van 
Oosten,  fecit. 

OOSTERHOUDT,  Thierry  van,  was  born  at 
Tiel,  in  Guelderhiiid,  in  1756.  He  was  a  scholar 
of  R.  van  Eynder,  and  frequented  the  Electoral 
Academy  at  Dtisseldorf.  After  several  years'  study 
of  the  pictures  of  Raphael,  Carlo  Dolci,  Rubens, 
Viin  Dyck,  and  other  masters  there,  he  returned  to 
his  native  city,  and  painted  portraits,  and  finished 
numerous  compositions.  Some  of  his  subjects  are 
scenes  in  private  life,  and  are  to  be  met  with  at 
Tiel  and  Utrecht.  He  painted  also  in  water- 
colours.     He  died  in  1830. 

OOSTERWIJCK,  Maria  van,  a  celebrated 
painter  of  flowers  and  fruit,  was  born  at  Nootdorp, 
a  small  town  near  Delft,  in  1627  or  1630.  She 
was  the  daughter  of  a  clergyman,  who  encouraged 
the  disposition  she  evinced  for  art  by  placing 
her  under  the  tuition  of  the  flower  painter,  Jan 
Davidsz  de  Heem,  whose  works  she  in  a  few  years 
almost  equalled.  Her  pictures  of  fruit,  flowers, 
and  still-life  found  their  way  into  the  choicest 
collections,  and  she  received  commissions  from 
many  of  the  princes  and  sovereigns  of  Europe. 
Tlie  Emperor  Leopold  L  engaged  her  to  paint  a 
picture  for  his  collection,  and  on  its  completion 
sent  her  the  portrait  of  the  Empress  and  his  own, 
set  with  diamonds,  as  a  mark  of  his  approbation. 
William  HI.  and  Louis  XIV.  were  among  her 
most  munificent  patrons.  Maria  van  Oosterwijck 
died  at  Entdam  in  1693.  Her  works  are  extremely 
scarce,  from  the  care  she  bestowed  upon  thein. 
Among  them  we  may  note  : 

Dresden.  Gallery.     Glass   filled   with    Flowers  in 

great  variety. 
„  „  Fruit-piece,  with    Clusters  of 

Vienna.  Schdnhntv  Gall.     The  same  subject. 
„  „  Still-life  subject. 

OPIE,  (or  OrFEY,)  a  portrait  painter,  was  born 
in  Cornwall,  but  is  said  to  have  been  in  no  way 
connected  with  John  Opie.  He  is  believed  to  have 
been  self-taught.  In  the  catalogue  of  the  Exhibition 
held  in  London  in  1780,  by  the  Incorporated  Society 
of  Artists,  he  and  his  works  are  thus  described, 
"  Master  Oppey,  Penryn.  '  A  Boy's  Head.'  An 
instance  of  genius,  not  having  seen  a  picture." 
This  head  is  said  to  have  been  expressive,  well 
coloured,  and  to  have  attracted  notice  ou  its 
merits.  Oppey  died  young,  in  London,  25th  Nov. 

OPIE,  John,  painter,  was  born  in  the  village  of 
St.  Agnes,  about  seven  miles  from  Trurc,  in  1761. 
He  was  the  son  of  a  master  carpenter,  who  was 
very  desirous  of  bringing  him  up  to  his  own 
business,  but  the  love  of  drawing  appears  to  have 
given  an  early  bent  to  his  inclinations,  and  as  his 
propensity  was  encouraged  by  an  uncle,  who  had 
instructed  him  in  arithmetic  and  the   elements  of 

mathematics,  his  desire  of  becoming  a  painter  gained 
an  entire  dominion  over  his  mind,  and  nothing  could 
divert  him  from  it.  He  had  already  acquired  some 
practice  in  portrait-painting,  when  his  talent  was 
accidentally  discovered  by  Dr.  Wolcott,  'Peter 
Pindar,'  who  at  that  time  resided  at  Truro.  He 
interested  himself  in  his  advancement,  and  lent 
him  some  of  his  pictures  to  study  and  copy.  By 
Wolcott's  assistance  and  recommendation,  the 
talents  of  young  Opie  soon  became  known  through- 
out the  county,  and  he  met  with  considerable  em- 
ployment as  a  portrait  painter.  His  earliest  efforts, 
though  not  distinguished  by  taste,  or  a  graceful  dis- 
position of  the  figure,  were  extraordinary  produc- 
tions for  an  artist  reared  in  so  remote  and  secluded 
a  situation.  About  the  year  1777  he  was  introduced 
to  Lord  Bateman,  who  employed  him  in  painting 
old  men,  beggars,  &c.,  which  he  designed  with 
uncommon  vigour  and  great  truth  of  expression.  In 
1780  he  visited  London  under  the  auspices  of  Dr. 
Wolcott,  where  his  merit  and  the  extraordinary 
circumstances  of  his  early  artistic  life,  made  him 
the  object  of  widespread  interest.  Commissions 
crowded  upon  him,  his  partisans  were  zealous  in 
his  praise,  and  for  sometime  'the  Cornish  wonder' 
was  the  rage. 

The  powers  of  Opie  were  not  calculated  to  flatter 
the  frivolit}'  of  fashion  ;  he  was  not  verj'  suscept- 
ible to  female  grace,  and  his  portraits  of  men  were 
rather  distinguished  by  identity  and  truth,  than  by 
dignity.  Thus  it  was  not  long  before  the  curiosity 
excited  on  his  arrival  in  London  in  a  great  degree 
subsided,  but  as  his  talents  were  not  confined  to 
portraiture,  he  continued  t9  meet  with  employment 
in  painting  domestic  or  rustic  subjects.  The  great 
undertakings  which  were  in  hand  at  this  time,  such 
as  Boydell's  '  Shakespeare,'  Bowyer's  '  English 
History,'  Macklin's  '  Poets  and  Bible,'  opened  a 
new  field  to  Opie,  and  perhaps  his  most  popular 
performances  were  his  pictures  of  the  'Murder  of 
James  I.  of  Scotland,'  the  '  Death  of  Rizzio,' 
'  Jephtha's  Vow,'  the  '  Presentation  in  the  Temple,' 
and  'Arthur  supplicating  Hubert.'  In  the  best  of 
these  he  shows  not  only  vigour,  but  also  a  curious 
sense  of  stjde  which  is  hardly  to  he  found  in  any 
other  English  historical  pictures  of  the  time. 

On  Fuseli's  appointment  to  the  office  of  Keeper 
of  the  Royal  Academy,  in  1806,  Opie  became  a 
candidate  for  the  vacant  professorship  of  painting, 
and  was  elected.  In  that  capacity  he  read  four 
lectures  at  Somerset  House,  which  bear  testimony 
to  the  extent  of  his  powers,  and  to  his  acquaintance 
with  the  theory  of  his  art.  He  died  in  1807,  and 
his  remains  were  interred  in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral, 
near  tliose  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds.  A  catalogue 
of  liis  paintings  was  published  in  1878.  Ttiere  are 
ill  public  collections  : 
London.  National )  Portrait  of  Himself. 

Portrait  Gallon/,  f  „  I'.artulozzi. 

Th.  Holcroft. 
',',     National  Gallery.  „        'William  Siddons. 

J,  „         Mary       Wollstone- 

„      City  Art  Gallery.  ,.         Daniel  Finder. 

Murderof  James  I., of  Scotland. 
'[  „  Murder  of  Eizzio. 

Dul'wich.  Gallery.     Portrait  of  Himself. 

Manchester.  Gallery.  Troilus,  Cressida,  and  Pan- 
darus.  (Lent  by  the  National 
Gallery. ) 

OPITZ,  Georq  Emanuel,  was  born  at  Prague  in 
1775,  and  studied  underCaaanova  in  Dresden.  Dp 
to  1807  he  painted  portraits  in  oil  and  miniature. 


but  tlien  commenced  painting  popular  scenes,' 
character  sketclies,  costume  figures,  and  so  forth. 
In  1813  he  followed  the  Ducliess  of  Courland  to 
Paris,  where  he  found  a  rich  source  of  such  sub- 
jects. Afterwards  he  lived  at  Heidelburg  and 
Altenburg,  and  finally  settled  at  Leipsic,  where  lie 
died  in  1841.  He  was  also  successful  in  aquarelle 
and  gouache  painting,  and  as  an  engraver. 

OPPENORD,  GiLLES  Marie,  (or  Oppknort,)  a 
draughtsman  and  architect,  was  born  in  Paris  in 
1672,  and  was  sent  with  a  pension  from  tlie  King 
to  Rome,  where  he  spent  eight  years.  He  died 
in  Paris  in  1742.  He  prepared  the  designs  for 
the  higli  altars  of  St.  Germain  des  Pris  and  St. 
Sulpice.  Huquieres  engraved  some  ornaments  after 

OPPERDOES,  Jan  Pietersz,  a  Dutch  painter, 
was  born  at  Amsterdam  in  1631  or  1632.  In  1648 
he  was  bound  apprentice  to  Govaert  Camphuysen. 
Little  is  known  of  him.  In  the  Rijks-Museum 
there  is  a  landscape  by  him,  signed  Opperdoes. 

OPPERMANN,  C.  There  is  a  miniature  of  the 
Czar,  Alexander  I.,  in  the  Dresden  Gallery,  signed 
with  this  name,  and  dated  1809. 

OPPI,  Bernardino,  a  designer  and  engraver,  who 
■worked  at  Rome  in  1590.  He  helped  to  engrave 
a  collection  of  sixteen  plates  representing  the 
'  Virtues,'  after  designs  by  Lanfraiico,  which  are 
dedicated  to  Cardinal  Piccolomini. 

OPSTAL,  Antony  van,  a  Flemish  painter,  who 
was  in  the  service  of  the  Archduke  Charles  of 
Austria,  in  1624.  Nagler  says  that  Van  Opstal 
lived  at  Brussels,  and  that  Van  Dyck  painted  his 
portrait.  Jan  Meyssens  was  his  pupil  and  engraved 
after  him. 

OPSTAL,  Gaspar  Jacob  van,  the  younger,  was 
born  at  Antwerp  in  1654.  He  was  probably  a 
pupil  of  his  father.  In  1676  he  entered  the  guild, 
of  which  in  1698-9  he  was  dean.  He  painted  his- 
tory and  portraits,  and  there  are  several  of  his 
works  in  the  churches  in  Flanders  and  Brabant  ; 
but  the  defective  pigments  which  he  used  have 
caused  them  to  darken.  In  1714  he  was  employed 
by  Marshal  Villeroy  to  copy  the  celebrated  altar- 
piece  by  Rubens,  in  the  cathedral  at  Antwerp, 
representing  the  '  Descent  from  the  Cross,'  together 
with  the  shutters  of  the  organ.  The  commissions 
■which  he  received  were  so  numerous  that  he  fre- 
quently had  to  entrust  them  to  his  pupils.  He 
died  at  Antwerp  in  1717.  Of  his  other  works  we 
may  name : 
Antwerp.  Museum.     A  Portrait.     1699. 

„  Jesuits^  Ch.     The  Child  Jesus  addressee!  by 

Angels.     1693. 
Darmstadt.  Gallery.     The  Holy  Family  resting  near 

a  cl.issic  r  tin. 
St.  Omer.         Cathedral.    The  Fathers  of  the  Church. 

OPSTAL,  Gaspar  van,  the  elder,  a  pamter  oi 
Antwerp,  who  studied  under  Simon  de  Vos  in  1632. 
He  was  admitted  a  master  in  1644.  His  sun, 
Gaspar  Jacob,  was  a  better  painter  than  he. 

ORAM,  Euward,  an  English  landscape  painter 
in  the  latter  half  of  the  18th  century.  He  was  the 
son  of  William  Oram,  and  acted  as  assistant  to 
Loutherbourg.  He  exhibited  .at  the  Incorporated 
Society  in  1766,  and  at  the  Academy  from  1775 
to  1799.  A  work  of  his,  apparently  posthumous, 
'  Precepts  and  Observations  on  the  Art  of  Colour- 
ing in  Landscape  Painting,'  was  published  in 

ORAM,  William,  called  'Old  Oram,"  was 
brought  up  as  an  architect,  but  taking  to  land- 


scape  painting,  arrived  at  success  in  that  branch 
of  art,  and  was,  in  1748,  made  superintendent  of 
the  Board  of  Works  by  the  interest  of  Sir  Edward 
Walpole,  who  had  several  of  his  pictures  and  draw- 
ings. There  is  a  picture  by  him  in  the  Hermitage 
at  St.  Petersburg  ;  it  probably  went  there  with  the 
Houghton  Collection.  Oram  was  much  employed 
in  decorating  halls,  staircases,  and  the  panels  over 
chinmey-pieces.  Walker  has  engraved  the  tri- 
umphal arch  erected  by  him  for  the  coronation  of 
George  III.,  at  Westminster  Hall,  and  has  intro- 
duced the  entrance  of  the  Champion  and  the  Lord 

ORATII,  (or  Or.Azi,)  Alessandro,  painted  about 
the  middle  of  the  15th  century,  at  Bologna.  Mal- 
vasia  speaks  of  a  picture  of  the  Virgin  by  him, 
which  he  found  over  the  Macchiavelli  altar  in  the 
church  of  San  Francesco. 

ORAZI,  Andrea  Antonio,  painted  in  fresco  and 
in  oil.  He  was  born  about  1630,  and  was  a  pupil 
of  L.  Garzi  and  C.  Ferri  in  Rome.  In  the  Crozat 
collection  was  a  drawing  by  him,  'The  Angel  and 
Gideon's  Fleece,'  which  was  etched  by  Oaylus,  and 
engraved  by  N  le  Sueur.  He  died  about  1690. 
Giuseppe  Orazi,  wlio  painted  the  vault  of  St.  Maria 
del  Orto,  is  believed  to  have  been  a  relation  of 
Andrea  Antonio. 

ORAZZI,  Niccol6,  was  an  Italian  engraver,  who 
flourished  about  the  year  1760.  He  was  employed 
to  execute  part  of  the  plates  for  the  '  Antiquities  of 
Herculaneum,'  published  by  tiie  authority  of  the 
King  of  Naples. 

ORBETTO,  L'.     See  Turchi. 

ORCAGNA.     See  Cione. 

ORDE-POWLETT,  Thomas,  an  English  ama- 
teur etcher,  born  in  1746.  His  plates  are  chiefly 
caricatures  and  portraits.  There  is  a  burlesque 
portrait  of  Voltaire  by  him,  signed  '  T.  0.  ftcit, 
1772.'  He  was  raised  to  the  peerage  as  Lord  Bolton 
in  1797,  and  died  in  1807. 

OKDONNANCE.     See  Mouchekon,  Is. 

ORELLI,  Antonio  Baldassare,  an  obscure 
painter  of  the  Milanese.  There  is  a  large  altar- 
piece  by  him  in  the  '  Calvary  '  Church  at  Domo- 

ORELLI,  GiDSErrs  Antonio  Felice,  was  born 
in  1700,  in  the  Milanese,  and  received  his  first 
instruction  in  art  from  his  father,  Antonio  Bal- 
dassare. He  also  worked  under  Baptista  Sassi  for 
fight  years,  but  Tiepolo  having  been  called  to  Milan 
by  Count  Archinti,  Orelli  had  the  good  fortune  to 
be  employed  by  him,  and  afterwards  accompanied 
him  to  Venice.  There  he  remained  six  years.  He 
then  went  to  Bergamo,  ■where  he  executed  several 
works  for  the  convents  and  churches,  also  at  Milan 
for  Count  Brentatu.  He  also  painted  a  few  portraitB. 
He  died  in  1774. 

ORFELIN.     See  L'Horfelin. 

ORIENT,  Joseph,  was  bom  at  Burbach,  near 
Eisenstadt,  in  Hungary,  in  1677,  and  was  a  pupil 
of  Anton  Feistenberger.  He  became  sub-director 
of  the  Academy  at  Vienna,  and  died  there  in  1737 
It  is  said  that  he  made  use  of  a  concave  mirror  in  the 
painting  of  his  landscapes,  in  which  Ferg,  Canton, 
and  Janneek  used  to  supply  the  figures.  Among 
them  are : 

I>au<lsc«pe  with  a  Hunt.     (Liechtenstein  Col.) 
A  Flat  Landscape.     {The  sanie.) 
Two  Tyrolese  Land.scapes.     (dallen/.) 
Forest,  with  Game  {engraved  try  Rd^l). 
Mouutain  Landscape,  with  river.    (Town  Gallery,  Stutt- 







ORIENTE,  Jose,  a  Spanish  piiiil^r,  born  in  or 
Bear  Villareal  in  Valencia,  who  painted  in  the 
capital  of  that  province  about  1680-9.  Among 
ether  works  by  liirn,  are  '  Virgin  of  the  Rosary,'  in 
the  church  of  S.  FeHpe  Ncri,  and  a  portrait  of  Do- 
mingo Sarrio,  whicli  was  engraved  by  Crisistomo 

ORIOLI,  Bartolommeo,  was  of  Treviso,  and 
painted  there  about  1616.  His  principal  work  is 
a  large  picture  painted  for  the  clmrch  of  Santa 
Croce,  in  which  there  is  a  procession  of  the  inhabit- 
ants of  Treviso,  all  portraits. 

ORIOLI,  GiDSEPPE,  painted  at  Mantua.  His  best 
picture  is  '  The  Last  Supper,'  in  the  Refectory  of 
the  Carmine  in  that  place.     He  died  in  1750. 

ORIOLO,  Giovanni,  of  Ferrara,  is  known  only 
by  a  portrait  of  Leonello  d'Este,  in  the  National 
Gallerj' ;  it  is  signed  Ojms  Johanis  OHoli,  and 
was  formerly  in  the  Costabili  Gallery  at  Ferrara. 
Oriolo  painted  in  the  middle  of  the  15th  century. 
He  is  supposed  to  have  been  a  pupil  of  Vittor 
Pisano  of  Verona,  called  Pisanello,  because  this 
Leonello  d'Este  is  a  free  copy  from  one  of  that 
master's  medals. 

ORIZONTE.  See  Bloemen,  J.  F.  Van. 
ORLANDI,  Deodato,  lived  at  the  close  of  the 
13th  centurj',  and  is  the  author  of  a  '  Crucifix'  now 
in  the  Palace  of  Parma,  and  bearing  the  date  1288. 
In  the  Pisa  Gallery  there  is  a  '  Virgin  enthroned 
between  SS.  James,  Damian,  Peter,  and  Paul,' 
painted  by  him  in  1301.  No  certain  dates  can  be 
given  for  his  birth  or  death. 

ORLANDI,  Francesco,  the  son  of  Stefano 
Orlandi,  was  born  in  1725,  and  educated  by  his 
father.  He  painted  in  the  same  style  for  theatres 
at  Leghorn  and  a  chapel  at  Cente,  and  was  Pro- 
fessor of  Architecture  in  the  Clementine  Academy 
at  Bologna.  He  was  also  a  good  musician.  He 
died  at  Bologna  in  1769. 

ORLANDI,  Giovanni,  an  engraver  and  pub- 
lisher of  prints  in  Rome  between  1590  and  1640. 
He  followed  the  style  of  Cornelius  Cort.  The 
number  of  engravings  executed  or  published  by  him 
is  considerable.  Among  them  are  'The  Last  Judg- 
iiient,'  after  Michelangelo,  and  'The  Transfigura- 
tion,' after  Raphael ;  also  from  forty  to  fifty  portraits, 
and  a  plan  and  view  of  Genoa,  dated  1637. 

ORLANDI,  OooARDO,  an  obscure  Bolognese 
painter,  and  pupil  of  Pasinelli.  He  was  born  in 
1660,  and  died  in  1736. 

ORLANDI,  Stefano,  was  the  son  of  Odoardo 
Orlandi.  Stefano  was  born  in  1681,  and  studied 
under  Pompeo  Aldrovandini,  with  whom  he  went 
to  Rome.  In  1684,  in  conjunction  with  Giuseppe 
Orsoni,  he  painted  in  many  theatres  in  Italy,  in  the 
Saloon  of  the  Palazzo  Ranuzzi,  and,  with  Francesco 
Monti,  for  the  Martinengo  family  at  Brescia.  He 
died  in  1760. 

ORLANDINI,  GiULlo,  painted  in  Parma  in  the 
middle  of  the  17tli  century. 

ORLANDO,  Bernardo,  was  appointed  court 
painter  at  Turin  in  1617. 

ORLANDO  OP  PERUGIA,  was  one  of  the  fol- 
lowers of  Perugino.  In  1509  he  was  painting  in 
conjunction  with  Sinibaldo  Ibi,  at  Gubhio,  of  which 
place  he  was  made  a  citizen  between  1502  ai.d 

ORLEANS,  FRANgois  d',  a  French  artist,  who 
was  born  at  the  end  of  the  15th  century,  and 
worked  at  Fontainebleau  under  II  Rosso. 

ORLEY,  Van  (or  Orlay).  The  important  artistic 
family  of  the  Van  Orleys  flourished  in  Brussels  for 

three  centuries.     The  following  pedigree  is  giret 
by  Alphonse  Wauters  : 

Valentine  van  Orley.  14B6.  d  before  1532. 

liOti— li5C. 













Jerome.  Tieter,  Franz, 

working     ICSO-d.  after  1708. 
1032.  I 




Jlar.  Ant.  Leyniel'S 
(tapestry  woiker). 

Rithard  (I.). 

1662  0-1732  (?). 


ORLEY,  Bernard  van,  son  of  Valentine,  born 
in  or  before  1491.  In  1509  he  left  Brussels  and 
went  to  Rome,  where  he  studied  under  Raphael, 
becoming  a  great  favourite  with  his  master.  He 
returne<l  to  Brussels  while  still  young.  In  1515 
he  was  settled  there,  and  had  already  acquired  a 
reputation,  for  in  that  year  the  confraternity  of  the 
Holy  Cross  at  Furnes  sent  a  delegate  to  ask  him 
to  furnish  a  design  for  an  altar-piece  for  their 
chapel  representing  'The  Carriage  of  the  Cross,' 
'Christ  on  the  Cross,'  and  'The  Deposition.'  The 
sketch  was  approved  of,  and  Bernard  received  the 
commission  to  [laint  the  altar-piece  for  the  sum  of 
50  1.  gr.  In  1518  M.argaret  of  Austria,  Regent  of 
the  Netherlands,  appointed  him  her  official  painter. 
In  1520  he  entertained  Diirer,  who  painted  his 
portrait,  now  in  the  Museum  at  Dre.Mien.  In  1527 
Bernard  and  his  family,  together  with  many  of 
their  connections  and  a  number  of  painters,  tapestry- 
weavers,  and  goldsmiths,  were  arrested  for  having 
assisted  at  clandestine  Lutheran  meetings  held  in 
the  houses  of  Valentine  and  Everard  van  Orley, 
and  were  sentenced  to  pay  fines  and  to  assist  at  a 
certain  number  of  seruKiUS  in  the  church  of  St. 
Gudula.  In  15.30  Bernard  was  appointe<l  official 
painter  to  Mary  of  Hungary,  Margaret's  successor. 
He  is  said  to  have  superintended  the  weaving  of  the 
tapestries  from  Raphael's  cartoons.  He  himself 
made  designs  for  tapestry,  among  the  most  famous 
of  which  are  :  '  The  Life  of  Abraham,'  at  Hampton 
Court,  'The  Hunts  of  Maximilian,'  at  the  Louvre, 
and  '  The  Battle  of  Pavia,'  at  Naples.  He  also 
made  designs  for  windows.  Those  in  the  church 
of  St.  Gudula  at  Brussels,  in  which  the  portraits  of 
Charles  V.,  Louis  of  Hungary,  and  Francis  I. 
appear,  are  from  his  cartoons  now  in  the  Museum 
of  Art  Industries,  Brussels.  Bernard  was  twice 
married,  first  to  Agnes  Seghers,  who  bore  him 
seven  children,  and  secondly  to  Katherine  Hellincx, 
who  bore  him  two.  He  died  January  6,  1542. 
His  earlier  pictures  often  sliow  earnest  feeling  ;  in 
the  later  he  combined  a  superficial  resemblance  to 
Raphael,  Michelangelo,  and  Leonardo  da  Vinci 
with  his  own  native  manner.  In  spite  of  the  cor- 
ruptions of  his  style  and  his  errors  of  taste  he  was 
really  a  great  painter.  His  portraits  are  truthful 
and  often  of  great  merit.  He  painted  eight  of 
Margaret  of  Austria,  but  none  have  as  yet  been 
identified.  The  brilliancy  of  several  of  his  pictures 
is  due  to  their  being  painted  on  a  gold  ground. 
His  motto,  Elx  sijiw.  tijt,  "  Every  man  his  day," 
appears  on  some  of  his  pictures. 

Antwerp.      St.  James'.  The  lAst  Juiigment. 

„  Huspital.      The   Corporal  Works  of    Mercy 

and    Last    Judgment.      1519- 



Bruges.         St.  Mai-y's.  Triptycl],      The     Passion     (left 

unfinished ;  completed  by  Mark 

Brussels.      Museum.       Portrait    of    George    van   ZcUe, 

doctor.     1519. 
,f  „  Triptych.   The  trials  and  patience 

of  Job,  and  the  story  of  Dives 

and  Lazarus,     1521, 
,,  „  Episodes    in    the    lives    of     SS, 

Thomas  and  Matthew  (shutters 

of  a  triptych). 
Dresden.      Gatlm/.        The  Holy  Family. 
Lubeck,        Cathedral.    Polyptych.     The    Adoration    of 

the  Holy  Trinity. 
Turin.  Gallery.       Panel  said  to  have  formed  part 

of  the  altar-piece  of  Furnes. 
Vienna.        Museum.       The  election  of  St.  Matthew  and 

Martyrdom     of    St,     Thomas 

(centre  of  the  altar-piece  of  the 

Guild  of  Carpenters  of  Brussels. 

n  „  The  Holy  Family  resting  on  the 

road  to  Egypt.  w.  H.  J,  W. 
GELEY,  Van,  School  of.  A  great  number  of 
pictures  referable  to  the  school  of  Van  Orley  are 
extant,  among  them  the  so-called  Leonardo  da 
Vinci  at  Gatton  Park,  the  '  Vierge,  au  bas-relief,' 
which  seems  to  be  a  copy  from  a  picture  by  Cesare 
da  Sesto,  now  in  the  Brera,  which  is  itself  a 
compilation  from  various  sources.  Wi  A. 

ORLEY,  Philip  van,  son  of  Valentine,  drew  in 
1513,  for  the  church  of  St.  Peter  at  Louvain,  the 
cartoon  of  a  tapestry  representing  the  story  of 
Herkenbald,  now  in  the  Museum  of  Art  Industries 
at  Brussels.  Another  tapestry  in  the  same  Museum, 
representing  the  '  Descent  from  the  Cross,'  the 
'  Harrowing  of  Hell,'  and  the  '  Entombment,'  was 
probably  woven  from  his  design,  though  some 
critics  tliink  that  Bernard  designed  the  cartoon. 

W.  H,  J.  W. 
ORLEY,  (or  Orlay,)  RiCHARn  van,  was  the 
eldest  son  of  Peter  van  Orley,  of  tlie  same  family 
as  Bernard.  Peter  was  a  hindscape  painter,  and 
had  two  sons — Richard,  who  died  in  1732,  and 
Jean,  who  died  in  1735.  They  were  each  then 
from  twenty  to  twenty-two  years  of  age.  Their 
first  master  was  their  father,  but  lie  soon  placed 
them  under  the  guidance  of  his  brother,  who  was 
a  monk  and  artist.  Richard  painted  in  the  Italian 
style,  and  engraved  a  number  of  plates  after 
different  masters.  The  uncle,  Richard,  painted 
some  fine  pictures  for  the  church  of  his  order,  '  The 
RecoUets,'  but  Jean  was  the  most  able  of  them  all, 
as  he  painted  a  number  of  pictures  for  churches, 
and  made  many  fine  designs  for  tapestry.  They 
are  mostly  done  on  blue  paper  with  the  pen,  and 
shaded  with  Indian-ink.  Those  by  Richard  are 
miniatures  or  designs  for  book-illustrations  in  Indian- 
ink,  and  were  nnich  admired  by  Picart  le  Romain. 
ORLEY,  Valentine  van,  son  of  John,  born  at 
Brussels  in  1466,  removed  to  Antwerp  in  1512  and 
was  admitted  as  free  master  into  the  Guild  of  St. 
Luke  ;  during  the  next  five  years  he  received 
several  apprentices.  He  returned  to  Brussels  in 
or  before  1527,  and  died  there  in  1532,  leaving  four 
sons  who  were  all  painters.  W,  H,  J.  W. 

ORLOWSKY,  Alexander  Ossipowitsch,  a 
painter,  designer,  etcher,  and  lithographer,  who 
was  bom  at  Warsaw  in  1777.  He  studied  under 
Norblin,  and  at  the  Academy  of  St.  Petersburg, 
after  which  lie  travelled  in  France,  Germany,  and 
Italy.  He  distinguished  himself  at  this  period 
chiefly  bj-  his  battle-pieces.  In  1812  he  was  named 
court  painter  to  the  Czar,  Alexander  I.,  an  appoint- 
ment which  the  next  Czar,  Nicholas,  continued.  H  e 

died  at  St.  Petersburg  in  1832.  His  best  pictures 
of  battles  are  in  the  possession  of  the  Russian 
Emperors,  but  others,  together  with  sketches  from 
Russian  popular  life,  historical  pictures,  and  por- 
traits, are  in  the  collections  of  the  nobility  of  that 
country.  Eight  hunting  and  rural  pieces  are  in 
tlie  Hermitage.  He  also  executed  a  number  of 
drawings  which  either  himself  or  others  repro- 
duced in  lithography,  among  them  the  humorous 
'  Cat  Court.'  Four  original  lithographs  by  him 
represent  military  subjects,  and  his  own  portrait. 
An  etching  of  a  'Race-horse  and  Jockey'  w 

ORME,  Anton  de  l'.    See  De  Lorme. 

ORME,  Daniel,  an  engraver  and  miniature 
painter.  He  worked  about  1800,  and  exhibited 
many  portraits  in  miniature,  and  one  or  two  in 
oils  at  the  Royal  Academy,  between  1797  and 
1801.  He  engraved  in  stipple  many  portraits  of 
persons  celebrated  at  the  time,  some  battle-pieces, 
and  a  picture  of  'Alexander  and  Thais,'  from  a 
picture  painted  by  himself.  There  is  a  water- 
colour  drawing  of  Margate  New  Pier  by  him  in 
the  South  Kensington  Museum,  dated  1799. 

ORMEA,  Marc,  a  painter  of  Utrecht,  who  was 
dean  of  the  College  of  painters  from  1621  to  1625. 
He  painted  sea-pieces. 

ORMEA,  WiLLEM,  son  of  Marc,  was  a  painter  of 
still-life.  In  1638  he  presented  to  the  Hospital  of 
St.  Job  (Utrecht)  a  picture  of  various  kinds  of 

ORMIS,  L60NARD,  an  obscure  Burgundian,  who 
painted  at  in  the  16th  century. 

ORO,  II  Monaco  del'  Isola  d',  a  painter,  poet, 
and  historian,  was  born  in  Genoa  about  1346.  He 
became  a  monk  in  the  monastery  of  the  Isola 
d'Oro  (Stecati),  and  subsequently  librarian  there. 
He  wrote  several  books  which  he  embellished  with 
miniatures,  and  presented  to  the  Queen  of  Aragon. 
He  died  in  1408. 

OROZCO,  Marcos  de,  a  Spanish  priest  and 
engraver,  who  resided  at  Madrid  in  the  17th 
century,  and  executed  many  title-pages  to  books 
printed  in  his  time.  The  title-page  to  Ortiz  de 
Zuniga's  '  Annals  of  Seville,'  published  in  1677, 
is  probably  the  best  work  from  Orozco's  burin. 
There  are  many  devotional  prints  by  his  hand. 
Among  them  portraits  of  St.  Francis  de  Sales  ;  of 
the  Bishop  Crespi  di  Borja,  executed  in  1664;  in 
1680  the  title-page  bearing  the  royal  arms,  and 
a  curious  folding  plan  for  the  authorized  history 
of  the  great  auto-da-fe  at  Madrid ;  in  1682,  a 
'  Crucifix  and  angels  bearing  shields  charged  with 
episcopal  devices,'  designed  by  Ximenez  Donoso, 
and  prefixed  to  an  official  account  of  the  synod 
held  at  Toledo  that  year ;  in  1696,  a  title-page 
containing  efligies  of  the  seven  first  canonized 
bishops  of  Spain,  for  Don  Pedro  Juarez's  '  History 
of  the  united  sees  of  Guadix  and  Baza  ; '  and  in 
1597,  an  '  Our  Lady  of  the  Forsaken,'  and  the  arms 
of  the  Archbishop  Rocaberti  of  Valencia,  for  Don 
Felipe  Firniin's  treatise  on  minor  benefices. 

ORRENTE,  Pkdho,  was  a  Spanish  painter,  born 
at  Montealegre,  in  Murcia,  about  the  year  1560. 
He  was  probably  a  scholar  of  II  Greco's,  at  Toledo, 
but  he  subsequently  visited  Italy,  where  he  became 
a  follower  of  the  Venetian  school,  and  an  imitator 
of  Titian,  Giorgione,  and  Bassano.  He  was  favoured 
with  the  protection  of  the  Duke  of  Olivarez,  who 
employed  him  in  painting  several  pictures  for  the 
palace  of  the  Buen  Retiro  at  Madrid.  Soon  after 
1611  he  nainted  for  the  Vizconde  de  Huesca,  in 


Murcia,  eight  pictures  on  '  The  History  of  the  Crea- 
tion ;'  and  in  1616  he  produced  a  '  St.  Sebastian,' for 
the  cathedral  at  Valencia,  where  also  he  established 
a  school  in  which  Pontons  and  March  were  among 
his  pupils.  He  nest  proceeded  to  Cuenga,  wliere 
he  founded  another  school,  in  wliich  he  had  Sal- 
meron  for  a  scholar.  Many  (if  his  works  are  in  the 
churches  and  convents  at  Valencia  and  Cordova. 
In  the  cathedral  at  Toledo,  over  the  door  of  tlie 
sacristy,  is  a  fine  picture  representing  '  Santa  Leo- 
cadia  coming  out  of  the  sepulchre,  before  St.  Ilde- 
fonso  ; '  and  in  the  Keyes  Nuevos,  in  the  same 
clmrch,  was  a  '  Nativity '  painted  by  him,  which 
has  been  since  removed  into  the  royal  collection. 
Another  picture  by  this  master  representing  'Or- 
pheus playing  to  the  brute  Creation  '  hangs  in  the 
Royal  Palace.  There  are  also  in  tlie  king's  posses- 
sion four  landscapes,  wliilst  the  Madrid  Gallery 
has  eight  of  his  paintings,  including  '  The  Ador- 
ation of  the  Shepherds,'  and  'The  Repose  of  Lot's 
Family.'  A  'St.  Jolm  in  the  Wilderness'  was 
in  the  Suermondt  Collection  at  Aix-la-Chapelle,  and 
other  works  of  his  are  at  Dresden,  Paris,  and  St. 
Petersburg.  Being  especially  successful  with 
animals  and  landscapes,  he  made  choice  of  such 
Biblical  subjects  as  permitted  the  introduction  of 
these.  His  last  years  were  spent  at  Seville  and 
at  Toledo,  where  he  died  in  164-1,  and  was  buried 
in  the  same  church  as  II  Greco. 

ORSAY,  CoMTE  d',  the  son  of  General  d'Orsay, 
an  officer  of  the  French  Republic  and  Empire,  was 
born  in  Paris  at  the  beginning  of  the  present 
century.  When  about  twenty  j-ears  of  age  he 
entered  the  French  military  service,  and  whilst 
with  his  regiment  at  Valence,  became  acquainted 
with  the  Earl  of  Blessington  and  his  Countess. 
After  that  he  threw  up  his  commission  and 
travelled  with  them  on  a  tour  in  Italy,  eventually 
marrying  Lord  Blessington's  daughter  by  his  first 
wife.  He  was  appointed  Superintendent  of  the 
Fine  Arts  by  Louis  Napoleon,  but  shortly  after- 
wards (1852)  he  died  of  disease  of  the  lungs.  There 
is  a  half-length  by  him  of  the  Duke  of  Wellington 
in  the  National  Portrait  Gallery,  and  the  South 
Kensington  Museum  possesses  some  of  his  pencil 
caricatures.     D'Orsay  also  practised  sculpture. 

ORSEL,  Victor,  a  French  historical  painter, 
born  at  Lyons  in  1795.  He  went  to  Rome,  where, 
about  1825,  he  came  under  the  influence  of  Over- 
beck,  but  he  also  studied  from  the  antique,  and  was 
a  close  observer  of  nature ;  his  object  being,  as  he 
said,  '  to  baptize  Greek  art.'  In  Paris  he  was  one 
of  the  artists  employed  in  the  chapel  of  the  Virgin 
in  the  church  of  Notre  Dame  de  Lorette.  Orsel 
died  in  1850.     Among  his  other  works  are: 

La  Charit(5.     1823.     (Lyons  Hospital.) 
Adam  and  Eve  with  the  body  of  Abel.     1S24. 
Moses,  when   a   child,   presented  to  Pharaoh. 

{Exhihiied  in  the  Capitol  at  Home.) 
Good  and  EvU.     1833.     {Engraved  by  Vihert.) 


ORSI,  Benedetto,  was  a  native  of  Pescia,  and 
flourished  about  the  year  1660.  Lanzi  numbers 
this  artist  among  the  disciples  of  Baldassare  Fran- 
ceschini,  and  mentions  in  favourable  terras  a 
picture  by  him  in  the  church  of  San  Stefano,  at 
Pescia,  representing  'St.  John  the  Evangelist.' 
He  also  painted  the  '  Seven  Works  of  Mercy,'  for 
La  Compagnia  dei  Nobili,  and  a  large  lunette  at 
Pistoja,  in  S.  Maria  del  Letto,  which  was  long 
attributed  to  Volterrano.     He  died  about  1680. 

ORSI,  Lelio,  called  Lklio  da  Novellara,  was 

a  painter,  designer,  and  architect,  and  was  born 
at  Reggio  in  1511.  Having  been  banished  from 
his  native  city,  for  some  unknown  reason,  he  first 
proceeded  to  Rome,  and  subsequently  established 
himself  at  Novellara,  whence  his  common  appella- 
tion. From  the  similarity  of  his  style  to  that  of 
Cnrreggio,  he  has  been  supposed  to  have  been  a 
disciple  of  that  master,  with  whom  he  was 
certainly  on  terms  of  friendship.  That  he  studied 
Correggio's  works  attentively  is  evident,  from 
his  having  occasionally  copied  his  pictures,  of 
wliich  one  of  the  most  remarkable  is  a  fine  copy 
of  the  famous  '  Notte,'  in  the  Casa  Gazzola,  at 
Verona.  Others  have  stated  him  to  have  been  a 
scholar  of  Michelangelo  ;  but  this  tradition  is 
suspected,  although  Tiraboschi  asserts  that  he 
resided  at  Rome  in  the  time  when  that  artist  was 
painting  some  pictures  for  the  churches.  There 
were  many  of  his  fresco  works  in  the  churches  at 
Reggio  and  Novellara,  which  are  now  nearly  all 
perislied.  Orsi  died  in  1587.  Italian  writers  say 
he  was  "in  pittura  grande,  in  architetturu  ottimo, 
e  in  disegno  massimo "  (in  painting  great,  in 
architecture  best,  and  in  drawing  greatest). 

ORSI,  Prospero,  was  born  at  Rome,  apparently 
about  1560.  He  lived  during  the  pontificate  of 
Sixtus  v.,  who  employed  him  in  the  palace  of  S. 
Giovanni  Laterano,  where  he  painted  two  of  the 
ceilings,  one  representing  '  Moses  with  the  Children 
of  Israel  passing  the  Red  Sea ; '  the  other,  '  Jacob 
receiving  the  Blessing  from  Isaac'  He  was  the 
particular  friend  of  Giuseppe  Cesare  d'Arpino, 
whose  manner  of  painting  he  imitated.  He  died 
at  Rome  in  1635. 

ORSI,  Tranquillo,  was  a  painter  and  architect 
of  Venice  in  the  present  century,  who  died,  in 
1844,  while  professor  of  perspective  there.  He 
produced  views  of  churches,  palaces,  and  public 
buildings,  and  some  of  his  works  are  in  the  Venice 

ORSINI,  Antonio,  a  native  of  Ferrara,  who 
engraved  there  about  1730. 

ORSOLONI,  Carlo,  an  Italian  engraver,  was 
born  at  Venice  about  the  year  1724.  He  carried 
on  a  considerable  commerce  in  prints,  and  was 
employed  in  engraving  some  of  the  plates  for  the 
'  Museo  Fiorentino.'  Among  others,  we  have  the 
following  by  him  : 

St.  Jerome  in  Meditation  ;  after  Ant,  Balestra. 

St.  Francis  de  Sales  ;  after  the  same. 

The  Virgin  with  several  Saints  ;  after  Pietro  Riccki. 

ORSONI,  Giuseppe,  (or  Orsini,)  a  Bolognese 
painter,  born  1691,  died  1755.  He  was  a  pupil  of 
Pompeo  Aldrovandini,  and  worked  much  with  Ste- 
fano Orlandi  at  ornamental  painting  in  tlieatres  and 
private  houses. 

ORTIGA,  Bonant  de,  painter  to  the  deputies 
of  Aragon,  was  living  in  1457.  He  painted  an 
altar-piece  with  figures  of  St.  Simon  and  St.  Jude 
for  the  churcli  of  St.  Francis,  in  Saragossa. 

ORTO,  Diego  de,  was  a  miniature  painter  of 
Seville,  son  of  Bernardo  de  Orto.  Between  1540 
and  1576  he  decorated  a  number  of  choir-books, 
(fee.     In  some  of  these  his  brothers  assisted  him. 

ORTOLANO,  Dell'.  See  Benvendti,  Giov. 

ORVIETANI,  Andrea  and  Bartolommeo,  were 
two  painters  who  worked  at  Orvieto  between  1405 
and  1457. 

ORVIETANO,  Ugolino,  a  painter,  who  wag  em- 
ployed in  the  cathedral  of  Orvieto  about  1321. 

OS,  Gregorics  jAcoiiUS  Johannes  van,  flower 



paintpr,  was  llic  si'roiid  son  of  J.iii  van  Os,  and 
was  born  iit  tli(^  llaguo  in  1782.  IIb  gained  a 
prizn  at  Auistcidani  in  1H09,  ami  on  going  to 
Paris  ill  1812  he  won  a  gold  medal,  and  was  em- 
ployed on  designs  for  Sevres.  Here  lie  spent  the 
greater  part  of  tlie  nextfifly  years,  painling  flowers 
after  the  manner  of  Van  Iliiysuiii,  and  now  and 
then  cxhihiling  hindscajies.  Two  of  his  best  flower- 
pieces  are  now  in  tlio  llagiio  Museum.  Van  Os 
died  in  Paris  in  1801.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
Acadi'iny  of  Amsterdan\.  Among  his  works  wo 
may  also  name : 

AuiNtcrclnm.    It.  Museum.    Flowers. 
Kottecdniii.  Museum.     Flowers. 

J,  „  l''niit  and  Flower.s. 

J,  ,,  Jjimdscapc  in  Gueldcrs. 

OS,  Jan  van,  a  painter  of  friiil,  flowers,  and 
marine  subjects,  was  born  at  Middelliarnis,  in 
Holland,  in  17-14,  and  was  a  scholar  of  Aart 
Sehouman,  at  the  Hague.  His  marine-pieces  are 
only  fair,  but  liiB  fruit  and  flowers  an^  In  great 
request,  and  approach  those  of  Jan  van  Huysum. 
He  died  at  the  Hagui^  in  1H08.  A  good  '  Vaso  of 
Flowers'  by  hini  is  in  the  possession  of  Orenier  of 
Kottordani.  Jan  van  Os  was  also  a  poet.  Among 
his  works  may  bo  included  : 

Frankfurt.  St(tilcl  (lal.  A  Sea-piece. 

Loiulou.  Xdt.Gal.  Flowers,  Fruit,  and  Dead  Birds. 

Paris.  Louvre.  Flowers  and  Fruit. 

Petersburg.  Ilermititije.  Fluwor.s  aud  Fruit. 

OS,  PliCTHK  GiciiMiDUS  VAN,  the  eldest  son  of 
Jan  van  Os,  was  born  at  tlio  Hague  in  177IJ,  and 
was  instriieled  in  (he  (dements  of  art  by  his  father, 
but  devoted  himself  mainly  to  cattle  painting,  and 
made  the  works  of  I'anl  Potter  and  Karel  dii 
Jardin  his  models.  His  etchings,  consisting  of 
cattle,  sheep,  &c.,  fjom  his  own  designs,  and 
also  after  Paul  Potter,  Rercheni,  and  linisdael, 
are  valuable.  His  prints  are  sometimes  signed 
P.  (J.  Tan  Os  fee.  et.  exc,  and  sometimes  with  liis 
initials  only,  P.  G.  V.  O.f.  Ho  died  at  the  Hague 
in  IH.'ty.  There  is  a  good  'Landscape  with  Cattle' 
by  him  in  tlie  iiotterdani  Museum. 

"OSIidllNE,  John,  an  English  portrait  painter, 
wdio  practised  at  Amsterdam  in  the  17lb  century. 
There  is  a  portrait  of  Frederick  Prince  of  Orange 
by  him. 

OSHOKNE,  Wat/pkii  P.,  an  Englishman  who 
settled  in  Jreland,  was  an  occasional  exhibitor 
at  the  Uoyal  Aiademy.  Ho  was  an  Acadeiniciaii 
of  the  Koyal  Hibernian  Academy,  and  practised 
portraiture  and  landscape  in  oil  and  in  black  and 
while.  Ho  died  in  PJOIl  at  the  age  of  forty-three. 
OSEliliO,  Gasi'AH,  called  (JASfAii  Aii  Aviiurs  ClT- 
ADKl.KNSIS,  or  Gasi'Au  Patavinus,  or  Padovano, 
was  an  engraver,  born  at  Padua  in  15.30.  He  imi- 
tated llio  style  of  Giorgio  Ghisi  Mantuano,  wdiose 
pupil  lie  may  ))ossibly  have  been.  He  lived  until 
1585.  He  has  left  sixty-six  plates  of  '  Portraits  of 
the  Archdukes  of  Austria;'  also  that  of  tlio  Pliy- 
sician  Andreas  Mattiolus  Sinensis,  and  a  'Mar- 
riage of  the  Virgin,'  after  Paolo  Veronese.  He 
signed  his  prints  with  a  nnnogram  composed  oC 
the  letters,  C.A.P. 

OSOUIO.      See  MenKSES. 

OSSEN  BEl'XK,  .Ian  (or  Josse  van),  a  paiider  and 
etcher,  was  a  native  of  Rotterdam,  born  about 
1027.  After  having  received  some  instruction  in 
his  native  city,  he  wont  to  Italy,  and  distinguished 
biniNidf  at  Rome  as  a  painter  of  landscapes,  with 
animals,  fairs,  and  huntings,  in  the  stylo  of  Peter 
Tan  Laar,  whoso  works  were  then  greatly  admired. 

Thence  ho  proceeded  to  Vienna,  where  he  became 
court  painter;  next  to  Frankfort;  and,  lastly,  to 
Ratisbon,  where  ho  died  in  1678.  He  usually 
emlxdlished  bis  pictures  with  waterfalls,  grottoes, 
ruins,  and  architecture,  designed  from  the  remains 
of  antiquity  in  and  near  Rome.     Pictures  : 

Cliristiania.  PhniderinK  of  a  Caravau. 

Dresden.  Galltry.     Ormip  of  Uerdsnien. 

Glasgow.  GniU'Vi/.     A  Hawliing  l*arty. 

New  York.      Jlfitscuin.     Altraliam  with  Sarah  aud  Hugar 

ill  a  romantic  landscape. 
Vienna.         Jtetvcdcye.     Jacob's  .journey  to  Mesopotamia. 

We  have  by  this  artist  sixty-two  etchings,  exe- 
cuted in  a  firm  and  free  style,  twenty-seven  of 
which  are  from  his  own  designs,  and  thirty-two 
after  other  masters.  Ho  engraved  part  of  the 
plates  fur  the  collection  called  the  'Gallery  of 
Teniers.'  Among  his  plates  the  following  may  be 
particularized  : 

Twt>  landscapes  ;   nffrr iSalvator  linsa.  asleep  during,'  the  Storm  ;  nftfr  S.  de  J'Iir(/e)\ 

Cavalcade  of  ttie  I'Jmjierorl.eepolil  in  the  Fort  at  Vienna. 

I'roccssioa  of  llio  Emperor  Carl  VI.  to  Schottwien. 

'I'lu-  Catrarclhi. 

The  Cliil'lren  of  Niobo  ;  after  Palma. 

The  Oliililreu   of  Israel   gathering  the  Manna  in  the 

Desert ;  ajtrr  Tintorettu. 
Orplieus  playing  to  the  Animals  ;  after  Jiassano. 
The  Four  Seasons  ;  after  the  :same. 
A  set  of  twelve  plates  of  different  Animals  ;  from  his 

own  desitjns. 
A  sot  of  four  of  different  subjects  ;  the  same. 
Two  Views  ill  and  near  Kome;  the  same. 
A  Hoar-hunt;  after  Peter  van  Laar. 
A  grand  Festival  given  at  Vienna,  with  a  great  number 

of  figures  on  horseback  aud  on  foot ;  .'I.  Lartucci  inv, 

J.  Ossenheeck  sr. 

OSSENP.EECK,  W.,  a  Dutch  painter,  of  whom 
scarcely  anything  is  known.  Ho  flinirished  about 
10H2,  and  may  have  been  the  father  of  Jan  van 
Ossenbeeck.  In  the  Rijks  Miiseimi,  Amsterdam, 
there  is  a  pictin-e  by  him  of  'Mercury  and  lo.'  It 
is  signed  W.  Oxxenheect,  F.  16.'52. 

OSTADE,  AimiAEN  van,  a  celebrated  and 
prolilie  painter  and  engraver,  especially  of  scenes 
iViuii  Dutch  peasant  life,  but  also  of  ]iortraits  and 
still-lire.  He  was  baptized  ("  (iel  anft '')  at  Haar- 
lem on  the  10th  of  December,  1010.  His  father, 
Jan  llcndrik,  was  probably  a  weaver,  and  bad 
retired  bcd'ore  the  religious  persecutions  from  the 
town  of  Eindhoven.  His  molher's  name  is  said 
to  have  been  .lamieke  Hendriksz,  and  the  chil- 
dren adopted  the  name  of  Ostade  from  a  small 
hamlet  of  that  name  near  Eiiullioveii,  which  may 
have  been  the  birthplace  of  their  father.  Adriaen 
and  his  younger  brother  Isack  became  artists,  and 
the  former,  entering  the  studio  of  Fraus  Hals, 
came  there  under  the  influence  of  Adriaen 
Rrouwer,  who  was  in  1627  also  a  pupil  of  Hals. 
In  later  years  be  came  under  the  influence 
of  Keuibrandt's  cliiaro-oscuro.  On  leaving  Hals, 
Adriaen  set  up  as  a  painter  at  Haaileni,  and  bis 
name  as  Ostade  is  first  mentioned  in  1651),  wdien 
be  is  recorded  under  it  as  a  member  of  the 
Scliiitterij  or  civic  guard.  In  16,'58  ho  married 
Machtc  Itgen  Pielersen,  who  died  in  1640  ;  and  his 
f.ilher  in  the  following  year.  U  has  been  ascer- 
tained that  ho  married  a  second  time,  but  the 
name  of  this  wife  is  not  known.  We  only  know 
that  she  belon.god  to  an  aristocratic  family  of 
Amsterdam,  and  this  was  the  reason  that  Ostade 
since  visiti'd  sometimes  that  town.  She  died  in 
loot;,  aud  Adriaen  himself,  on  the  27lh  of  April, 
1685,  in  the  Nicuwe  Kruysstraet.     On  the  2ud  of 













Woodluoy  Co.  fIwto\ 

THE  SMOKER,  1655 

[^Antwerp  Gallery 


May  he  was  buried  in  the  Cluirch  of  St.  Bavon, 
where  he  had  previously  laid  the  remains  of  his 
two  wives.  The  sale-list  of  liis  works  of  art  he 
left  included  two  hundred  pictures  by  his  own 
hand,  and  acolleotion  of  his  ett-hings,  drawings,  &c. 
Smith's  catalogue  mentions  nearly  four  hundred 
of  Adriaen  van  Ostade's  oil  pictures.  He  executed 
besides  an  unknown  number  in  water-colours,  and 
a  vast  quantity  of  pencil  drawings  and  etchings. 
Of  the  latter  Bartsch  has  enumerated  fifty. 
The  Teyler  Museum  at  Haarlem  contains  a  line 
collection.  Besides  his  younger  brother  Isack, 
Adriaen  had  the  following  pupils  :  Cornelis 
Dusart,  Cornelis  Bega,  Micliiel  van  JMusscher, 
E.  Brakenburgli,  and  Jan  de  Gruot.  These  all 
adopted  more  or  less  of  Adriaen's  manner.  Jan 
Steen  also  came  under  his  influence  when  he 
stayed  at  Haarlem.  We  distinguish  clearly  three 
periods  of  painting  in  Ostade's  art.  The  tirst  is  in 
the  style  of  Brouwer,  also  in  the  subjects.  The 
tone  is  greyish,  and  a  little  bit  cold.  In  the  second 
period  the  painting  is  larger  and  thicker,  and  the 
chiaro-oscuro  proves  the  influence  of  Rembrandt's 
works ;  the  tone  becomes  more  brown  and  warm, 
and  the  subjects  mure  distinfjue's.  His  last  period 
is  not  so  eminent.  Though  the  painting  is  an 
extraordinarily  finished  one,  and  the  composition 
made  with  great  care  and  study,  the  impression  of 
the  whole  is  not  so  vigourenx  and  ]ess  pittoresque. 
The  following  are  some  of  Adriaen  Ostade's  more 
important  works : 

Amsterdam.     .Museum.     A  Painter's  Studio.     A.  o. 

„  „  Travellers  resting.  A.  v.  ostade, 

„  „  The  Charlatau.     a.  v.  ostade, 

„  „  The  Baker. 

„    Van  dtr  Hoop  C.    Peasauts  round  a  Hearth.  A.  v. 

OSTADE,  1661. 
„     Six  Collection.    The  Fish- wife.     {Dated  \(Jli.) 
Antwerp.  Museum.    The    Smoker.     A.    v.    ostade, 

Berlin.  Gallery.    Portrait  of  .in  Old  Woman,    a. 

v.  OSTADE,  16 — . 
„  „  The  Lyre-player  before  an  Ale- 

house.     A.  v.  OSTADE,  1640. 
„  ,  The    Smoker.      A.   T.   OSTABE, 

'  1667. 

Brunswick.  Gallery.     The  Amiunciation. 

,,  „  A  Peasant  smoking. 

Bru.ssels.  Gallery.    Man  eating  Herrings. 

Arerwery  Coll.    Interior  of  a  Tavern. 
Ca86el.  Gallery.    Peasants  in  the  Arbour  of  an 

Ale-house.       A.  V.    ostade, 
„  „  Peasants  drinking  iu    an  Ale- 

house.    A.  V.  OSTADE.  10 — . 
„  „  Pea.'^ants  playing  Cards,     a.  v. 

O^TADE,  1059. 

Darmstadt.  Gallery.     Peasants  dancing. 

Dresden.  Gallery.     Peasants  in  an  Ale-house.     A. 

v.  OSTADE,  1639. 

„  „         The    Painter's    Studio,     a.    t. 

OSTADE,  1663. 
„  „         Two  Peasants  eating  at  a  Table. 

A.  V.  OSTADE,  1653. 

M  „         Two  Peasants  before   an  Ale- 

house, one  lighting  a  Pipe. 

A.  V.  OSTADE,  1664. 

„  „         Interior  of  an  Ale-house,  with 

Men  and  Women.  A.  V.  os- 
tade, 1679. 

„  „         Peasants  playing  Cards,      ad. 


Dublin.  Ii'at.  Gall.     Boors  carousing. 

Dulwich.  Gallery.     Boors  making  merry.     A.  v.  os- 

tade, 164 — . 
„  „        Man  and  Woman  in  conversa- 


Dulwich.  Gallery.    A  Man  smoking.    A.  T.  ostade. 

„  „        A  Woman  with  a  Jug.    a.  t. 

Edinburgh.       Nat.  Gall.     Interior  of  a  Butcher's  Shop. 
Florence.  TJjjxzi.    A  Man  at  a  Window. 

Frankfort.  Stddel.    Interior  of  a  Shed.     A.  V.  os- 

tade, 1656. 
Glasgow.  Gallery.    The  strolling  Fiddler. 

„  „  The  Village  School. 

Hague.  Gallerti.     Peasants  in  an  Inn      A.  v.  os- 

TADK,  1662. 
„  The    Fiddler.      A.  T.   ostade, 

1673.  (Floos  van  Amstel 
viade  a  facsimile  enijraving 
from  a  dran-iiiy  by  A.  ran  Os' 
tadc,  dated  1673.  exactly  si7ui- 
lar  to  this  picture.) 
London.  A'at.  Gall.     The  Alchymist.    a.  t.  ostade, 

„  Apsley  House.    A  company  of  Peas.ints.     (The 

drawintf  for  this  picture  is  in 
the  Jiriti^h  Museum.) 
„  Ashlmrton  Coll.    Peasants  playing  and  singing. 

(Dated  1661.) 
„  „  A  Village  Scene.   (Dated  1616.) 

„        Bridgewater  Ho.     Peasants  playing   Skittles.     A. 

V.  ostade,  1676. 
„  „  Portrait  of  an  Old  Man  (jf]'oh- 

ably  a  lawyer).     1671. 
„      Buckingham  Pal.     Peasants  conversing,     a.  v.  os- 
tade, 1650. 
„  „  An     Interior,    with     Peasants 

smoking,   a.  v.  ostade,  1665. 
„  Bute  Coll.    Lawyer  in  his  Study. 

„       Northbrook  Coll.     Four  I'ersons  playing  at  Cards. 
(Dated  1648.) 
[And  fine  examples  in  the  collections  of  Lord   Howe, 
Mr.    H.   Lonsdale,   Mr.   Alfred    de    Kothschild,   Lord 
Kothschild,  de  Eothschild,  Mr.  George  Salting,  &c., 
and  other  private  collections.] 
Madrid.  Gallery.    A  Concert. 

„  „  Pea.sants  feeding. 

„  „  A  Toper. 

Munich.  Pinakothek.     Interior  of  a  Pe.isant's  Cottage. 

A.  V.  OSTADE.  1647. 

„  „  Peasants  quarrelling.    A.  V.  os- 

tade, 1656. 
„  „  Peasants  playing  and  dancing. 

a.  t.  ostade.  1647. 
„  „  A  Toper.     A.  T.  ostade. 

„  „  Peasants  carousing.     A.  V,  os- 

1,  „  Peasants  in  an  Ale-house.    A. 

V.  osrADE,  16 — . 
„  „  Peasants  iu  an  Ale-house,  with 

a  Woman  and  her  Children. 
Oxford.  Univ.  Gall.     A  Dutch  interior. 

Paris.  Louvre.    The    Family  of    Adriaeu    van 

„  „        The  School-master.     A.  v.  os- 

tade, 1662. 
„  „         The  Fish-market. 

„  „        Interior  of  a  Cottage.   A.  v.  os- 

tade, 1642. 
„  „        A  Man  reading  in  his  Cabinet. 

„  „        A  Smoker. 

„  „        A  Toper,     a.  v.  ostade.  1668. 

Pesth.  Gallery.     Interior  of  a  Peasant's  Cottage. 

A.  V.  OSTADE. 

„  „  Interior,  with  Peasants. 

„  „  Peasants  drinking. 

„  „  Interior,  with  Peasants. 

„  „  A  Man  mending  a  Pen. 

,,  „  Interior,  with  Peasants.     4.  V. 


Petersburg.    Hermitaye.    A  Village  Fete. 
„  „  A  Peasant  Family. 

„  „  The  Violin-player.    (Signed  and 

dated  1648.) 
„  „  An    old  Woman   seated   on   a 

Window-sill,  siurounded  by 

a  Vine. 
„  „  A  Village  Minstrel  playing  a 

„  „  The  Baker.    (Signed.) 



Petersburg.    Utrmitn^c.  The  Village  Concert. 

»  «  Peasants  smoking. 

>.  I,  Pea-sants,  while    smoking  and 

drinking,  listen  to  a  Woman 
who  reads  a  Letter. 

).  !>  A  Peasant  Family. 

,  „  Peasants  in  an  Ale-house. 

»  „  Touch.     (Signed.) 

»  !.  Sight.     (Signed  and  dated  1651. 

I,  .,  Taste. 

»  J,  Peasant  in  a  Cottage. 

M  .,  Landscape. 

Eotterdam.        Museum.  A  Man  reading,    a.  t,  ostade. 

»  .,  A  Village  Tavern. 

Vienna.  Gai/eri/.  The  Mountebank. 

„  Czernin  Coll.  Peasants. 

»'  ),  A  Smoker. 

))        _  -1  A  Drinker. 

„     Liechtenstein  Coll.  Four  good  pictures.       n,  -,. 

OSTADE,  IsACK  VAN,  the  brotlier  and  scholar' of 
Adriaen  van  Ostade,  born  at  Haarlem,  2nd  of  June, 
1621.  Little  is  known  of  his  life.  He  painted  at 
Haarlem,  and  was  buried  there  16th  of  October, 
1649.  His  earliest  pictures  were  painted  in  imitation 
of  the  first  style  of  his  brother,  they  are  of  a  brown- 
ish tone,  and  are  inferior  to  tlie  works  of  Adriaen  ; 
but  he  afterwards  adopted  a  manner  of  his  own,  in 
which  he  was  most  successful.  This  latter  is  to 
be  found  in  his  pictures  representing  winter  scenes 
and  frozen  canals,  with  figures  amusing  themselves 
on  the  ice.  Some  of  these  are  faithful  and  admir- 
able representations  of  nature,  and  are  deservedly 
held  in  the  highest  estimation.  They  approach  to 
the  productions  of  Albert  Cuyp,  and  it  may  fairly 
be  presumed  that  if  Isack  had  lived  longer,  he 
would  have  readied  a  still  higher  rank  than  he 
now  enjoys  in  tlie  Dutch  school.  A  large  pro- 
portion of  his  best  pictures  are  in  England,  where 
he  was  appreciated  long  before  he  met  with  much 
recognition  abroad. 
Amsterdam.     Museum.    A    Village    Inn.      isack    van 


„  „  The  Merry  Peasant. 

„  „  A  Way-side  Inn. 

Antwerp.  Museum.     Winter  Landscape.     iSACK  van 

OSTADE,  1645. 
Berlin.  JIuseum.     A  Halt  before  an  Inn.     I.  van 


»  7,  Interior  of  a  Dutch  Peasant's 

Cottage.    ISACK  van  ostade. 

ft  „  A  Peasaut  in  a  Flap-hat.    isack 


Brussels.  Museum.     Travellers     Halting.       i.  van 

OSTADE,    1660    (sic).       [T/iis 

date  must  he  a  forgery,  for  tlie 

paiyiter  was  dead  in  1660.] 

»  „  Woman       Winding      Thread. 

OSTADE.  p. 

Copenhagen.       Gallery.    Wict*rLandscape,withFigures. 


Dresden.  Gallerij.     WinterLandscape,withFigures. 


,,  „  Peasants  Drinking  and  Dancing. 


Gla-sgow.  Gallery.     A  Fish  Auction. 

H&gae.Steengracht Coil.    Peasant  with    a  Pig  (swine). 

I.  V.  OSTADE. 

London.  Jfat.  Gallery.  Village  Scene ;  a  capital  ex- 
ample. (J^ngraved  hy  Dunker.) 

y,  „  Frost  Scene.      ISA-\C   van   os- 


99  „  A  Frozen  Kiver.     i.  v.  ostade. 

(A  masterpiece.) 

„  Asklrurton  Coll.     Travellers  and  Villagers  before 

an  liin. 

^  Bridgewater  House.     A  Village  Street. 

„      Buckingham  Pal.     Boors  Making   Merry,      isack 

VAN   OSTADE,  1646. 

>,  n  A  Village   Street,    isack  van 

OSTADE,  1643. 


London.    Dudley  House.     Selling   Fish.       isack  van  os- 
tade, 1649. 
„      Lausdowne  House.     The  Frozen  Canal,     isack  van 


,,       Northhrook  Coll.    AVinter  Landscape. 
Madrid.  Gallery,     Peasants. 

Mimicli.         Pinnkotliek.     A    Rocky    Landscape,   with    a 
Donkey     and     his      Driver. 


,,  ,,  Peasants  Drinking,     isack  tan 


Paris.  Louvre.     Travellers  halting  at   an  Inn. 


,;  .,  The      Hall.        (Enip-aved      in 

„  „  A    Frozen    Canal    in    Holland 

(No.     378).        ISACK     OST\DE. 

(Enf/raved     iu    Landon    and 
„  „  A    Frozen    Canal    in   Holland 

(No.  379).    ISACK  VAN  OSTADE. 

Petersburg.     Hermitage.     A     Winter      Landscape,    with 

Figures.     (Signed.) 

„  .,  A  Landscape — Travellers  stop- 

I>iug  before  an  Inn.   (Sir/ned.) 

.,  „  A  Frozeu  Lake  in  Holland. 

Rotterdam.        Museum.     A     Village      Scene.        i.    van 

OSTADE,  16 — '. 

Vienna.  IJehedire.     A    Peasant     having    a    Tooth 

e.xtracted.  ^fl  Jf 

OSTENDOEFER,  Han«,  probably  the  son'  of 
Martin  Ostendorfer,  prepared  a  Tilt-book  for  Duke 
Wi'liam  IV.  of  Bavaria,  in  conjunction  with  the 
maitre  d'armes,  Hans  Schenk.  It  is  now  in  the  Library  at  Munich. 

OSTENDORFER,  Maetin,  was  court  painter  to 
the  Duke  William  IV.,  in  the  first  half  of  the  16th 
century;  he  belonged  to  the  school  of  Landshnt. 
He  painted  the  portraits  of  his  master  and  his  wife, 
Maria  Jacohaa.  Two  pictures  of  his  are  in  the 
Moritz  Chapel  at  Nuremberg,  viz.: 

The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Andrew. 

The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Bartholomew. 

OSTENDORFER,  Michael,  painter,  sculptor,  and 
wood  engraver,  flourislied  in  the  first  half  of  the 
16th  century,  and  formed  himself  mainly  ujion  A. 
Altdorfer.  He  worked  in  Ratisbon  from  1.519  to 
1559,  and  died  there  in  the  latter  year.  Among 
his  pictures  we  may  specify  : 

Munich.  Gallery.    A  Scene  from  the  Apocalypse 

(signed   M.    O.   iu   a   mono- 
Kegensburg.  An  Altar-piece  with  wings. 

„  A  Portrait. 

Schleissheim.      Gallery.    A  Christ  on  the  Cross. 

In  the  Munich  Gallery  there  is  also  a  small 
'  Hilly  Landscape,'  which  was  formerly  in  the 
Wallerstein  collection,  and  is  now  ascribed  to  Alt- 
dorfer, but  is  much  more  probably  the  work  of 
Ostendorfer.  He  engraved  on  wood  a  genealogical 
tree  of  tlie  Turkish  Sultans,  with  their  busts. 

OSTERWALD,  Georg,  painter  and  etcher,  was 
born  at  Rinteln  in  Wesertlial,  in  1803.  He  was 
trained  under  Gartner  in  Munich.  From  1830  to 
1832  he  studied  in  Paris.  He  painted  history,  genre, 
landscape,  architectnre,  and  portraits.  Among  his 
better  works  we  may  name  : 

The  Cathedral  of  Bamberg. 

The  Cathedral  of  Siena. 

The  Prophecy  of  Jeremiah  (water Kiolour). 

OSTERWIJCK.     See  Oosterwijck. 

OTELIN,  of  Valenciennes,  the  first  painter  men- 
tioned in  the  annals  of  his  native  city,  flourished 
in  the  15th  century,  and  executed  a  picture  of  'The 
Valenciennois  setting  out  to  pull  down  the  Houses 
of  Bniay  and  Fresnes,  April  25th,  1456,'  which  is 
at  Valenciennes. 


Woodhtiy  Co.  fhoto  \ 

[^Natiotial  Gallery 



OTHO,  Edward  Fitz,  1245,  painted  the  Apostles 
and  King  Henry  III.  and  his  Queen  in  St.  Stephen's 
Chapel,  Westminster, and  the  'Last  Judgment'  on 
the  wall  at  the  west  end. 

OTT,  JoHANN  Georg,  was  bom  at  Sohaffhausen 
in  1782,  and  in  1801,  with  the  assistance  of  Landolt 
and  Breitinger,  first  devoted  himself  to  art,  after 
having  been  brought  up  to  business  pursuits.     In 
the  following  year  he  went  to  Vienna,  and  there 
produced  some    '  Studies   of    Horses.'       He   then 
travelled  in  Germany,  Holland,  and  France,   and 
returned  in   1805  to  his   native  place,  where   he 
devoted  himself  to  the  painting  of  battle-pieces, 
in   which    he    evinced    much    acquaintance   both 
with  military  matters  and  with  horses.     He  died 
at  Zurich    in    1808.     Among  his  works  we   may 
mention : 
Patrol  of  Hussars. 
A  Horse  dragging  a  dead  Chasseur. 
Brother  Nikolaus  von  der  Flute  at  the  fatal  Meeting  at 
Stanz  in  1481  {left  incomplete  at  Ott's  death). 

OTTAVIANI,  Giovanni,   an    Italian    designer 
and  engraver,  was  born  at  Rome  about  1735,  and 
died   in    1808.     He   was   a   pupil  of  Wagner   at 
Venice,  and  on  his  return  to  Rome  engraved  several 
plates  after  some  of  the  most  distinguished  masters. 
The  following  are  among  the  best  of  his  works  : 
St.  Jerome  with  a  Crucifix  ;  after  Guercino. 
St.  Cecilia ;  after  tlie  same. 
Angelica  and  Medoro ;  after  the  same. 
Mars  and  Venus  ;  after  the  same. 
Three  Women  bathing  surprised  by  a  young  Man ;  after 

the  same. 
Diana  and  Actaeon  ;  after  the  same. 
Twenty-three  plates,  from  the  paintings  by  Raphael,  in 

the  loggie  of  the  Yatican. 
Four  plates  from  the  pictures  by  Raphael,  in  the  Far- 
nesina.  representing 

Jupiter  and  Ganymede. 
Juno  on  her  Car. 
Neptune  on  the  Ocean. 
Pluto  and  Prosperine. 
The  Aldobrandini  Marriage ;  after  SmucjUewicz. 

OTTAVIANO  DA  Faenza.     See  Faenza. 

OTTENS,  Frederik  and  Jan,  two  little  known 
engravers,  who  flourished  at  Delft  early  in  the 
18th  century. 

OTTEVAERE,  Adgdste,  a  native  of  Everghem, 
Flanders,  who  painted  from  1809  to  1856.  He 
lived  chiefly  in  Paris,  but  died  at  Ghent  in  the 
latter  year  mentioned.  He  was  a  pupil  of  E.  Ver- 
boeckhoven,  and  painted  similar  subjects. 

OTTINI,  Felice,  called  Filicetto  di  Brandi, 
was  one  of  the  best  scholars  of  H.  Brandi.  In  the 
churches  of  Rome  there  are  but  a  few  pictures  by 
him,  for  he  died  young  in  1697.  He  also  etched 
from  his  own  designs  and  from  the  works  of 
other  Italian  masters.  He  signed  his  etchings 
F.  O.F. 

OTTINI,  Pasqdale,  (called  Pasqualotto,)  was 
born  at  Verona  about  1570,  and  died  in  the  same 
city,  of  the  plague,  in  1630.  He  was  a  disciple  of 
FeUce  Ricci,  whose  manner  he  imitated  so  happily 
that  he  was  employed,  after  that  artist's  death,  in 
conjunction  with  Turchi,  to  complete  several  pic- 
tures which  Kicci  had  left  unfinished.  A  study  of 
the  works  of  Raphael  added  much  to  the  improve- 
ment of  his  talent.  A  good  example  of  his  work- 
manship is  '  The  Slaughter  of  the  Innocents,'  in 
San  Stefano;  and  he  appears  to  still  more  advan- 
tage at  San  Giorgio  in  the  picture  of  St.  Nicholas, 
with  St.  Bernard  and  several  fathers  of  the  Church. 
A  single  etching  is  known  by  him  ;  it  is  an  '  En- 
tombment,' and  is  signed  Pasg:  Otii:   Ver'.  inv. 

VOL.  IV.  E 

OTTLEY,  William  Young,  an  English  writer, 
and  artist,  was  born  near  Thatcham  (Berks.),  in 
1771.  He  was  of  a  good  family,  and  cultivated 
art  as  an  amateur.  Having  studied  under  Cuitt, 
and  in  the  schools  of  the  Academy,  he  went,  in 
1791,  to  Italy,  where  he  remained  ten  years,  study- 
ing and  collecting  works  of  art.  He  is  mainly 
known  as  an  author,  but  he  illustrated  many  of 
his  books  himself.  In  1833  he  was  appointed 
Keeper  of  the  Prints  in  the  British  Museum.  He 
died  in  London  in  1836.     His  chief  works  are  : 

Inquiry  into  the  Origin  and  Early  History  of  Engrav- 
ing.'    1816. 

'  The  Stafiford  Gallery.'     1818. 

'  The  Italian  School  of  Design '  (loith  etchinqs  bu  him- 
self.)    1823. 

'A  series  -of  plates  after  the  early  Florentine  School.' 

'Fac-similes  (by  himself)  of  Prints  of  early  Italian, 
German,  and  Flemish  Schools.'     1826. 

'  Fac-similes  {by  himself)  of  rare  Etchings  after  Italian,. 
Flemish,  and  Dutch  Schools.'    1828. 

'  Notices  of  Engravers  and  theu:  Works.'     1831. 

'  An  Inquiry  into  the  Invention  of  Printing.'    1863. 

In  1823  Ottley  exhibited  a  spirited  design  at  the 
Royal  Academy,  of  '  The  Battle  of  the  Angels.' 

OTTMER,  Karl  Theodor,  an  architect  and 
painter,  was  born  at  Brunswick  in  1800,  and 
after  having  attended  the  Carolinum  there  during 
1816-19,  lie  in  1822  went  to  Berlin,  seven  years 
later  to  Paris,  and  thence  to  Italy,  where  he  first 
devoted  himself  to  painting,  although  through- 
out his  life  he  was  more  engaged  in  building. 
He  died  at  Berlin  in  1843.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  Architectural  Union  of  Great  Britain,  and  an 
honorary  member  of  the  Berlin  Academy. 

OTTO,  Carl,  German  painter ;  born  August  26, 
1830,  at  Osterode  ;  at  first  was  a  painter  of  porce- 
lain at  Klausthal,  and  subsequently  a  pupil  of 
Piloty's  at  the  Munich  Academy  ;  completed  his 
studies  by  travel  in  Holland  and  by  residence  in 
Paris  ;  he  finally  settled  in  Munich.  His  works 
are  to  be  found  in  various  Galleries  of  Germany  ; 
they  include  his  '  Battle  of  Nordlingen,'  '  Belshaz- 
zar's  Feast,'  &c.  He  also  painted  frescoes.  He 
died  at  Munich,  Oct.  6,  1902. 

OTTO,  H.  F.,  an  obscure  German  engraver,  said 
to  have  been  a  native  of  Berlin.  He  resided  at 
Frankfort  in  1707,  and  engraved  part  of  the  heads 
for  a  work  entiied,  '  Nutitia  Universitatis  Franco- 
fortiansB,'  published  in  that  year.  His  plates  con- 
sist chiefly  of  book  ornaments. 

OTTO,  Johannes  Samuel,  was  bom  at  Unruli- 
stadt,  in  the  province  of  Posen,  in  1798.  He 
visited  the  Berlin  Academy,  where  he  was  much 
occupied  in  etching  after  the  architectural  drawings 
of  Schinkel.  He  also  painted  several  altar-pieces, 
as  well  as  many  portraits  ;  some  of  his  portraits  of 
royal  personages  he  reproduced  by  lithography. 
He  also  worked  in  facsimile  after  Holbein's  'Dance 
of  Death.'  In  1844  he  was  named  a  Royal  Pro- 
fessor. He  was  a  great  friend  of  Kiss  the  sculptor. 
Otto  died  in  Berlin  in  1878.  There  is  a  portrait  of 
Kiss  by  him  in  the  National  Gallery  at  Berlin.  We 
may  also  name  : 

Portrait  of  the  Opera  singer,  Lehmann. 

„  King  Frederick  WiUiam  IV.  (engraved    by 


ODDEN-AERD.     See  Auden-Aerd. 

OUDEN  ALLEN.     See  Allen. 

OUDENDIJK,  Adriaen,  a  landscape  painter, 
was  born  at  Haarlem  about  1648,  and  instructed 
by  his  father.     He  painted  landscapes  and  views  of 



<owns,  Boine  of  which  are  enriched  with  figures  by 
Dirok  Maas,  probably  when  he  was  young  ;  but  his 
chief  skill  lay  in  copying,  or  rather  pillaging,  the 
works  of  Adriaen  van  de  Velde  and  Thomas  Wyck, 
for  which  he  was  surnanied  '  Rapianus.'  The  time 
of  his  death  is  not  known,  but  he  was  living  in 

OUDENDIJK,  Evert,  a  painter  at  Haarlem, 
who  was  admitted  into  the  guild  in  1640.  He 
was  the  father  of  Adriaen  Oudendijck.  He  painted 
landscapes  enlivened  with  stag-hunts  and  similar 

OUDENROGGE,  Johannes  Dircksz,  a  painter 
of  whose  life  few  particulars  are  known,  but  in 
the  Museum  at  Amsterdam  there  is  a  picture,  '  The 
Workshop  of  a  Weaver,'  signed  by  him,  and  dated 
1652.  Oudenrogge  visited  France  in  1651  and 
died  two  years  later,  in  1653,  at  Haarlem. 

OUDKY,  Jacques  Charles,  animal  painter,  was 
the  son  of  Jean  Baptiste  Oudry,  and  the  pupil  of 
his  father.  He  was  born  in  Paris  in  1720.  He 
was  received  into  the  Academy  in  1748.  He 
travelled  much  ;  he  lived  for  a  time  at  Brussels. 
where  he  was  painter-in-chief  to  Prince  Charles  of 
Lorraine  :  and  died  at  Lausanne  in  1778. 

OUDRY,  Jean  Baptiste,  a  French  painter  and 
engraver,  born  in  Paris  in  1686.  His  first  art 
instruction  was  received  frcm  his  father,  an  artist 
who  combined  the  trade  of  picture-dealing  with 
painting.  He  also  studied  in  the  old  '  rnaitrise '  of 
St.  Luke,  and  under  de  Serre,  the  king's  painter  at 
Marseilles,  whom  he  accompanied  to  that  city. 
On  his  return  to  Paris  he  became  a  pupil  of  Lar- 
gilliere,  under  whom  he  studied  five  years,  and 
Avho  bestowed  great  care  on  his  training,  and  fully 
recognized  the  peculiar  bent  of  his  genius.  In 
1717  he  had  already  risen  to  such  repute,  that 
when  Peter  the  Great  came  to  Paris  in  that  year, 
he  had  his  portrait  painted  by  Oudry.  He  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  'maitrise'  in  1708,  and 
subsequently  filled  in  it  the  ofiBces  of  assistant  and 
professor.  Oudry  was  received  into  the  Acad^mie 
des  Beaux  Arts  as  an  historical  painter  in  1717. 
on  his  picture  of  'Abundance.'  For  many  years 
his  practice  consisted  of  portraits  and  votive  pic- 
tures for  churches  :  in  fact,  whatever  came  to  him. 
Among  these  works,  the  most  noteworthy  were 
the  'Nativity'  in  the  church  of  St.  Leu,  and  the 
'  Adoration  of  the  Magi '  in  St.  Martin-des-Cliamps. 
At  one  time  he  was  disposed  to  seek  better  fortunes 
in  Russia,  whither  he  was  invited  by  the  Czar,  whose 
portrait  he  had  painted.  A  commission  to  paint 
some  hunting-scenes  for  the  Duke  d'Antin,  however, 
turned  the  scale  in  favour  of  his  native  country, 
and  induced  him  to  remain  in  France.  But  it  was 
not  until  he  was  presented  to  Louis  XV.  that  he  was 
enabled  to  devote  himself  entirely  to  the  class  of 
work  on  which  his  reputation  rests.  He  became 
a  great  favourite  with  the  king,  and  was  assigned 
apartments  in  the  Louvre.  His  brush  was  in  con- 
stant requisition  to  portray  the  royal  dogs  and 
hunts,  as  well  as  any  additions  to  the  king's  col- 
lection of  wild  animals.  Basking  in  the  sunshine 
of  court  patronage,  there  was  now  no  lack  of  com- 
missions to  paint  his  favourite  subjects.  One  of 
his  chief  patrons  was  Fagon,  the  finance  minister, 
for  whom  he  executed  many  decorative  works.  By 
him  he  was  appointed,  in  1734,  to  the  superintend- 
ence of  the  manufactory  at  Beauvais,  and  his 
success  in  this  undertaking  obtained  him  the  like 
appointment  at  the  G  ohelins.  In  producing  designs 
for  execution  at  these  establishments,  he  worked 

assiduously,  and  for  some  time  single-handed,  until 
he  summoned  Boucher  and  Natoire  to  his  aid. 
Notwithstanding  these  labours  he  found  time  to 
paint  a  great  number  of  pictures.  Moreover,  his 
appreciation  of  La  Fontaine  led  him  to  produce 
illustrations  for  the  fine  edition  of  that  poet's 
fables  which  was  published  in  1755.  In  the  same 
year  he  was  struck  with  apoplexy.  He  removed  to 
Beauvais,  in  the  hopes  of  obtaining  benefit  from 
the  change ;  and  there  he  died  on  the  30th  April, 
1755.  The  following  is  a  list  of  his  better  works  : 
Amiens.  Museum.     Dog  and  Game. 

Arras.  „  Fo.\-hunt. 

BesancoD.  „  Dog  guarding  Game. 

Caen.  „  Wild  Boar  Hunt.     1748. 

Cherbourg.  „  Eagle  and  Hare. 

Dijon.  Prefecture.    Fish,  Eel,  and  Ducks. 

Lille.  Museum.     Pug-dog.     1730. 

Montpellier.  „  Game,  Dog,  Flowers,  and  Fruit. 

Nantes.  „  Rustic  scene. 

„  „  Dog  seizing  a  Duck. 

„  Wolf-hunt.     1748. 

„  „  Spauiel. 

Narbonne.  „  Bitch  and  Puppies. 

Orleans.  „  Poultry. 

„  .,  Dog  and  Pheasant. 

Paris.  Louvre.    Wolt-hunt.     1746. 

„  „  Cock-flght.     1749. 

„  Dog  and  Game.     1747. 

„  „  The  Farm.     1750. 

„  Three  pictures  of  Dogs  of  Louis 

Pau.  Museum.     Stag-hunt. 

Eouen.  ,.  Stag-hunt.     1725. 

Stockholm.  Nat.  Oallery.     Water-spaniel      and       Heron. 
„  „  Tiger  at   the  Menagerie,  Ver- 

sailles.    1739. 
„  „  Stag-hunt. 

„  „  The  Lion  and  the  Spider. 

.,  „  Flowers  and  Fruit.     1721. 

„  „  .Spauiel  and  Partridge.     1742. 

„  „  Six  still-life  pictures. 

Toulouse.  Museum.     Portrait  of  himself. 

„  „  Louis  XV.  hunting  the  Stag. 

Tours.  „  Bear-bunt. 

Versailles.  GramZlp,^^ 

Trianon.  J  ^ 

„  „  The  Harvest. 

„  „  Vintage. 

Some  of  Oudry's  drawings  of  birds  in  black  and 
white  chalk  on  blue  paper  are  peculiarly  fine. 

OUDRY,  P.,  an  unknown  French  painter,  whose 
name  is  appended  to  a  portrait  of  Mary  Queen  of 
Scots  in  the  possession  of  the  Duke  of  Devonshire 
at  Hardwick  Hall,  and  probably  painted  at  Sheffield 
for  the  Countess  of  Shrewsbury. 
OURS,  J.  S.  SAINT.  See  Saint  Odrs. 
OUSEY,  BnciaEY,  painter  of  landscape  and 
figure  subjects,  was  born  at  Stalybridge  about 
1851.  Originally  a  weaver,  he  acquired  by  industry 
a  sound  knowledge  of  drawing  and  painting. 
Little  is  known  of  his  early  life.  As  a  boy  be 
painted  portraits  at  five  shillings  each,  and  used  to 
tell  a  story  of  one  old  woman  who,  on  receiving 
her  portrait,  asked,  "Now,  Mr.  Ousey,  is  this  a 
real  ile  paiuting,  will  it  waash  ? "  In  or  before 
1884  he  removed  to  the  Conway  valley.  In  that 
year  he  was  resident  at  Roe-Wen,  and  sent  to  the 
Liverpool  Autumn  Exhibition  '  Salmon  Fishers  on 
the  Conway,' £30,and' A  Wood  Nymph,'15  guineas. 
During  the  short  remainder  of  his  life  Ousey  sent 
every  year  to  this  Exhibition.  The  most  important 
of  three  pictures  in  1885  was  'Fishing-boats  ofl; 
Puffin  Island,"  50  guineas.  In  1885-7  he  studied 
for  a  year  and  a  half  at  Antwerp  under  Verlat, 






[Berlin  Gallery 



the  requisite  funds  being  advanced  by  a  brother 
artist.  In  1887  he  had  removed  to  Conway,  and 
sent  a  large  drawing,  'Gipsy  Hawkers,'  £65.  In 
1888  he  made  his  only  appearance  at  the  Royal 
Academy  with  an  oil,  '  Lone  Margin  of  the  Sea,' 
which  was  afterwards  at  the  Liveqiool  Exhibition. 
He  died  in  1889,  leaving  a  widow  and  several 
children.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Royal  Cambrian 
Academy.  Early  in  1890  a  memorial  exhibition 
of  his  works  was  held  iu  Stalybridge  ;  and  in 
connection  with  it  his  remaining  works,  with  a 
large  number  contributed  by  brother  artists,  were 
disposed  of  by  an  Art  Union  for  the  benefit  of  his 
family.  Ousey  was  a  singularly  versatile  painter, 
with  much  facility  of  invention.  His  cleverness 
is  well  shown  by  a  large  number  of  small  decorative 
])aDcls  which  he  executed  for  the  Bellevue  Hotel, 
Trefriw.  These  are  now  in  the  Gogarth  Abbey 
Hotel,  Llandudno.  Those  that  illustrate  Welsli 
scenery  show  acute  observation  and  a  fine  percep- 
tion of  choice  colour.  Others,  which  represent 
Shakespearean  characters  and  romantic  imaginary 
scenes,  are  the  work  of  a  man  of  considerable 
reading  and  fertile  invention.  There  can  be  little 
doubt  that  Ousey,  but  for  his  premature  death, 
■would  have  sunnounted  the  drawbacks  of  his  early 
career  and  made  a  considerable  reputation  in  art. 

E.  R.D. 
OUTKIN.     See  Utkin. 
OUVILLY.     See  Gebbieb. 
OUVRIE,  Pierre  Jcstin,   painter  and   litho- 
grapher, was  born  in  Paris  in  1806.     He  was  a 
pupil  of  Abel  de  Pujol  and  of  Chatillon.    He  visited 
Italy,  Flanders,  and  England.     His  landscapes  are 
remarkable  for  the  skill  with  which  the  buildings 
in  them  are  treated.    Ouvrie  died  in  1879.    Among 
his  best  works  we  may  name : 

Shelley's  Funeral. 

The  Grand  Canal,  Venice. 

St.  Laurence,  Nuremberg. 

San  Pietro,  Genoa. 

"Windsor  Castle. 

TVurzhurg  Cathedral.     {Water-Colour.) 

View  of  Rouen.     {The  same.) 

Market  in  Nuremberg.     {The  same.) 

Somerset  House.    {The  same.) 

OUVRIER,  .Jean,  a  French  engraver,  was  bom 
in  Paris  in  1725,  and  died  in  1754.     We  have  by 
bira  a  variety  of  vignettes,  landscapes,  and  other 
subjects,  of  which   tlie  following  are  considered 
the  best : 
The  Villagers  of  the  Apennines ;  after  Pierre. 
A  View  in  the  Alps ;  after  Vemet. 
A  View  in  the  Apennines ;  after  the  satri 
The  Magic  Lantern  ;  after  Schenau. 
The  Flemish  School ;  after  Eisen  the  elder. 
The  Dutch  School ;  after  the  same. 
The  Genius  of  Design,  an  emblematical  subject ;  after 
'     OUWATER,  Albert  van,  a  Haarlem  painter 
who  flourished  1430-1460.     He  acquired  a  reputa- 
tion for  skill  in  tlie  treatment  of  landscape  and  in 
the  painting  of  hands  and  feet.     Cardinal  Grimani 
is  said  by  the  'Anonimo'  to  have  possessed  some 
landscapes  by  him,  and  Van  Mander  informs  us 
that  he  executed  an  altar-piece  for  the  church  of 
St.  Bavo  at  Haarlem  representing  SS.  Peter  and 
Paul  hfe-eizc,  with,  on  the  predella,  pilgrims  on 
the  way  to  Rome,  in  a  finely-painted  landscape. 
These  are  now  lost,  and  the  only  picture  proved 
to  be  by  him   is  the   '  Raising  of  Lazarus '  de- 
scribed by  Van  Mander,  and  now  in  the   Berlin 
Museum.  W.H.J:  W. 

E  2 

OUWATER,  Gheerardt  tan.     See  David. 

OUWATER,  IsAAK,  an  artist,  born  in  1747,  at 
Amsterdam.  He  painted  there,  at  Utrecht,  and  at 
Haarlem.  His  subjects  were  views  of  or  in  towns, 
into  which  he  introduced  figures  and  animals.  He 
died  at  Amsterdam  in  1793.  Six  pictures  by  him 
were  sold,  in  1814,  at  the  sale  of  J.  C.  van  Hall  ; 
and  there  are  in  the  Museum  at  Amsterdam,  two 
views  of  that  city  by  him. 

OUWATER,  Jakob,  was  a  Dutch  painter  of 
fruit,  flowers,  insects,  birds,  &c.,  of  whom  little  is 
known.  He  lived  long,  however,  at  the  Hague, 
where  he  was  inscribed,  in  1754,  on  the  registers  of 
the  '  Pictura  '  brotherhood.  He  afterwards  worked 
for  a  time  at  Middelburg. 

OU  WERKERK,  Jan  Van,  an  unimportant  Dutch 
painter,  was  established  at  Middelburg  in  1774, 
where  he  painted  marine  views.  He  was  a  pupil 
of  Marinus  Piepers. 

OVENS,  Jdriaen,  a  Dutch  painter  and  etcher, 
was  born  at  Amsterdam  in  1623.  He  has  been 
supposed  to  have  been  brought  up  in  the  school 
of  Rembrandt.  Whether  this  be  correct  or  not, 
he  certainly  excelled  in  painting  night-pieces  and 
subjects  by  torch-light ;  he  was  also  eminent  as 
a  portrait  painter.  There  are  some  of  his  works 
in  the  Stadt-house  at  Amsterdam,  representing  sub- 
jects from  Dutch  history.  In  1675  he  was  invited 
to  Friedrichstadt,  to  the  court  of  the  Duke  of 
Holstein,  in  whose  service  he  remained  till  his 
death,  which  occurred  on  the  7th  December,  1678. 
There  has  been  some  confusion  as  to  the  dates  of 
Juriaen  Ovens,  in  consequence  of  a  mistaken 
assertion,  supported  by  Nagler,  that  on  a  portrait 
of  himself,  painted  by  him  in  1666,  the  words 
anno  atatis  66,  were  to  be  read.  Pictures  of 
his  are  to  be  found  as  under  : 

Amstenlam.  Town  Hall.    The    Conspiracy    of    Claudius 
„        Huisittenhnis,    Portrait. 
„  Museum.    Portrait  of    Mr.   Jan   Earend 

„  „  Portrait  group  of  seven  regents, 

half  life  size. 
Copenhagen.       Museum.     The  Concert. 

„  .,  Portrait. 

Nantfs.  Museum.    The  Departure  of  Tobit.    1651. 

Vienna.  Count  Harrach^s.    Girl  with  a  Fowl. 

„  „  Girl  with  a  Bunch  of  Grapes. 

Among  his  etchings  there  are  : 
The  Whale.     1659. 

Inauguration  of  Kiel  University.     1666. 
Portrait  of  Chancellor  Kiehnann. 

OVBRBECK,  BoNAVENTCEA  VAN,  called  '  Romu- 
lus,' a  painter,  engraver,  and  author ;  was  born 
in  1660  at  Amsterdam.  He  was  probably  a  pupil 
of  Gerard  Lairesse,  and  went  three  times  to  Rome, 
many  of  the  antiquities  of  which  city  he  drew  and 
engraved.  He  painted  there  also  a  picture  for  the 
Bentvogel  Society,  which  was  engraved  by  Van 
Pool.  Schenk  engraved  his  '  Mars  and  Apollo,' 
and  C.  Vermeulen  his  portrait  by  C.  le  Blon.  He 
died  in  1706.  After  his  death,  liis  work,  '  Reliquiae 
antiquae  urbis  Romae,'  was  published  in  1708,  and 
remarks  upon  it,  by  P.  Rolli,  in  1739. 

OVERBECK,  JoHANN  Friedrich,  the  leader  of 
the  modem  religious  movement  in  German  art, 
was  born  at  Lubeck  on  the  4th  of  July,  1789.  His 
ancestors  for  three  generations  were  Protestant 
ministers ;  his  father  was  doctor  of  laws,  a  poet, 
and  Burgomaster  of  his  native  city.  After  a 
general  education  conducted  mostly  at  home.  Over- 
beck  was  sent,  in  1806.  to  prosecute  his  art  studies 



at  Vienna,  in  the  Academy.  The  method  there  in 
force  soon  awakened  strong  opposition  in  his 
peculiar  temperament,  which  led  to  his  expulsion 
with  several  of  his  sympathizers.  In  1810  he  went 
to  Rome,  where,  with  his  friend  Cornelius,  he 
founded  the  school  of  German  pre-Raphaelites  ;  the 
home  of  the  brotherhood  being  the  disused  monas- 
tery of  Sant'  Isidore,  on  the  Pincian.  The  first 
important  commission  Overbeck  received  was  one 
from  Queen  Caroline  of  Bavaria  for  an  '  Adoration 
of  the  Kings.'  This  was  in  1811  ;  two  years  later 
he  renounced  the  Lutheran  heresy,  and  was  re- 
ceived into  the  Catholic  Church.  This  change, 
which  can  hardly  have  failed  to  distress  his  parents 
at  home,  must  no  doubt  be  taken  as  the  explanation 
of  Overbeck's  deliberate  avoidance  of  his  native 
place  on  his  several  visits  to  Germany.  After  his 
parting  with  them  in  1806,  he  never  again  saw  his 
mother  and  father,  although  they  did  not  die  until 
1820  and  1821  respectively.  In  1819,  an  exhibition 
of  German  pictures,  painted  in  Rome,  was  held  in 
the  Palazzo  Cafarelli,  and  the  chief  interest  centred 
in  the  works  of  Overbeck,  Cornelius,  Veit,  and 
Schadow.  One  of  Overbeck's  contributions  was  a 
'  Madonna '  which  showed  an  almost  slavish  defer- 
ence to  Raphael.  The  other  was  a  '  Flight  into 
Egypt,'  in  which  little  of  his  own  ascetic  bent 
could  be  perceived.  In  1819  Overbeck  married  a 
lady,  a  native  of  Vienna,  whose  Christian  name 
was  Nina,  and  who,  we  are  told,  had  no  right  to  a 
surname,  for  she  was  the  illegitimate  daughter  of 
a  Viennese  noble,  from  whom  she  received  a 
dowry.  By  her  he  had  two  children,  a  girl  who 
died  young,  and  a  boy,  Alfons  Maria,  who  only 
lived  long  enough  to  give  promise  of  considerable 
powers.  In  1831  Overbeck  paid  a  visit  to  Germany. 
In  1833  he  was  present  at  the  opening  of  Raphael's 
tomb  in  the  Pantheon.  In  1840  occurred  the  death 
of  his  son,  which  was  followed  thirteen  years  later 
bj'  that  of  his  wife.  In  1856  he  visited  Germany 
for  the  last  time.  Two  years  later  he  was  honoured 
by  a  visit  in  his  studio  from  Pius  IX.,  on  the  7th 
of  February,  and  on  the  12th  November,  1869,  he 
died  at  the  age  of  eighty.  The  following  list 
includes  most  of  his  important  works  : 

^'"'AmelT  1  ^'^'™  "^  ^^-  ^■■•■»°<='s-    (Fresco.) 


Gallerii.     The  Cliristian  Parnassus.      {Car- 

Cologne.       Cathedral.    Assumption  of  the  Madonna. 
Basle.  Museum.     The  Finding  of  Moses.  {CaHoon.) 

„  „  Israelites  gathering  Manna.   {The 

„  „  Translation  of  Elijah.    (The  sa}}ie.) 

„  ,,  Death  of  St.  Joseph.    {The  same.) 

Berlin.     i\'a(.  Gallery.     The  Seven   Sacraments.      Seven 
,,  „  Portrait  of  an  old  Monk. 

„  „  Jerusalem  delivered. 

„      Raczynski  Coll.     Marriage  of  the  Virgin. 
A  Sibyl. 

Eiebrich.       Vtlla  Ger-  )  ^,    •  .  .  , 

\-  Christ  condemned. 

Dusseldorf.  .Academy.     Kaising  of  Lazarus. 
Frankfort.  Stddel  Gal.     Joseph  sold  by  his  Brethren. 
Hamburg.      ^Jircat  |  ^^^  ^^^^^  ^  ^^^  ^^^^^^ 

Heidelberg.  ,^tift  Ken-  \  ^^^  Entombment. 
berg  Loii.  ) 
„  „  Portrait  of  Cornelius. 

Lubeck.  Town  Library.    Meeting  of    Ulysses    and    Tele- 
„  „  A  Pieta. 

„      Marien  Kirche.     Christ  entering  Jerusalem. 

Munich.      ^''^^Ji^^"- 1  Holy  Family,  with  St.  John. 


Munich.        New  Pina- }  Italia    and    Germania,  as   two 
cothek.  j      female  figures  in  a  laud^ape. 
„  „  Confirmation. 

„  „  Portrait  of  Vittoria  Caldoni. 

Eome.  Cara  Bartholdi.     History  of  Joseph.    (Frescoes.) 
,,         J'illa  Massimo.     Jerusalem  delivered,  (/^rfscoes.) 
Weihem  (near       Lotz-  \ '  Cyclus  '    from    the    Gospels. 
Munich),     beck  Coll.  f     {Forty  Cartoons.) 

OVERBECK,  (or  Overbeeck,)  Leendeet,  a 
Dutch  landscape  painter  and  engraver,  born  at 
Haarlem  in  1750.  He  was  a  pupil  of  H.  Meyer, 
and  at  first  designed  tapestry  and  ornaments,  but 
afterwards  turned  his  attention  to  drawing  and 
etching,  in  which  latter  he  became  very  skilful. 
In  the  year  1775  he  was  Moderator  in  the  Academy 
at  Haarlem,  and  gave  the  following  year  a  dis- 
course which  was  printed.  He  worked  in  Amster- 
dam and  at  Weesp,  and  died  at  Haarlem  in  1815. 
He  engraved  a  number  of  Dutch  landscapes  with 
figures,  among  which  are  views  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Haarlem,  dated  1791-93,  and  two  of  Leyden, 
dated  1S07. 

OVERBEKE,  Adrian  van,  entered  in  the  register 
of  the  Guild  of  St.  Luke  in  1495  as  an  apprentice  of 
Quentin  Mets^-s,  was  admitted  as  free  master  in 
1508.  In  1509-10  he  painted  an  altar-piece  for 
the  chapel  of  Our  Lady  attached  to  the  Hopital 
Comtesse  at  Lisle,  for  which  he  was  paid  the  large 
sum  of  438/.  In  1510-11  John  van  Ghent  painted 
the  shutters  for  24?.  This  altar-piece  was  one  of 
the  354  old  pictures  sold  by  auction  by  order  of 
the  municipality  in  1813.  On  August  11,  1513, 
the  confraternity  of  St.  Anne  established  in  the 
church  of  Kempen  (Rhine  Province)  made  a 
contract  with  him  by  the  terms  of  which  he  bound 
himself  to  execute  a  reredos  for  the  high- altar  of 
that  church  for  the  sum  of  300  gold  florins.  The 
centre  of  this  altar-piece,  which  still  occupies  its 
original  position,  represents  the  '  Nativity,'  'Adora- 
tion of  the  i\lagi,'  'Presentation  in  the  Temple,' and 
the  'Tree  of  Jesse'in  richly-polychromed  sculpture, 
whilst  on  the  shutters  are  painted  episodes  from 
the  legend  of  St.  Anne  and  St.  Joachim,  with  the 
'Last  Judgment'  on  the  exterior.  In  March  1524 
Adrian  was  found  guilty  of  publicly  reading  and 
expounding  the  Scriptures,  and  was  sentenced  to 
leave  the  town  before  sunset  and  go  on  a  pilgrim- 
age to  Wilsenaken.  Van  Overbeke  is  probably 
the  m.aster  Adrian  whose  portrait  Diirer  drew 
when  he  was  at  Antwerp  in  1520,  and  to  whom  he 
gave  some  of  his  prints.  In  1529  Van  Overbeke 
painted  another  altar-piece  for  the  chapel  of  St. 
Joseph  in  the  church  of  Kempen ;  this  was  taken 
away  to  Kaiserwerth  in  1662  and  is  now  lost. 


H.  Keussen.  '  Der  Meister  des  Schreines  am  Hauptal- 
tare  in  der  Pfarrkirehe  zu  Kempen.'     Coin,  1873. 

'  The  Academy,'  June  21,  1879,  p.  547. 

F.  Clemen,  'Die  Kun.stdenkmalerdes  Kneises  Kempea.* 
Diisseldorf,  1S91.  W.  H.  J.W. 

OVEREXD,  W.  H.,  was  born  at  Coatham,  York- 
.shire,  in  1851,  and  educated  at  the  Charterhouse. 
His  boyish  drawings  showed  considerable  natural 
powers  of  observation.  Strongly  attracted  to  the 
sea  and  seafaring  life,  he  started  at  first  as  a 
painter  of  marine  subjects,  but  was  soon  drawn 
aside  to  work  as  an  illustrator  for  the  '  Illustrated 
London  News,'  a  connection  which  lasted  till  his 
death.  He  soon  acquired  a  special  reputation  for 
his  intimate  knowledge  of  life  at  sea,  whether  on 
merchantman   or   war  vessel,  and   his   numerous 


renderings  of  Buch  scenes  are  always  marked  by 
accuracy  and  spirit.  In  later  years  he  occasionally 
exhibited  at  the  Eoyal  Academy,  and  he  was  a 
member  of  the  Institute  of  Painters  in  Oil-Colours. 
A  portrait-study  of  tlie  Duke  of  York  as  command- 
ing officer  of  a  torpedo-boat,  and  another  of  Admiral 
Farragut  in  the  battle  of  Mobile  Bay  (now  in  the 
possession  of  the  U.S.  Government),  are  his  best 
pictures.  His  life-work  was  done,  however,  in 
black  and  white,  and  the  bulk  of  it  appeared  in  the 
pages  of  the  'Illustrated  London  News.'  He  did 
occasional  work  also  as  a  book-illustrator.  His 
death  occurred  in  1898. 

OVERLAET,  Anton,  a  designer  and  etcher, 
who  lived  at  Antwerp  in  the  latter  half  of  the  18th 
century,  and  had  at  first  been  a  journeyman  baker. 
He  was  admired  for  his  pen-and-ink  drawings 
from  portraits,  historical  pictures,  landscapes,  and 
genre  scenes.     Among  his  copies  we  may  name  : 

Beggar  and  his  Wife  ;  after  Rembrandt.     1760. 

Dutch  Village,  with  Castle  and  Canal ;  after  the  same. 

Two  drawings  of  Male  and  Female  Peasants;    in  A. 

Ostade^s  maimer. 
OWEN,  The  Rev.  Edward  Puyce,  an  English 
etcher  and  painter,  born  in  1788.  He  graduated 
at  Oxford,  took  orders  in  tlie  Church  of  England, 
and  cultivated  art  as  an  amateur.  He  published 
some  etchings  of  ancient  buildings  in  Shrewsbury, 
1820-21,  and  another  volume  of  etchings  in  1826. 
He  died  at  Cheltenham  in  1863. 

OWEN,  Samuel,  marine  painter  in  water-colours, 
was  bom  in  1768.  His  subjects  were  generally 
shipping,  which  he  executed  in  a  correct  and 
ekilful  manner.  He  exhibited  for  the  first  time  at 
the  Royal  Academy  in  1794,  and  again  in  1797, 
when  his  subject  was  the  '  British  and  Spanish 
Fleets,  commanded  by  Sir  John  Jarvis.'  He  was  a 
member  of  the  '  Associated  Artists  in  Water- 
Colours,'  a  defunct  society,  which  was  founded  in 
1808.  For  several  years  before  his  death  (which 
occurred  at  Sunbury  in  1857)  he  had  given  up 
painting.  He  made  the  eiglity-three  drawings 
illustrating  Bernard  Cooke's  '  The  Thames.' 

OWEN,  William,  an  eminent  painter  of  por- 
traits and  fancy  subjects,  was  born  at  Ludlow  in 
1769,  and  was  educated  at  the  grammar-school  of 
that  town.  It  is  not  known  that  he  received  any 
instruction  in  painting  until  he  reached  his  seven- 
teenth year,  althougli  he  had  as  a  boy  exhibited  a 
strong  inclination  for  art.  About  1786  he  was  sent 
to  London  and  placed  under  Catton,  who  had  been 
a  coach-painter,  but  was  then  a  Royal  Academi- 
cian ;  and  soon  afterwards  a  copy  Owen  made  of 
Reynolds's  picture  of  Perdita,  introduced  him  to 
the  notice  of  the  President  and  to  the  benefit  of  his 
instruction.  In  the  year  1792  he  made  his  first 
appearance  as  an  exhibitor  at  Somerset  House, 
with  the  '  Portrait  of  a  Gentleman,'  and  a  view  of 
Ludford  Bridge,  Ludlow  ;  each  succeeding  year 
his  practice  as  a  portrait  painter  increased,  till  in 
the  year  1798  he  exhibited  no  less  than  ten.  This 
may  be  considered  good  evidence  of  his  artistic 
skill,  for  he  had  no  advantage  of  patronage  like 
Reynolds,  Beechey,  Lawrence,  and  Hoppner,  who 
divided  the  world  of  fashion  between  them.  And 
among  those  who  sat  to  him  were  some  of  the  most 
distinguished  men  of  the  day  ;  such  as  William 
Pitt,  Lord  Grenville,  Sir  William  Scott,  Cyril 
Jackson,  Vicary  Gibbs,  Chief  Justice  Abbot,  the 
Marquis  of  Stafford,  the  Earl  of  Bridgewater,  John 
Soane  the  architect,  Viscount  Exmouth,  and  many 

others.  The  '  Blind  Beggar's  Daughter  of  Bethnal 
Green,'  'The  Sleeping  Girl,'  'The  Schoolmistress,' 
'The  Girl  at  the  Spring,'  'The  Road-side,'  'The 
Cottage  Door,'  '  The  Cliildren  in  the  Wood,'  are 
among  his  subject  pictures.  In  1804  he  became 
an  Associate,  and  in  1806  a  full  member  of  the 
Royal  Academy  ;  in  1810  he  was  appointed  por- 
trait painter  to  the  Prince  of  Wales.  The  Prince 
Regent  offered  to  knight  him,  an  honour  which  he 
refused.  For  the  last  five  years  of  his  life  he  was 
in  a  state  of  almost  utter  helplessness,  but  his 
sufferings  were  at  last  put  an  end  to  in  1825  by 
the  mistake  of  a  chemist's  boy,  who  sent  him  a 
bottle  of  opium  instead  of  a  harmless  draught. 
Owen  died  on  the  11th  of  February,  1825.  Besides 
the  pictures  already  named  the  following  may  be 
noted : 

London.     Hot/.  Academy.  \  Boy  and  Kitten. 
{Diploma  Gall.)  \  Cottage  Cliildren. 

„        JV'a?.  Fort.  Gall.     John  Wilson  Crocker. 

„  „  Lord  Loughborough. 

„  „  (?)  John  Philpot  Curran. 

OZANNE,  Jeanne  FRANgoiSE,  and  Mabib 
Jeanne,  were  the  sisters  of  Nicolas  Ozanne,  and 
were  instructed  in  engraving  by  Aliamet.  We 
have  by  them  several  prints  of  sea-ports,  &c., 
among  which  are  the  following: 

A  View  of  the  Port  of  Dieppe ;  J.  F.  Ozanne ;  after 

A  View  of  St.  Vallery ;  the  same. 

Two  Views  of  the  Port  of  Leghorn;  .1/.  J.  Ozanne; 
after  Vernct. 

A  Calm;  the  mme ;  after  the  same. 

Two  Pastoral  subjects;  after  Fhil.  Wouwerman ;  JT.  J. 

OZANNE,  Nicolas,  a  French  engraver,  was  bom 
in  Paris  about  the  year  1724.  He  engraved  from 
his  own  drawings  a  number  of  plates  of  marines 
and  sea-ports,  which  are  esteemed  for  their  neat- 
ness. We  have,  among  others,  the  following  by 
him  : 

A  set  of  four  Landscapes  and  Marines  ;  Ozanne  fee. 

Two  Views  of  the  Port  of  Brest. 

OZANNE,  Pierre,  designer  and  engraver,  was 
born  in  Paris  in  1725,  who  produced  four  sets  of 
etchings  of  shipping.  He  was  probably  a  brother 
of  Nicholas. 

PAAPE.     See  De  Pape. 

PAAR,  Wenzel,  Count  ton,  executed  some 
drawings  and  etchings.  His  son  Lonis,  born  at 
Vienna  in  1772,  and  died  in  1819,  also  painted 
several  landscapes. 

PAAS,  Cornelius,  a  German  engraver,  born  in 
1740.  He  settled  in  London  about  1765,  and 
became  engraver  to  George  III.  He  died  in  London 
in  1806. 

PABLO,  Pedro,  was  a  Catalonian,  who  in  1563, 
in  conjunction  with  Pedro  Serafin,  a  Greek,  painted 
the  doors  of  the  great  organ  in  Tarragona  cathe- 
dral. The  artists  received  three  hundred  Catalonian 
pounds  for  this  performance,  and  were  employed  in 
various  works  by  the  chapter. 

PABST,  Camille  Alfred,  French  painter  ;  bom 
at  Cohnar  (Alsace)  in  1828  ;  became  a  pupil  of 
Charles  Comte  ;  was  a  regular  exhibitor  at  the 
Paris  Salon  since  1865  ;  his  principal  works, 
several  of  which  have  been  engraved,  include ; 



« Jeune  Mfere,'  '  La  Toilette,'  '  Chez  I'Alcliimiste,' 
'  Jeu  de  Quilles,'  '  Une  Mari^-e  en  Alsace,'  and 
'Alsaciens  a  Paris';  obtained  third-class  medal  in 
1874  ;  died  in  Paris,  September  30,  1898. 

PABST,  Paui-,  a  Dutch  gentleman,  who  was 
Buri,'omaster  of  Rochlit,  Leipsic,  in  1490,  and 
built  the  church  of  St.  Peter  there.  He  decorated 
its  interior  with  pictures,  and  was  still  li%'ing  in 
1524.  He  was  also  called  Pabst  van  Ohorn,  or 

PACCHIA.     See  Del  Pacchia. 

PACCHIAROTTI,  Giacomo,  was  the  son  of  one 
Bartolommeo  di  Giovanni  Pacohiarotti,  a  dresser 
of  woollen  clotli,  and  Elisabetta  his  wife.  He  was 
born  at  Siena  in  1474,  and  at  an  early  age  entered 
the  studio  of  Bernardino  Fungai,  then  considered 
the  most  distinguished  exponent  of  art  in  that  city. 
So  well  did  he  imitate  his  teacher's  mannerisms, 
rigid  with  the  traditions  of  the  earlier  Sienese 
School,  that  the  work  of  the  pupil  is  not  in- 
frequently mistaken  for  that  of  the  master.  In 
spite  of  a  stormy  life,  due  to  his  turbulent  and 
excitable  disposition,  and  his  fondness  for  mixing 
himself  up  in  the  continuous  political  strifes  and 
revolutions  of  the  period,  he  seems  to  have  received 
a  good  deal  of  employment  from  public  bodies. 
We  read  of  work  executed  by  him  in  1503  in  paint 
and  stucco  (heads  of  the  Emperors)  in  the  nave 
of  the  Duomo,  and  standards  ordered  for  such  State 
occasions  as  the  Elevation  to  the  Pontificate  of 
the  Sienese  Pius  III.,  and  the  Reception  of  the 
Legate  of  Pope  Julius  II.  In  1512  he  was  com- 
missioned to  make  the  heraldic  and  other  decora- 
tions to  be  used  at  the  public  funeral  of  Pandolfo 
Petrucci,  whilst  various  religious  confraternities 
entrusted  their  processional  banners  to  him.  In 
1507  the  sons  of  Andrea  Piccolomini,  a  brother  of 
Pius  III.,  employed  him  to  complete  tlie  adornment 
of  a  chapel  .at  San  Francesco,  commenced  in  1504, 
under  the  direction  of  their  father,  by  Pinturicchio. 
This  woi'k,  however,  owing  to  the  artist's  idleness, 
was  not  finished  until  1514,  and  was  totally 
destroyed  by  fire  in  1655.  In  1518  he  was  engaged 
by  the  Signoria  to  restore  the  face  of  the  clock  on 
the  Torre  del  Mangia.  In  1525,  and  again  in  153G, 
he  received  commissions  from  the  Guild  of  Notaries ; 
the  latter  one  being  a  triumphal  arch  on  the  occa- 
sion of  the  visit  to  Siena  of  the  Emperor  Charles  V. 
The  two  best-known  works  of  his,  still  existing  in 
his  native  city,  are  two  '  Ascensions '  ;  one  in  the 
Church)  of  the  Carmine,  and  the  other  painted  for 
the  Convent  of  the  Osservanza,  but  now  in  the 
Academia  delle  Belle  Arti.  Although  holding 
the  positions  of  Gonfalonier  and  Captain  of  the 
Company  of  Stallorcggi,  in  which  quarter  of  the 
city  he  resided,  his  political  activity — largely,  how- 
ever, braggadocio — led  to  his  getting  more  than 
once  into  trouble,  for  which  he  was  imprisoned  and 
banished  to  his  property  outside  the  town.  His 
worst  scrajie,  which  forms  the  subject  of  one  of 
Fortini's  Novelle,  occurred  during  a  serious  famine 
in  1533,  when  the  Society  of  the  Bardoiti,oi  which 
body  he  was  a  prominent  member,  raised  a  civil 
tumult.  The  authorities,  however,  succeeded  in 
forcibly  quelling  the  disturbances,  and  the  terrified 
Pacchiarotti  took  refuge  in  the  vaults  of  a  church 
(variously  indicated  as  S.  Giovanni  Battista  della 
Morte,  the  Baptistery,  or  the  Church  of  the  Osser- 
vanza, to  which  latter  place  he  ultimately  fled) : 
even  passing  two  days  at  close  quarters  with  a 
newly-buried  corpse.  He  escaped  punishment  for 
some  time  for  this  escapade,  but  on  November  17, 

15.'')9,  for  the  good  of  the  State,  he  was  sent  into 
lifelong  exile,  and  his  life  declared  forfeit.  Never- 
theless this  harsh  sentence  was,  at  the  petition 
of  his  wife,  repealed  on  August  17th,  in  the  follow- 
ing year,  and  he  returned  to  his  country  house, 
where  he  shortly  afterwards  died.  Owing  to 
the  similarity  of  their  names  and  the  fact  that 
both  were  involved  in  political  difficulties,  constant 
confusion  has  arisen  in  the  minds  of  both  historians 
and  students  of  art  between  Pacchiarotti  and  a 
very  different  artistic  per.sonnlity — Girolamo  del 
Pacchia.  He  married  in  1505  Girolama,  daughter 
of  Ser  Alcssandro  di  Francesco,  by  whom  he  had 
three  daughters,  Gabriella,  Virginia  and  Lucrezia. 
The  following  pictures  are  the  best-known  examples 
of  his  work — 
Buoncon-     Church       of) 

vento.      5&  Pietro  e  V  Madonna  and  four  Saints.     E. 
Pa  oh.  J 
Florence.    Aca(femij^  81.     Visitation. 
London.     Mr.  C  Butler.    Four  small   panels:  Nativity; 
Baptism ;  Kesurrectiou  ; 

„  Mr.  Muir  \  Moses,      Davitl,      and      other 

Macl^enzie.  j      Prophets. 
Rome.      T>on    Murcello  )  ^      .^    . 

Ma,.are«ti.  \  Crucifixion. 
Scotland-Zorrf  Kinnaird  i  -,  . .  ., 

Siena.  Sala  IX.    Zy.     Five  Saints. 

„  „       A'.  14.     Madonna   and  Saints  (in  lun- 

ette);Christ  with  SS.  Jerome 
and  Francis. 

„  „       „    23.     Predella.     E. 

,.  „       „    24.     Altar-piece ;  Ascension.     E. 

,,  „       ,,    31.     Visitation,     E. 

„     Palazzo  Palm,>ri.l^<'^y  *:^™"y  !  Madonna  with 

"  Aiitt  1  Jerome    and    a    female 

')      Saint. 

„     Chvreh  of  the  Car- 1  »,„„^-;._ 
mine,  ith  Altar.  R.  j  Asi^ension. 

E;  H.  H.  C. 

PACE  da  Faenza,  painter,  flourished  at  that  town 
in  the  14th  century.  His  works  were  of  a  grotesque 

PACE,  Domenico  di.    See  Beccafomi. 

PACE,  Michelangelo,  called  Di  CAiiriDOGLio,  a 
painter  of  fruit  and  flowers,  was  born  at  Rome  in 
1610.  He  was  a  scholar  of  Fioravanti,  and  was 
called  '  Di  Campidoglio'  from  an  office  he  held  in 
the  Campidoglio,  or  Capitol,  at  Rome.  There 
was  a  fine  picture  by  him  in  the  collection  of  the 
Duke  of  Marlborough  at  Blenheim,  and  many  others 
are  to  be  found  in  England.     He  died  in  1670. 

PACECCO.     See  Rosa,  Francisco  pi. 

PACELLI,  Matteo,  a  native  of  tlie  Basilicata, 
and  a  pupil  of  Luca  Giordano,  whom  he  followed 
into  Spain.     He  died  in  1731. 

PACHECO,  Cristobal,  a  Spanish  portrait  and 
history  painter,  who  flourished  about  1568.  He 
was  a  proterie  of  the  Duke  of  Alva,  for  whom  he 
painted  many  pictures,  including  several  portraits. 

PACHECt),  FitANciPCO,  a  painter,  was  born  at 
Seville  in  1571.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Luis  Fernandez, 
and  his  first  recorded  works  were  the  Standards  of 
the  Fleets  which  sailed  in  1594.  In  1598  he  exe- 
cuted the  paintings  for  the  Monument  erected  for 
the  funeral  honours  of  Pliilip  II.  In  1600  he 
painted  for  the  Convent  of  Mercy  some  scenes  from 
the  life  of  St.  Raymond,  and  in  1603  the  fable  of 
'  Daedalus  and  Icarus  '  for  the  Duke  of  Alcala.  In 
1611  he  visited  Madrid,  and  on  his  return  to  Seville 
established  a  school  of  painting  in  his  own  house. 
In  1612  he  painted  for  the  nuns  of  St.  Isabel  his 
greatest  work,  the  '  Last  Judgment.'  In  1618  he 
was  appointed  inspector  of  pictures.     In  1620  he 


Woodbu?-}'  Co.  phoio] 

iN at  Una  I  Ctalkjy 



painted  '  The  Baptism  of  our  Lord,'  and  '  Hia 
Banquet  served  by  Angels  in  the  Desert,' for  the 
high  altar  of  the  college  of  St.  Hermengild.  In 
1623  he  visited  Madrid  with  his  son-in-law  Velas- 
quez, where  he  resided  till  1625.  On  his  return  he 
devoted  himself  chiefly  to  the  pen,  and  wrote  the 
'  Treatise  of  Painting,'  which  was  published  in 
1649.  He  died  at  Seville  in  1654.  The  Madrid 
Musf-O  possesses  the  following  examples  of  his 
work  : 

St.  Ini's. 

St.  Catalina. 

St.  John  the  Evangelist. 

St.  John  the  Baptist. 

PACHELBLIN,  Amalia,  a  German  flower- 
painter,  who  was  working  at  Nuremberg  between 
1686  and  1723.  The  details  of  her  life  are  un- 

PACKER,  Michael,  a  painter  who  flourished  in 
the  latter  part  of  the  15th  century.  He  was  a 
native  of  Bruneck  in  the  Tyrol,  and  his  chief  work 
is  an  altar-piece  at  Wolfgang  in  Salzkame  gut. 
dated  1481. 

PACHMANN.     See  Bachmann. 

PACICCO.     See  Rosa,  Francisco  di. 

PACINI,  BiAGio  DI  Francesco,  a  Florentine 
painter,  who  was  living  in  1525,  according  to  the 
Ruolo  de'  Pittori.  Signer  Milaiiesi  suggests  that 
he  was  identical  with  the  Biagio,  a  pupil  of  Sandro 
Botticelli,  of  whom  Vasari  tells  an  absurd  story  in 
connection  with  the  sale  of  a  picture  by  him  to  a 

PACINI,  Santi,  an  obscure  Florentine,  who  lived 
towards  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century.  He 
made  the  copy  wliieh  took  the  place  of  Andrea  del 
Sarto's  '  Deposition  '  in  the  convent  of  S.  Pietro  in 
Mugello,  when  the  original  picture  was  removed 
to  the  Pitti  Palace. 

PACK,  Christopher,  an  English  portrait  painter, 
born  at  Norwich,  in  1750.  Brought  up  to  trade,  he 
suffered  some  losses,  and  then  devoted  himself  to 
art.  He  came  to  London,  and  was  introdoced  to 
Sir  J.  Reynolds,  whose  pictures  he  copied.  Sub- 
sequently be  practised  as  a  portrait  painter  at 
Norwich,  Liverpool,  Dublin,  and  London,  where 
he  is  last  heard  of  in  1796. 

PACOT,  was  a  native  of  France,  and  flourished 
about  the  year  1690.  He  engraved  some  plates  of 
battles  and  sea-fight.s,  which  are  etched  and  finished 
with  the  graver. 

PACUVIUS,  the  Roman  tragic  poet,  practised 
painting  by  way  of  amusement  in  his  old  age,  and 
executed  some  much-admired  works  in  the  Temple 
of  Hercules,  about  150  E.c.  After  his  time,  Pliny 
tells  us,  no  worthy  painter  arose  among  the 
Romans.  The  art,  in  fact,  fell  into  disrepute,  and 
scarcely  any  but  slaves  and  foreigners  were  found 
to  practise  it  at  all. 

PADER,  HiLAiRE,  painter  and  engraver,  flour- 
ished at  Toulouse  in  the  middle  of  the  17tb  century. 
He  was  a  pupil  of  Chalette,  and  painted  several 
views  of  Toulouse. 

PADERNA,  Giovanni,  was  born  at  Bologna 
about  the  year  1600,  and  was  a  scholar  of  Girolamo 
Curti  (Dentone),  under  whom  he  became  an  emi- 
nent painter  of  perspectives  and  architecture.  After 
the  death  of  Dentone  he  was  much  emploj-ed,  and 
his  success  was  such  as  to  excite  the  jealousy  of 
Agostino  Mitelli,  one  of  the  ablest  artists  in  that 
branch.  Of  his  numerous  works  at  Bologna,  the 
decorationB  of  the  Capella  Zagoni,  in  the  church  of 

La  Madonna  della  Liberfa,  are  considered  among 
his  best  performances.  He  died,  according  to  some, 
in  1640  ;  butZani  says  he  was  living  in  1647. 

PADERNA,  Paolo  Antonio,  was  born  at  Bologna 
in  1649,  and  for  some  time  studied  under  Guercino. 
On  the  death  of  that  master  lie  entered  the  school 
of  Carlo  Cignani.  Although  be  acquired  some 
celebrity  as  an  historical  painter,  he  was  more 
distinguished  for  his  landscapes,  which  are  in  the 
style  of  his  first  instructor.     He  died  in  1708. 

PADERNI,  Camillo,  a  Neapolitan  painter,  who 
flourished  in  the  18th  century.  He  came  to  Eng- 
land, where  he  made  several  drawings  from  old 
pictures.     He  died  about  1770. 

PADOVA,  Girolamo  da.     See  Sordo. 

PADOVA,  GiusTo  DA.     See  Menabuoi. 

PADOVANINO,  Francesco,  was  born  at  Padua 
in  1561.  It  is  not  known  by  whom  he  was  in- 
structed in  the  art,  but  he  painted  history  with 
some  success.  One  of  the  most  esteemed  of  his 
works  is  a  picture  representing  a  Saint  interceding 
for  two  criminals  condemned  to  death,  in  the 
church  of  La  Madonna  del  Carmine,  at  Venice. 
He  also  was  much  employed  in  painting  portraits. 
He  died  in  1617. 

PADOVANINO,  II  (Alessandro).  See  Varo- 

PADOVANINO,  II  (Ottavio,  son  of  Ludovico). 
See  Leoni. 

PADOVANINO,  Ottavio,  the  son  of  Francesco 
Padovanino,  was  born  at  Padua  about  the  year 
1582.  After  studying  some  time  under  his  father, 
he  was  sent  to  Rome  for  improvement.  He  ac- 
quired some  celebrity  as  an  historical  painter,  but 
was  chiefly  engaged  in  portrait  painting,  in  which 
he  was  more  successful.     He  died  in  1634. 

PADOVANO,  Gasparo.     See  Ostello. 

PADOVANO,  Girolamo.     See  Sordo. 

PADOVANO,  LA0RO.  In  the '  Venezia  Descritta,' 
by  Sansovino,  this  painter  is  said  to  have  been  a 
native  of  Padua,  and  a  scholar  of  Francesco  Squar- 
cione.  He  was  a  successfid  imitator  of  the  style 
of  Andrea  Mantegna,  and  painted  for  tlie  church 
of  La  Carith.  at  Venice  some  subjects  from  the  life 
of  St.  John,  which  rank  among  the  most  creditable 
productions  of  the  time.  He  is  stated  by  the  above 
author  to  have  flourished  about  the  year  1420.  It 
is  expected,  however,  that  he  is  one  with  Lauri>, 
or  Laura  da  Padova,  who  lived  to  a  much  later 
period  :  Zani  says  he  was  at  work  from  1470  to 

PADRO  Y  PEDRET,  Tomas,  designer  and  pamter, 
was  born  at  Barcelona  in  1840,  aiid  died  there  in 
1877.  He  was  a  pupil  of  the  school  of  art  in  that 
city,and  of  the  Academy  of  San  Fernando,  studying 
under  Madrazo  and  Riviera,  and  being  specially 
distinguished  for  his  caricatures. 

PADTBRUGGE,  H.  L.,  was  a  native  of  Stock- 
holm, and  flourished  about  the  year  1700.  Ha 
engraved  the  greater  part  of  the  plates  for  a  work 
entitled  'Suecia  Antiqua  et  Hoiiierna,'  published 
in  three  vols,  folio;  the  first  in  1693,  the  last  in 
1714.  It  contains  about  three  humlred  anil  fifty 
plates,  consisting  of  bird's  eye  views  and  maps. 

PAELINCK,  Joseph,  an  historical  painter,  was 
born  at  Oostacker,  near  Ghent,  in  1781.  He  com- 
menced his  artistic  studies  under  Verhaeu'cn,  the 
professor  of  painting  at  the  Academy  of  (Jhent  ; 
after  this  he  went  to  P.aris,  and  enrolled  himself 
among  the  scholars  of  David.  In  1804  he  obtained 
a  prize  offered  by  the  Academy  at  Ghent,  with  his 
picture  of  '  The  Judgment  of  Paris,'  and  was  also 



named  Professor  of  Design  to  the  Academy.  He 
shortly  after  vacated  this  appointment,  and  went 
to  Italy  in  order  to  study  the  works  of  the  great 
masters.  Here  he  corrected  much  of  the  academic 
manner  which  he  had  hnbibed  in  the  school  of 
David,  and  produced  what  is  considered  his  best 
picture,  '  The  Finding  of  tlie  Cross,'  which  is  now 
in  the  church  of  St.  Michel  at  Ghent.  He  remained 
at  Rome  for  about  five  years,  and  during  that  time 
he  painted  a  large  picture  for  the  palace  of  the 
Pope  at  Monte-Cavallo,  representing  the  embellish- 
ments of  Rome  by  Augustus.  In  1815  he  became 
court  painter  to  the  queen,  and  a  member  of  the 
Netherlands  Institute.  In  1820  he  obtained  the 
great  prize  at  Ghent  for  his  '  Anthia.'  Finally  he 
became  professor  at  tlie  Academy  of  Brussels.  He 
died  in  that  city  in  1839.  His  principal  pictures, 
in  addition  to  the  above,  are  : 

The   Adoration   of    the    Shepherds.      {Convent   of  La 

Trappe,  near  Jnttcerp.) 
The  Flight  iuto  Egypt.     (Jt  Malines.) 
The  Dt-partiire  of  Tobit.     ((. phraekei,  near  OudenarJe.i 
The  Return  of  Tobit.     {For  Maria  Oudenhove.) 
The  Assumption  of   the  Virgin.     (For  Muysen,  near 

Malines, ) 
The  Disciples  at  Emniaus.     (Church  at  Everqhem,  near 

Calvary.     (  Villafje  of  Oostaeker.) 
The  Toilette  of  Psyche.     (Hague  Museum.) 
The  Dance  of  thf  Muses. 
The  Judgment  of  Midas. 
The  Abdication  of  Charles  V. 

PAESI,  1l  Giovane  de.    See  Mdziano. 

PAEST,  Henuy.  a  portrait  painter  and  copyist, 
who  practised  in  England  in  the  latter  half  of  the 
17tli  century.  He  worked  under  Henry  Stone  and 
Francis  Barlow.  There  was  a  copy  by  him  of 
Lnca  Giordano's  '  Cyclops '  at  St.  James's  Palace. 
He  died  in  1697. 

PAGANELLI,  Niccolo,  a  painter  of  Faenza 
born  in  1538.  He  worked  chiefly  at  Rome,  but 
executed  a  famous  picture  of  '  St.  Martin  '  for  the 
cathedral  of  Faenza,  which  has  been  ascribed  to 
Luca  Longhi.  He  died  in  1620.  Paganelli  signed 
his  pictures  N  +  P. 

PAGANI,  Francesco,  was  born,  according  to 
Baldinucci,  at  Florence  in  1531.  After  learning  the 
first  rudiments  of  art  in  his  native  city  he  went  to 
Rome,  wliere  he  studied  the  works  of  Polidoro  da 
Caravaggio  and  Maturino.  He  returned  to  Florence 
at  the  age  of  twenty-one,  and  died  young  at 
Castelfiorentino  in  1561. 

PAGANI,  Gregokio,  the  son  of  Francesco 
Pagani,  was  born  in  1568.  His  father  dying  when 
he  was  an  infant,  he  was  placed  as  a  disciple  of 
Santo  di  Titi,  and  afterwards  improved  his  style  by 
the  instruction  of  Lodovico  Cardi,  called  Cigoli. 
In  imitation  of  tlie  style  of  that  master,  he  painted 
a  picture  of  'The  Finding  of  the  Cross,' for  the 
church  of  the  Carmelites,  of  wliich  a  print  by 
Cecchi  is  the  only  record.  The  church  was  de- 
stroyed by  fire.  Some  of  his  fresco  works  remain 
in  the  cloister  of  Santa  Maria  Novella,  Florence, 
including  a  '  Nativity.'  His  own  portrait  by  him- 
self is  in  the  Riccardi  Gallery  of  the  same  city, 
and  in  the  Uffizi  there  is  a  '  Faniily  of  Tobit'  by 
him.     Baldinucci  dates  his  death  in  1605. 

PAGANI,  Paolo,  was  bom  at  Valsolda,  in  the 
Milanese  state,  in  1661.  He  formed  his  manner 
by  studying,  at  Venice,  the  works  of  the  best 
masters,  and,  according  to  Zanetti,  established 
there  an  academy,  where  he  introduced  a  style  of 
designing   the   nude,  which,  though   occasionally 


surcharged  and  extravagant,  is  bold  and  effective. 
After  a  residence  of  some  years  at  Venice,  where 
he  painted  several  pictures  for  the  churches,  he 
returned  to  Milan,  and  was  much  employed  for  the 
public  edifices  and  for  private  collections.  One  of 
his  best  works  is  in  the  Dresden  Gallery.  He  died 
in  1716. 

PAGANINI,  GuGLiELMO  Capodoeo,  was  born, 
according  to  Orlandi,  at  Mantua  in  1670,  and  was 
a  scholar  of  Antonio  Calza.  His  genius  led  him  to 
paint  battles  and  encampments,  but  having  seen 
some  of  the  pictures  of  Borgognone  at  Florence, 
he  attached  himself  to  the  study  and  imitation 
of  that  artist's  works.  No  particulars  as  to  his 
individual  works  annear  to  be  recorded. 

PAGE,  William, American  painter;  bornJanuary 
28,  1811,  at  Albany  (New  York)  ;  became  a  pupil 
of  Herring  and  of  S.  Morse.  Lived  at  Florence 
and  Rome  from  1849  to  1860;  in  1874  visited 
Kesselstadt  to  make  a  drawing  of  the  Shakespeare 
Death  Mask.  His  '  Holy  Family '  is  in  the  Boston 
Athenseum.  He  occasionally  painted  portraits. 
He  died  at  Tottenville,  Staten  Island  (New  York), 
September  30,  1885. 

PAGGI,  Giovanni  Battista,  (or  Pagi,)  was 
born  at  Genoa  in  1554  or  1556.  He  was  first  a 
scholar  of  Luca  Cambiaso,  and  improved  himself 
in  design  by  studying  antique  statues  and  bas- 
reliefs.  He  had  acquired  some  reputation  as  a 
painter  of  history,  when  he  unhappily  killed  an 
antagonist  in  a  qunrrel,  which  obliged  him  to  take 
refuge  at  Florence,  where  he  resided  twenty  years. 
His  first  productions  were  rather  distinguished  by 
grace  than  energy,  as  his  '  Holy  Family '  in  the 
church  Degli  Angeli,  at  Florence,  proves.  He 
afterwards  adopted  a  manner  more  robust  and 
masculine  ;  and  his  large  work  of  the  '  Tranfigura- 
tion,'  in  the  church  of  San  Marco,  is  painted  with 
such  vigour  and  effect,  that  it  does  not  appear  to 
be  by  the  same  liand.  Another  of  his  earlier  works 
is  his  '  St.  Catherine  of  Siena,'  in  Santa  Maria 
Novella  of  the  same  city.  Lanzi  mentions  as  his 
finest  works,  three  subjects  from  the  Passion  of 
our  Saviour,  at  the  Certosa  at  Pavia.  His  best 
performances  at  Genoa  are  two  pictures  in  the 
church  of  St.  Bartolommeo,  and  'The  Murder  of 
the  Innocents,'  in  the  Palazzo  Doria,  painted  in 
1606,  in  competition  with  Rubens.  He  died  in 
1627.  He  was  also  a  sculptor,  architect,  and 
writer  on  art. 

PAGHOLO.    See  Bautolojimeo  di  Paoholo. 

PAGLIA,  Antonio,  a  native  of  Brescia,  bom  in 
1680,  was  a  sou  and  pupil  of  Francesco  Paglia. 
He  died  in  1747.  His  brother  Angelo  was  born 
in  1681,  and  died  in  1763.  Antonio  was  in  the 
habit  of  painting  from  groups  of  little  clay  figures 
modelled  by  himself,  by  which  means  he  obtained 
a  piquant  chiaroscuro.  In  colour  he  was  akin  to 
the  second-rate  Venetians. 

PAGLIA,  Francesco,  was  born  at  Brescia  in 
1636,  and  was  brought  up  in  the  school  of  Guer- 
cino.  He  painted  some  pictures  for  the  public 
edifices  at  Brescia,  of  which  the  most  distinguished 
is  an  altar-piece,  iu  the  church  of  La  CaritS. 
His  best  productions  are  his  portraits.  According 
to  Zani  he  died  in  1713. 

PAGLIARI,  Giovanni  Ba'itista,  a  painter  of 
Cremona,  was  born  in  1641.     He  died  in  1717. 

PAGNEST,  Amable  Louis  Cladde,  French 
painter,  born  June  9,  1790,  in  Paris,  and  became 
a  pupil  of  David.  He  painted  rather  over-elabor- 
ately-finished portraits ;  as,  for  instance,  those  of 


Nanteiiil  Lanorville  (in  the  Louvre)  and  of  General 
de  Salle  (also  in  the  Louvre).  His  'Mort  de 
Lucr^ce '  is  in  the  AngerB  Museum.  He  died  in 
Paris,  May  25,  1819. 

PAGNI,  Bejjedetto,  was  a  native  of  Pescia,  and 
was  brought  up  at  Rome  in  the  school  of  Giulio 
Romano.  He  followed  that  master  to  Mantua, 
where  he  distinguished  himself  as  a  painter  of 
history.  In  the  church  of  Sant'  Andrea  is  an  altar- 
piece  by  him  of  the  Martyrdom  of  St.  Lorenzo ; 
and  at  the  Collegiati,  a  picture  of  the  Marriage  of 
Cana.  Zani  says  he  was  at  work  from  1525  to 

PAIGEOLINE  (or  Paigeloine).  The  name  of 
this  engraver  is  affixed  to  a  slight  etching  from 
a  picture  by  Paolo  Veronese,  representing  the 
'  Mother  of  Moses  brought  to  Pharaoh's  Daughter.' 
PAILLET,  Antoine,  a  pupil  of  Bourdon,  was 
born  in  Paris  in  1659,  and  died  in  1739.  He  was 
a  portrait  and  historical  painter,  and  professor  of 
the  Koyal  Academy  of  Paris.  In  1659  he  was 
rector  of  that  institution. 

PAINE,  James,  a  water-colour  draughtsman,  was 
ason  of  James  1  aine,  the  architect.  He  exhibited  at 
the  Spring  Gardens  Exhibitions  in  1761-64-70,  and 
was  a  member  of  the  St.  Martin's  Lane  Academy. 
PAIOT,^,  was  a  French  engraver  of  little  note, 
who  appears  to  have  been  chiefly  employed  by  the 
booksellers.  Among  others,  there  is  a  print  by 
him  of  '  David,'  a  half-length  figure,  after  Vignon. 
He  lived  about  1627. 

PAJOU,  Adguste  Desire,  was  the  son  of  Jacques 
Augustin  Pajou.  He  was  born  in  1800,  and  studied 
under  his  father  and  Baron  Gros.  His  best  work 
is  '  Las  Casas  and  his  Guides  attacked  by  a  Tiger.' 
PAJOU,  Jacqdes  Augustin,  historical  painter, 
was  born  in  Paris  in  1766.  His  father  was  the 
famous  sculptor,  Augustin  Pajou.  He  was  in- 
structed in  painting  by  Vincent.  At  first  he  painted 
portraits,  among  which  were  those  of  the  Emperor 
Napoleon  and  several  of  his  Marshals.  He  after- 
wards took  to  historical  scenes,  among  which  an 
'CEdipus  and  Polynices,'  at  Fontainebleau,  may  be 

PALACIOS,  Francisco,  a  Spanish  painter,  was 
born  at  Madrid  about  1640.  He  entered  the  school 
of  Velasquez,  and  early  gave  indications  of  a  talent 
for  portraiture,  but  the  death  of  his  master  in  1660 
appears  to  have  put  a  limit  to  his  progress.  Jean 
Bermudez  notices  his  picture  of  '  St.  Onophrius,' 
in  the  church  of  the  female  penitentiary.  He  died 
in  1676. 

PALADINI,  Abcangela,  was  born  at  Pisa  in 
1599.  Siie  was  the  daughter  of  Filippo  Paladini, 
a  portrait  painter,  by  whom  she  was  instructed  in 
the  rudiments  of  tlie  art.  Her  talents  were  not 
confined  to  painting,  for  she  excelled  in  music, 
and  above  all  in  embroidery.  Her  portrait,  painted 
by  herself,  was  placed  in  the  gallery  of  artists  at 
Florence.     She  died  in  1622. 

PALADINI,  LiTTERio.  In  the  'Memorie  de' 
Messinesi  Pittore,'  by  Hackert,  this  painter  is  said 
to  have  been  born  at  Messina  in  1691.  He  worked 
at  Rome,  in  the  school  of  Sebastiano  Conca,  but 
studied  largely  from  the  antique.  On  his  return 
to  Messina,  he  was  engaged  in  several  considerable 
works  in  fresco,  of  which  the  most  esteemed  is  the 
ceiling  of  the  church  of  Monte  Vergine.  He  died 
of  the  plague  in  1743. 

PALADINO,  Filippo,  a  native  of  Florence,  was 
bom  in  1544.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Allori.  He  lived 
in  Rome  and  Milan,  but  chiefly  in  Sicily,  where 

most  of  his  works  are  to  bo  found.  He  died  at 
Mazzarino  in  1614. 

PALAGI,  Pelagic,  historical  painter,  was  born 
at  Bologna  in  1775,  and  was  a  pupil  of  Appiani. 
In  tlie  time  of  Napoleon  he  was  director  of  the 
Academy  at  Rome,  and  later  on  a  professor  in  tljat 
at  Milan,  and  member  of  that  of  San  Luca.  He 
died  at  Turin  in  1860. 

PALAIS.     See  Pelais. 

PALAMEDES.     See  Stievens. 

PALAVICINI,  GiACOMO,  called  II  Giannolo, 
was  born  at  Caspen  in  the  Veltlin,  in  1640.  Altar- 
pieces  by  this  artist  are  found  at  Cremona,  Verona, 
and  Milan.  He  also  painted  a  few  portraits.  He 
died  in  1729. 

PALCKO,  Franz  Karl,  son  of  Anton  Palcko 
(who  died  at  Presburg  in  1754),  was  born  at 
Breslau  in  1724.  He  was  first  a  pupil  of  his  elder 
brother,  Franz  Anton,  at  Presburg,  and  then  at- 
tended the  Vienna  Academy  and  travelled  in  Italy. 
In  1752  he  became  court  painter  at  Dresden,  and 
in  1764  at  Munich.  He  died  in  1767,  apparently 
at  Prague.     Among  his  paintings  are  : 

•Tudith  and  Holofernes. 

Dfliverauce  of  Captives.     {Tritntarians^  Pt'eshufy.) 

St.  John.    (Dresden  Court  t'hupd.) 

Two  etchings  by  him  are  known  : 

Christ  and  the  Samaritan  "Woman. 
Adam  and  Eve  hiding  themselves  in  Fear. 

His  brother,  Franz  Anton  Palcko,  was  a  pupil 
of  his  father,  and  became  court  painter  to  Prince 
Esterhazy.  He  has  left  altar-pieces  in  the  cathedral 
and  in  the  Salvatorskirche,  at  Vienna. 

PALING.     See  Paulyn. 

P.\L1SSY,  Bernard,  was  born  about  1510,  at  La 
Chapelle  Biron,  a  village  in  Perigord.  He  was 
brought  up  to  his  father's  trade  of  a  glazier,  but 
having  a  taste  for  drawing,  design,  and  decoration, 
lie  turned  it  to  account  in  painting  glass  for  churches 
in  the  district.  At  the  age  of  twenty-one  he  set 
out  on  his  travels.  He  first  went  info  the  country 
of  the  Pyrenees,  and  after  settling  for  a  time  at 
Tarbes,  he  went  through  France,  Switzerland,  and 
Southern  Germany  to  Belgium  and  Flanders.  He 
returned  to  France  in  1539,  and  settled  atSaintonge 
in  the  south-west,  where  he  married,  and  pursued 
his  manifold  callings  of  portrait  painting,  glass 
painting,  and  land-measuring.  Wiiile  thus  en- 
gaged he  was  seized  with  the  desire  to  produce 
enamelled  faience,  and  his  ardour  in  prosecuting 
his  researches  is  well  known.  His  fame  as  a  potter 
spread,  and  he  soon  attracted  the  notice  of  the 
Duke  of  Montmorency,  Constable  of  France,  who 
by  using  his  influence  with  Catharine  de'  Medicis, 
saved  Palissy  from  being  burnt  as  a  Huguenot. 
After  his  release  from  iniprisoument  he  removed 
from  SaiTitonge  to  tlie  Tuileries  at  Paris,  where  he 
long  continued  to  carry  on  the  manufacture  of  his 
famous  pottery.  At  the  age  of  seventy-six  he  was 
again  arrested  as  a  heretic  and  imprisoned  in  the 
Bastile,  where  he  died  after  about  a  year's  imprison- 
ment, in  the  year  1588. 

PALIZZI,  Filippo,  Italian  painter ;  born  at 
Vasto  in  1818;  originally  intended  for  the  law, 
but  studied  art  at  the  Naples  Art  School  with 
Bonolis,  and  also  at  Paris  ;  excelled  in  Iand8cai)e 
and  as  a  painter  of  animals.  He  presented  hie 
best  paintings  to  the  National  Gallery  of  Rome, 
where  there  is  a  special  Sala  Palizzi.  His  last 
work  was  an  'Agnus  Dei,'  which  he  presented  to 
his  native  town.     He  obtained  many  decorations 



and  was  a  member  of  various  Academies.    He  died 
at  Naples  in  September  1899. 

PALLADINO,  Adriano,  according  to  Orlandi, 
was  born  at  Cortona  in  1610,  and  was  a  scholar  of 
Berrettini  (Pietro  de  Cortona).  He  painted  history 
in  the  style  of  his  muster,  and  executed  several 
works  for  the  public  edifices  of  his  native  city 
He  died  in  1680. 

PALLAVICINI,  Leo,  appears  to  have  resided  at 
Milan  in  the  early  part  of  the  17th  century.  He  is 
said  to  have  published  some  prints  marked  with 
the  initials  Z.  P.  f. 

PALLIERE,  Armand  Julien,  a  painter  of  Bor- 
deaux, was  born  in  1783.  He  was  a  brother  of 
Louis  Pallifere,  and  was  also  instructed  by  Vincent. 
He  painted  mythological  and  historical  pictures, 
such  as  '  The  Death  of  Epaminondas,'  '  Love,'  and 

PALLIERE,  Lonis-VlNCENT-L^ON,  a  French  his- 
torical painter,  was  born  at  Bordeaux  in  1787.  He 
was  a  scholar  first  of  his  father,  who  was  an  en- 
graver and  draughtsman,  and  then  of  Vincent,  and 
gave  early  promise  of  arriving  at  excellence  in  the 
art._  In  1809  he  obtained  a  second  prize  for  his 
'  Priam  kneeling  before  Achilles,'  and  in  1812  the 
Prix  de  Rome  for  his  '  Ulysses  slaying  the  Suitors 
of  Penelope.'  At  Rome,  "where  he  remained  five 
years,  he  painted  '  Argus  slain  by  Mercury ; ' 
'Prometheus  tormented  by  the  Vulture;'  'The 
Flagellation  of  Christ'  (for  which  Louis  XVIIL 
awarded  him  a  gold  medal:  it  was  painted  for 
tlie  church  of  the  Trinita  de'  Monti)  ;  and  '  Juno 
borrowing  the  Girdle  of  Venus.'  In  1819  he  ex- 
hibited at  the  Musee  '  St.  Peter  curing  the  Lame 
Man';  '  Tobit  restoring  Sight  to  his  Father' 
(now  in  the  Bordeaux  Museum);  'A  Shepherd  in 
Eepose';  'A  Nymph  coming  from  tlic  Bath'- 
'  Preaching  at  Rome  during  the  Night'  ;  and  other 
subjects.     He  died  in  1820. 

PALM,  Gnsi  AV  Willem,  Swedish  painter  ;  born 
March  14,  1810,  at  Christianstad  ;  was  a  pupil  at 
the  Stockholm  Academy  ;  after  travel  in  Scandi- 
navia he  spent  sixteen  years  in  Italy,  and  sub- 
sequently visited  France  and  England  ;  made  his 
name  as  a  landscape  painter  ;  his  'Canal  Grande' 
is  in  the  Stockholm  National  Museum ;  was  a 
member  of  the  Stockholm  and  Venice  Academies. 
In  1867  obtained  the  Gustavus  Vasa  Order.  He 
died  at  Stockholm,  September  20,  1890. 

PALMA,  Jacopo,  later  on  called  Palma  il 
VECcmo,to distinguish  him  from  his'grand-nephew, 
was  born  at  Serinalta,  in  the  Valle  Brembana,  near 
Bergamo.  Of  his  life  little  is  known ;  to  begin 
with,  the  exact  year  of  his  birth.  The  date  1480, 
usually  given,  is  quite  uncertain  and  based  only 
on  Vasari's  statement,  that  Palnui  died  forty-eight 
years  old — an  event  which  took  place  in  1528. 
Anyhow  it  may  be  the  ajjproximate  date  when 
he  was  born.  The  very  few  indisputable  facts 
of  his  life  and  artistic  career  are  now  collected 
and  discussed  in  an  article  by  Dr.  G.  Ludwig  in 
'Beiheft  •/..  Jahrbuch  d.  K.  Preuss.  Kunst-sanmd. 
ISO."}.'  His  family  name  was  Negretti  ;  ''laconio 
de  Antonio  de  Negreto "  he  signs  himself  in 
earlier  documents.  When  he  first  came  to  Venice, 
and  who  was  his  master,  we  do  not  know.  For 
only  two  of  his  paintings  we  possess  the  dates. 
In  1520  he  undertook  to  paint  an  altar-piece  for 
the  church  of  Sant'  Antonio  in  Venice,  on  the 
order  of  Marin  Querini  ;  of  this  picture,  which 
represented  the  marriage  of  the  Virgin,  only  a 
fragment,  the  central  part,  is  preserved  (Polazzo 


Giovanelli,  Venice).  In  1525  he  signed  a  contract 
with  a  lady  of  the  Malipero  family  to  paint  for  her 
an  altar-piece,  representing  the  '  Adoration  of  the 
Magi,'  which  was  to  be  put  on  the  high  altar  of 
the  church  of  S.  Elena  at  Venice,  and  is  now  in 
the  Brera  at  Milan.  On  July  28,  1528,  he  made  his 
will,  and  died  two  days  later.  On  August  8  an 
inventory  of  his  goods  was  made  which  gives  us 
the  list  of  about  forty-six  pictures  which  remained 
in  his  studio  in  very  different  states  of  accomplish- 
ment, many  of  which,  finished  by  his  pupils,  are 
still  preserved  in  various  collections.  Palma  was 
never  married.  The  famous  Violante,  who  is  said 
to  have  been  Raima's  daughter  and  Titian's  mis- 
tress, is  a  pure  invention  of  a  later  time.  He  left 
his  fortune  to  two  nephews  and  a  niece,  children 
of  his  brother  Bartolomeo.  His  nephew  Antonio 
became  too  a  painter ;  a  signed  picture  of  his,  re- 
presenting the  'Resurrection  of  Christ,'  is  in  the 
Stuttgart  Gallery.  The  son  of  this  Antonio,  Jacopo, 
was  afterwards  highly  renowned  as  "Palma  il 

Palma  never  signed  or  dated  a  picture.  (Tlie 
much-discussed  signature  on  the  '  Holy  Conversa- 
tion'in  the  Chantilly  Collection  is  now  generally 
accepted  as  a  forgery.)  This  fact,  together  with 
the  very  few  dates,  and  even  these  only  of  his 
later  years,  known  from  documents,  makes  the 
difficulty  of  tracing  his  artistic  development  easy 
to  be  understood,  the  more  so  as  the  character  of 
his  painting  has  undergone  only  slight  variations 
during  the  various  decades  of  his  life.  As  it  was 
with  all  painters  born  in  the  Bergamask  province, 
his  art  preserved  for  ever  a  strong  character  of 
provincialism  which  distinguished  him  at  once 
from  the  inborn  Venetians.  He  must  have  had 
his  first  instruction  with  one  of  the  Quattrocentist 
masters  who  did  follow  more  the  older  traditions. 
One  may  guess  it  from  the  fact  that  he  painted 
many  pictures  of  the  Virgin  with  Saints  and 
Donors  in  half-figures,  like  one  of  the  generation 
of  later  Quattrocento,  Bissolo,  Catena  or  Cima,  and 
that  some  of  his  altar-pieces,  among  which  his 
most  famous,  have  the  form  of  a  polyptych,  which 
occurs  quite  exceptionally  in  the  16th  century. 
But  this  Quattrocentistic  element  is  to  be  dis- 
covered only  on  the  outside  of  his  art ;  his  treat- 
ment of  the  form,  his  sense  of  colouring,  his 
understanding  of  nature,  give  him  his  position 
with  themasters  of  the  Cinquecento,  with  Giorgione, 
Titian,  and  Sebastiano.  So  he  has  in  Venice  a 
position  not  unlike  Fra  Bartolommeo  in  Florence, 
as  an  artist  who  invested  the  composition  of  a  pre- 
vious period  with  the  form  of  the  classic  style  in 
Italian  art.  But  it  is  not  only  this  to  give  him  a 
quite  distinct  position  in  the  history  of  Venetian 
art.  He  has  perhaps  not  introduced,  but  surely 
developed  more  than  any  one  of  his  contemporary 
artists,  the  theme  generally  characterized  as'  Holy 
Conversation  ' ;  this  means  the  reunion  of  various 
Saints  roimd  the  Holy  Family  sitting  on  the 
meadow,  with  the  background  of  some  dark  trees 
and  a  large  view  of  the  landscape,  up  to  the  blue 
mountains.  Again  and  again  he  repeated  this 
theme,  which  became  more  popular  afterwards 
through  his  pupil  Bonifazio.  Besides  tliis,  Venetian 
art  is  indebted  to  Palma  for  certain  pictures  of 
beautiful  women  in  half-length  figure,  not  por- 
traits, but  figures  of  highly  ideal  forms,  looking 
out  to  the  spectator  with  a  somewhat  sensual 
expression.  The  Vienna  Gallery  is  especially  rich 
in  that  genre  of  paintings  by  Palma,  but  specimens 








°   w 

"^  > 













of  it  are  to  be  found  in  the  more  important  art 
collections  of  Europe,  some  of  them  bearing  still 
the  names  of  more  famous  artists,  e.g.  tlie  so-called 
'  Sohiava  di  Tiziano '  in  the  Barbe'rini  Palace,  or 
the  '  Bella,'  also  ascribed  to  Titian,  when  it  be- 
longed to  the  Sciarra  Collection.  The  finest 
picture  of  this  group  is  the  picture  of  tlie  'Three 
Sisters'  (1525)  in  the  house  of  Taddeo  Contarini, 
and  now  preserved  at  Dresden.  Like  all  artists  of 
his  generation,  he  painted  mythological  subjects, 
but  the  most  of  them  are  lost,  and  only  two 
pictures  of  'Venus,'  i.e.  of  a  nude  recumbent 
figure,  are  preserved  (Cambridge  Gallery  and 
Dresden).  Almost  in  a  mythological  sense  ho 
painted  the  very  beautiful  picture  of  '  Adam  and 
Eve,'  once  in  the  house  of  Francesco  Zio,  now  at 
Brunswick,  and  like  a  genre-scene  the  meeting  of 
Jacob  and  Rachel,  in  the  midst  of  a  glorious  land- 
scape scenery  (Dresden).  The  number  of  his 
altar-pieces  is  not  very  large,  but  among  thera  is 
the  polyptych  with  the  St.  Barbara  in  the  centre, 
in  Sta.  Maria  Formosa  at  Venice,  painted  for  the 
Venetian  Bombardier.^,  by  far  the  best  and  doubt- 
less Palma's  masterpiece ;  another  very  beautiful 
painting  is  the  Virgin  enthroned,with  various  Saints, 
and  an  Angel  playing  an  instrument  at  her  feet,  in  S. 
Stefano  at  Vicenza ;  others  are  to  be  found  in  the 
Venetian  Academy,  at  Zerman,  at  Serinalta  (this 
is  said  to  be  of  a  hasty  execution),  in  the  Brera 
(by  a  pupil  in  part),  and  other  places  near  Bergamo. 
As  a  portrait  painter  Palma  did  not  excel,  because 
he  seems  not  to  have  been  gifted  with  tlie  sense 
for  the  individual.  Fine  portraits  of  his  are  a 
gentleman  and  a  lady  (unfinished)  of  the  Querini 
family,  still  preserved  in  the  family  palace  (now 
Querini-Stampalia  Gallery),  both  described  in  the 
inventory  of  Palma's  goods,  but  nevertheless  given 
by  modern  critics  to  Giorgione.  His  finest  por- 
trait, and  almost  to  be  called  an  ideal  creation,  is 
the  once-called  '  Ariosto  '  in  the  National  Gallery, 
erroneously  ascribed  sometimes  to  Giorgione.  A 
word  is  to  be  said  on  a  famous  picture  which 
Vasari  was  the  first  to  give  to  Palma  Vecchio,  but 
after  having  ascribed  the  self-same  picture  in  the 
first  edition  of  his  lives  to  Giorgione.  This  is  tlie 
'  Storm,'  painted  for  the  Scuola  di  San  Marco  (of 
which,  by  the  way,  Palma  from  1513  on  has  been 
a  member),  and  now  in  the  Academy  at  Venice. 
This  picture  is  by  some  modern  writers  still 
attributed  to  Pnhna,  but  it  is  impossible  to  believe 
that  a  painting  full  of  movement  ami  poetical 
fancy  like  this  should  have  had  its  offspring  in 
such  quiet  temperament  like  Palma's,  which  re- 
mains unaltered  through  his  wliole  life.  In  all 
probability  this  much-ruined  picture  was  begun 
by  Giorgione,  it  is  surely  finished  by  Paris  Bordone. 
As  colourist  Palma  Vecchio  holds  his  own  position 
among  the  Venetian  masters  of  his  time.  Even 
only  from  a  general  look  it  is  easy  to  recognize 
his  work.  His  colour  scheme  is  very  brilliant  and 
always  of  a  very  fair,  almost  golden  general  tone  ; 
the  hair  of  his  women  very  light  and  the  flesh  tone 
fair,  and  even  the  colouring  of  his  male  Saints  is 
often  rather  pale,  where  Titian,  for  instance,  puts 
his  men  in  a  brownish,  dark  contrast  to  his  female 
Saints.  His  handling  of  the  brush  is  very  smooth, 
so  that  the  general  impression  of  his  art  often  is 
somewhat  effeminate.  In  his  later  j-ears  his  pic- 
tures are  sometimes  very  pale  in  colouring ;  a 
specimen  of  this  kind  is  the  Madonna  in  the 
Brignole-Sale  Collection  at  Genoa.  Not  a  few  of 
his    later    pictures   are   finished    by    his    pupils, 

Bonifazio  and  others,  some  of  them  for  the  large 
part,  which  his  assistants  took  in  finishing  the 
pictures,  up  to  the  present  time  unrecognized 
as  Palma's  works,  as  the  '  Holy  Conversation '  in 
the  Querini-Stampalia  Gallery  at  Venice  (finished 
by  Bonifazio),  or  the  large  picture  of  the  Virgin 
with  two  female  Saints  and  two  Donors,  in  the 
Borghese  Gallery,  ascribed  to  Lotto  (finished  by 
an  unknown  pupil).  G.  0. 


Vienna.  Gallery.     134,135,144.  John  the  Baptist. 

,,  „  SS.  Roch  and  Sebastian.   (For- 

merly a  triptiich,  in  part  a 
work  by  p  uj  >  /7.v . ) 

,»  ,,  139.     Visitation.      (Berenson: 

finUhed  by  Carmni.) 

,»  ,,  140.     Holy  Conversation  with 

four  Saints. 

„  „  133,    137,   138,   141,   142.   143. 

Half-lengtli  figuresof  women. 
■  among  them  the  so-called 
'  Violante.' 

.,  ,  13t).     Lucrctia. 

„  „  329e.     Portrait   of    OUl    M.-m. 

{Crowe  and  Cavalca.-ielle ; 

'*  r '.  1 1      t  •     e  Holy  Conversation. 

Liecnten^tem.  y        ■' 

,,  „  Holy  Family  and   two  female 

Saints.      (Bt  rtnson  ;     Vroioe 
and  CavaU-aselle :  Copy.) 
„  Buda  Pesth  \  82.     Madonua,with  St.  Francis. 

Gallery.)      {Berenson  :  Jlnished  by  Car t- 
British  Isles — 
Alnwick.  7)«7i«  of  ^^  Lady  with  lute.     (1525  in  the 

Northumberland. )      hon^e  of  .Teronimo  JMarcello 
at  J'enice.) 
Blenheim  (formerly).         Madonna  adored  by  a  warrior 
and  a  female  Saint.     {Crowe 
and  Cavalcaselle.) 
Cambridge.        Fitzml- 1  »t 

Ham  Museum.  |  ^  ™"^- 
Canford,  j      ,S 

Wimbome    „r;^i,J^^;  ^Bust  of  a  La.Iy.     {Berenson.) 
(Dor.set).  J 

Glasgow.      Corporation  \  336.    Madonna,  with  SS.  Cath- 
Galleries.  jj      erine,  John  and  Peter.     {Be- 
renson: finished  by  Cariani.) 
Hampton  Court.  115.     Holy  Conversation. 

„  140.      Half-length     figure     of 

Horsmonden.  3Irs.  )  Portrait  of  a  Courtesan.     {Be- 

Austen. )      renson.) 
London.  National  Gall.     636.     Portrait  of   Man.     {The 
so-calhd  '  Ariosto '). 
„  Mr.  Benson.     Holy   Conversation   witli    SS. 

Catherine,     John      and      a 
Donor.     {Berenson  :  Jiiiished 
by  Cariani.) 
„  Mr.  Wirlcham }  Holy    Conversation  with    SS. 

J/oM'er.  j     John,   Elizabeth  and   Cath- 
erine.     {Berenson:    jinished 
by  Cariani.) 
„  3tr.  Mond.     Half-length  figure  of  Woman. 

Frakce — 
Chantilly.  Gallery.     Madonna  with  two  Saints  and 

Donor.     (  With,  a  forged,  in- 
scription.    Berenson :    Rocco 
Marcon  i. ) 
Paris.  Louvre.    1399.     Adoration  of  Shepherds 

with  female  Donor. 
„        3Tr.  Alphonse  de  \  Portrait    of    a     Lady.     {For- 
Rothscliild.     j      mer/y  in    the   Sciarra    Col- 
Berlin.  Gallery.     174.     Portrnit  of  Man. 

„  „  197a,  197 11    Half-length  figures 

of  Women . 
Brunswick.       Museum.     Adam  and  Eve.     (Formerly  in 
the   h/>use   of  Francesco   Zio 
at   J'enice.) 



Dresden.  Gallery.    188.    Madonna,  with  SS.  Cath- 

erine and  John. 
„  „  189.       'The     three     Sisters.' 

(1525  in  the  house  of  Taddeo 
Contarini  in  Venice.) 
„  „  190.    Venus. 

„  „  191.     Holy  Family,   with  the 

Infant  John  and   St.  Cath- 
192.    Jacob  and  Rachel. 

1107.  Portrait  of  Man  (?). 
{Morelli  andBerenson:  Cart' 

1108.  Madonna,  with  SS.Eoch 
and  Mary  Magdalen. 

Gallery.     271.     Salvator  mundi  (?). 
Gallery.     Archangel    with     Tobias     (?). 

Lochis.    183.    Madonna,  with  SS.  John 
and  Mary  Magdalen. 

JAltarpiece.     {Morelli.) 

619.    Judith. 

623.     Holy  Family,  with  Mary 
Magdalen    and    the    Infant 
Madonna,  with  SS.  Magdalen 

and  John. 
172.     Adoration       of       Magi. 
{Formerly     Church     of    ti't. 
Elena^      Venice;      only     in 
280.     SS.  Helen,  Constantine, 

Eoch  and  Sebaitian. 
560.      Half-length     figure     of 
)  Madonna    and     Saints.      {Be- 
i      reason.) 

}  28.  Holy  Conversation  with 
j  three  Saints  and  two  Donors. 
)  Polyptych.     (Morelli  and  Be- 

106.     Lucrece. 

157.  Madonna,  with  SS.  Bar- 
bara, Cristina  and  two 
Donors.  (Finished  by  un- 
known hand.) 

163.  Madonna,  with  SS.  An- 
tony, Jerome  and  female 

203.  Christ  and  Adulteress. 
(Formerly  in  the  house  of 
Francesco  Zio  at   Venice.) 

'La  Schiava  di  Tizianc'  (Mo- 
relli: Copy.) 

22.     Madonna,  St.   Peter  and 
)  '  La  Bella  di  Tiziano.'     (Now 
§     J/r.  Alphonsc  de  Rothschild, 

Madonna,  with  SS.  Helen  and 
Jerome.  (Crou-e  and  CavaU 
caselle,  Morelli.) 
)  Polyptych,  with  presentation 
j'  of  the  Virgin  in  the  central 
part.  (Crowe and  Cavalcaselle, 
Morelli,  Berenson.) 

302.  St.  Peter  enthroned  with 
six  Saints.  (From  the  Church 
of  Fontanelle. ) 

310.  Christ  and  the  woman  of 

315.  Assumption.  (Crowe 
and  Cavalcaselle :  perhaps  by 

Madonna  with   SS.   Catherine 
and  John. 
)  Portrait  of  Man.     (Francesco 
j"      Querini.) 

Portrait  of  a  Lady  (Paola 
Priuli,  wife  of  Francesco 
Querini).    (Unfinished.) 


M&mhurg.  Consul  Weber. 
Munich.  Gallery, 



Dossena  (near  r<i    .  i 

T>              \  Church. 

Florence.  Uffd. 

Genoa.      JBrignole  Sale. 
Milan.  Brera. 

„  Foldi  Pezzoli. 

Modena.  Marchese 

Lotario  Hangoni. 

Naples.         Gallery  Sola 


Peghera(near    ^^      ^ 

Rome.  Boryhese. 




Sciarra  Colonna 
(now  dispersed). 


Serma  (near        /-,,       » 
T,  X  Church. 


Venice.  Academy. 

„  (Recently  bought.) 

„  Gall.  Querini- 


Venice.     Gall.  Querini- 

„  Santa  Maria 


,,  Prince  Giovanelli. 

„  Lady  Layard. 

Vicenza.  S.  Stefano. 

Zerman  (near     Gallery. 

RrssiA — ■ 
St.  Peters-       Leuchten- 
biu-g.       burg  Gallery. 

)  Holy   Conversation  with  four 
J      Saints.     (Finished  by   Boni- 


)  Polyptych,  with  SS.   Barbara, 

j      Antony  and  Sebastian ;  above 

Pieta,  St.  John  and  Dominic. 

Sposalizio.      (Fragment  of  an 

Knight  and  Lady.    (Berenson.) 
Madonna  enthroned  with   SS. 

Lucy  and  George. 
Madonna  enthroned  with  four 
Saints.     (Crowe  and    Caval- 
ca.'ielle. ) 

\  Holy  Conversation.     (Formerly 

)      in  the  hall  of  the  Council  of 

Six;  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.) 

PALMA,  Jacopo,  called  '  II  Giovine,'  was  born 
at  Venice  in  1544.  His  father,  Antonio,  nephew 
of  Palma  Vecchio,  wa.s  also  his  instructor.  At 
the  age  of  fifteen  he  was  taken  by  the  Duke  of 
Urbino  to  Rome,  where  he  studied  chiefly  the 
works  of  Polydoro  Caravaggio.  His  manner,  though 
mechanical,  shows  much  talent,  especially  in  the 
treatment  of  heads.  Some  of  his  best  pictures  are 
in  the  palace  of  the  Doge,  and  in  the  Academy. 
After  the  death  of  Tintoretto  and  Paolo  Veronese 
he  seems  to  have  displayed  less  care,  as  many  of 
his  later  pictures  are  very  inferior.  He  died  in 
1628.  A  good  '  Madonna,  with  Saints,'  is  in  the 
church  of  S.  Francesco  della  Vigna ;  and  a  '  St. 
Catharine  rescued  from  the  Wheel '  at  S.  Frari  in 
Venice.  The  following  examples  of  his  art  may 
also  be  named : 









The  Presentation  of  Mary. 
St.  .Sebastian. 
Crucifi.xion  of  St.  Andrew. 
St.  Marg:iret  with  the  palm  of 

The  Temptation  of  St.Benedict. 
The       Deposition.         (Sinned 
Jacobus  Palma.    F.  1600.) 
The  Nativity. 
Ecce  Homo. 
The  Flagellation. 
Two  sceues  from  the   Apoca- 
St.  Fr.ancis. 
The  Murder  of  Abel. 
The  Daughter  of  Herodias. 
„  „  Two  pictures  of  the  Deposition. 

„  ,,  Christ  supported  on  the  edge 

of  the  Tomb  by  three  Angels. 
„  „  Christ's     Body     watched    by 

„  ,,  Tile  Immaculate  Conception. 

,,  ,,  St.  John  and  the  Angel  of  the 


PAL;MAR0LI,  Pietro,  was  an  Italian  painter 
and  picture  restorer,  to  whom  the  world  is  indebted 
for  the  preservation  of  the  famous  '  Descent  from 
the  Cross,'  by  Daniele  da  Volterra,  which  in  1809 
he  transferred  from  the  wall,  on  which  it  was 
painted  in  fresco,  to  canvas.  Tliis  was  the  first 
work  of  the  kind,  and  he  afterwards  transferred 
and  restored  several  other  pictures  in  Rome,  and, 
in  1826,  in  Dresden  ;  among  the  latter  the  cele- 
brated 'Madonna  di  San  Sisto,' by  Raphael.  He 
also  freed  Raphael's '  Sibyls,'  in  the  church  of  Santa 
Maria  della  Pace,  from  the  destructive  restorationa 
in  oil  made  by  order  of  Alexander  VII.  Palraaroli 
died  at  Rome  in  1828. 

PALMAROLI,  Vicente,  Spanish  painter  ;  bom 
in  1835  at  Madrid  ;  was  a  pupil  at  the  Academy 
there,  and  studied  with   Madrazo  ;    pursued  hia 










art  studies  in  Rome ;  became  Director  of  the 
Madrid  Gallery  in  succeBsion  to  Madrazo  ;  resident 
for  a  long  while  in  Paris  ;  at  the  Exhibition  of 
1867  he  obtained  a  second-class  medal ;  some  of 
his  works  found  appreciation  in  London ;  tie  painted 
portraits  of  various  Spanish  notabilities,  including 
one  of  the  young  King  Alfonso  XII.  He  died  in 
January  1896. 
PALMASANUS  (or  Palmeggiani).    See  Pal- 


PALMER,  Sir  James,  was  a  member  of  the 
household  of  Charles  I.,  and  was  employed  by  him 
in  the  purchase  of  pictures.  He  made  copies  of 
several  works  in  the  Royal  Collection,  among  them 
Titian's  'Tarquin  and  Lucretia.' 

PALMER,  Samhel,  water-colour  painter,  was 
born  in  1805.  He  early  showed  a  taste  for  art, 
and  at  the  age  of  fourteen  he  exhibited  at  the 
British  Institution,  'Bridge  Scene'  and  'Land- 
scape,' and  at  the  Royal  Academy, '  Cottage  Scene, 
Banks  of  the  Thames,  Battersea,'  '  Landscape  with 
Ruins,'  and  '  A  Study.'  By  the  advice  of  his 
father-in-hiw,  John  Lirmell,  he  under%vent  a  course 
of  figure  drawing  at  the  British  Museum,  during 
which  time  he  was  introduced  to  W.  Blake.  He 
then  went  to  live  at  Shoreham  with  his  father, 
and  we  find  him  exhibiting  at  the  Academy  and 
British  Institution.  In  1839  he  married,  and  for 
his  wedding  tour  spent  two  years  in  Italy.  He 
then  returned  to  London,  and  lived  in  Kensington 
till  1851,  when  he  removed  to  Furze  Hill,  near 
Reigate,  where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life. 
His  last  appearance  at  the  Academy  was  in  1842. 
He  was  elected  an  Associate  Exhibitor  of  the 
Society  of  Painters  in  Water-Colours  in  1843,  and 
a  full  member  in  1855.  He  was  chosen  a  member 
of  the  Etching  Club  in  1853.  A  translation  of 
Virgil's  '  Eclogues'  by  him  was  published  after  his 
death,  with  plates  designed  and  partly  etched  by 
himself.  The  subjects  of  his  finest  drawings  were 
mostly  from  Milton.  He  died  at  Reigate  in  1881. 
The  following  is  a  complete  list  of  his  etchings : 

The  Willow.     1850.     His  first  plate. 

Christmas  ;  or  Foldiug  the  Last  Sheep.  1850.  (From 
Bampfiflde^s  Sonnet.) 

The  Herdsman':)  Cottage.     1850. 

The  Skylark.     1850.     (Published  hi  the  Etching  Club.) 

The  Vine  ;  two  subjects  on  one  plate.  1852.  (Published 
in  the  '  Songs  and  Sonnets  of  Shakespeare.') 

The  Sleeping  Shepherd.  1857.  (Published  by  the  Etch- 
intf  Club.) 

The  Bisiug  Moon.  1857.  (Published  by  the  Etching 

The  Herdsman.     1867.    (Published  by  the  Etching  Club.) 

The  Early  Ploughman.  1868.  (Published  in  '  JEtching 
and  Etchers.') 

The  Morning  ot  Life.  1872.  (Published  by  the  Etching 

The  Bellman  ;  from  II  Pensieroso.     1879. 

The  Lonely  Tower ;  from  II  Pensieroso.  1880.  (Pub- 
lished by  the  Etching  Club.) 

Early  Morning  ;  opening  the  Fold.     1880. 

PALMERUCCJ,  GuiDO.,  was  bom  at  Gubbio  in 
1280,  and  is  known  to  have  executed  frescoes  in 
the  church  of  Santa  Maria  de'  Laici,  Gubbio,  pre- 
vious to  1337,  and  to  have  painted  at  the  Town 
Hall  in  1342.  In  the  former  of  these  buildings,  on 
an  exterior  wall,  are  the  remains  of  a  figure  of  St, 
Anthony  ;  and  in  the  latter  is  a  colossal '  Enthroned 
Virgin  and  Child,  with  Saints  and  a  kneeling 
Gonfaloniere.'     His  death  occurred  about  1345. 

PALMEZZANO,  Marco  (di  Antonio),  was  born 
at  Porli,  probably  about  the  year  1456,  and  lived 
up  to  1537.     He  was  a  pupil  of  Melozzo  da  Forli, 

and  was  in  the  habit  of  signing  his  early  produc- 
tions Marcus  de  Melotivs,  a  fact  which  has  occa- 
sioned many  of  his  best  paintings  to  be  attributed 
to  his  master.  He  closely  followed  Melozzo'a 
teachings,  and  his  frescoes  exhibit  a  sculpturesque 
hardness  of  style.  In  a  chapel  of  San  Biagio  in 
San  Girolamo,  at  Forli,  are  some  frescoes  repre- 
senting secular  scenes  which  are  signed,  Marcus 
Palmezzanus  Victor  forolimends  M.  .  .  .,  which, 
according  to  Messrs.  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  closely 
resemble,  both  in  style  and  colour,  a  fresco  repre- 
senting eight  of  the  prophets,  painted  on  the  dome 
of  the  Capella  Tesoro  in  the  church  of  Loretto.  In 
1497  Palmezzano  executed,  by  order  of  the  Prior 
of  the  Company  of  San  Michelino  of  Faenza,  an 
altar-piece  representing  the  Virgin  and  Child, 
enthroned  between  SS.  Michael  and  James  the 
Less.  The  church  of  the  Zoccolanti,  at  Matelica 
near  Fabriano,  contains  an  altar-piece,  'An  en- 
throned Virgin  and  Child,  with  a  Pieta  and  Saints  ' 
etc.,  signed  Marcus  de  Melotins  Foroliviensis 
fatiehat,  al  temj}.  de  /rate  Zorzo  Gnardiano  del 
MoO.C.C-C.C.I-,  with  a  curious  monogram.  The 
church  of  the  Carmine  at  Forli  possesses  a  '  Glory 
of  St.  Anthony,  between  SS.  John  the  Baptist  and 
Sebastian,'  with  a  similar  inscription.  The  exact 
date  of  Palmezzano's  death  is  unknown.  A  por- 
trait of  the  artist,  painted  by  himself  in  1536,  is 
now  in  the  Pinacoteca  of  Forli.  Examples  of 
Palmezzano  are  also  to  be  found  as  below : 

The  Resurrection.     1515. 

Virgin  and  two  Saints. 


Enthroned  Virgin  and   Child, 

between    SS.   John    Baptist 

and  Lucy.     1508. 
The  Crucifixion. 
Subjects  from  the  Life  of  the 

Apostle  James.     1485. 
Virgin  surrounded  by  Saints. 
Communion    of  the  Apostles. 

Christ  on  the  way  to  Calvary. 
The  Nativity.     1530. 
The  Entombment. 
Virgin  and  four  Saints.     1493. 
The  Nativity.     1492. 
Coronation  of  the  Virgin. 
The  Dead  Christ. 
Virgin  and  six  Saints.     1537. 
Christ  on  the  way  to  Calvary. 



Bordeaux.  Jiluseum. 

Dublin.       Nat.  Gallery. 

Florence.  I'ffi'i- 

Forli.  S,  Girolamo. 

Tinac.  Comxin. 

Grenoble.  Museum. 

London.       Nat.  Gallery. 
Milan.  Brera. 

Paris.  Louvre. 

Rome.  Lateran. 

„  Spada  Palace. 

PALMIERI,  GiosEFFo,  (or  Giuseppe,)  was  born 
at  Genoa  in  1674.  Although  he  acquired  some 
reputation  as  a  painter  of  history,  he  is  chiefly  cele- 
brated for  his  pictures  of  animals.  One  of  the  best 
of  his  historical  works  is  his  picture  in  the  church 
of  San  Domenico,  at  Genoa,  representing  the 
'  Resurrection.'     He  died  in  1740. 

PALMIERI,  PiETEO,  painter  and  engraver,  was 
born  at  Parma  in  1740.  He  learnt  the  elements  of 
art  in  his  own  city,  and  then  went  to  Paris.  He 
painted  chiefly  landscapes  and  genre  subjects. 
After  several  years'  residence  in  Paris,  he  was  ap- 
pointed a  Professor  in  the  Academy  at  Parma. 
He  died  at  Turin  in  1804. 

PALMIERI,  PiETRO  Jacopo,  engraver,  was  born 
at  Bologna  in  1720.  He  engraved  landscapes  and 
battle  scenes,  the  latter  chiefly  after  Simonetti 

PALMISANUS.     See  Palmezzano. 

PALOMARES.    See  Santiago  Palomakes. 

PALOMBO,  Baktolommeo,  was  born  at  Rome 
about  the  year  1612,  and  was  a  scholar  of  Pietro 
da  Cortona.  In  the  church  of  St.  Joseph,  at  Rome, 
is  an  altar-piece  by  him,  representing  the  death  of 



painted  for  tlio  brotherhood  '  della  Morte,'  of 
Ferrara.  His  death  occurred  before  1513.  Many 
of  the  private  and  public  galleries  of  his  native 
city  contain  pictures  by  Panetti ;  the  Costabili 
Collection  alone  possesses  eiglit.  The  following 
may  also  be  named  : 
Ferrara.  Pinacoieca,    The  Annunciation. 

„  „  The  Visitation. 

„  „  St.  Paul.     {And  others.) 

Paris.  Louvre.     The  Nativity. 

PANFI,  RoMOLO,  was  born  at  Carmignano,  near 
Pistqja,  in  1632.  He  was  instructed  in  the  art  of 
painting  by  G.  Vignali,  and  at  first  painted  small 
portraits,  but  afterwards  took  to  landscapes  and 
battle-pieces.     He  died  about  1700. 

I'ANFILO.     See  Novolone. 

PANHUIJS,  LnisE  Fbiedrike  Auguste  von, 
was  born  at  Franlifort  in  176.S.  She  was  the 
daughter  of  the  designer  and  painter  Helene  Elisa- 
beth von  Barlthaus-Wiesenhiitten  (who  lived  from 
1736  to  1804),  and  married  van  Panliuijs,  the 
Dutcli  governor-general  of  Surinam,  and  resided 
with  him  at  Parainarilio  during  1810-16.  Sl]e 
visited  that  place  a  second  time,  and  on  both 
occasions  painted  landscapes,  plants,  and  butter- 
flies from  nature.  She  was  a  pupil  of  Gerard  C.  H. 
Schiitz;,  and  painted  landscapes  after  Waterloo, 
Moucheron,  and  also  after  her  own  designs.  She 
died  at  Frankfort  in  1844. 

PANICALE.     See  FiNl. 

PANICO,  Antonio  Maria,  was,  according  to 
Bellori,  a  native  of  Bologna,  and  a  disciple  of 
Annibale  Carracci.  Ho  accompanied  tliat  master 
to  Rome  when  he  was  very  young,  and  was  taken 
under  the  protection  of  Signer  Mario  Farnese,  who 
employed  liiin  in  ornamenting  his  country-seats  of 
Castro  and  Latera.  In  the  cathedral  at  Farnese 
he  painted  a  picture  of  the  Mass,  in  wliich  he  is 
supposed  to  have  been  assisted  by  Annibale 

PANICO,  Ugo  da.    See  Carpi. 

PANINI.     See  Pannini. 

PANNEELS,  Herman,  a  Fleming,  was^  the 
engraver  of  two  plates  for  a  book  to  vindicate 
Philip  IV. 's  claim  to  the  title  of  '  the  Great,'  pub- 
lished by  Don  Juan  Antonio  Sapia  y  Roleles  at 
Madrid  in  1638.  He  also  engraved  a  portrait  of 
Pliilip  IV.  in  armour  wearing  the  order  of  the 
Golden  Fleece,  inscribed  'A  Keligione  Magnus,' 
and  an  excellent  head  of  Olivarez,  the  minister, 
with  the  cross  of  Calatrava,  both  framed  in  tasteful 
borders,  and  taken  from  pictures  by  VelaB(|uez. 

PANNEELS,  WiLLEM  van,  a  Flemish  painter 
and  engraver,  was  born  at  Antwerp  about  the  year 
16(X).  He  was  a  disciple  of  Rubens,  as  appears 
from  the  inscription  on  one  of  his  prints.  He 
worked  at  Cologne  and  Fraiikfort-on-the-Maine, 
and  one  of  his  plates  is  dated  1636.  Tiie  year  of 
Iiis  death  is  unknown.  Of  his  work  as  a  painter 
little  is  known,  and  from  the  number  of  his  prints 
he  appears  to  have  been  chiefly  employed  in 
etching  after  Rubens  and  from  his  own  designs. 
The  following  are  his  principal  plates  : 

The  Portrait  of  Rubens,  in  an  octagon  border. 

David  cutting  off  the  Head  of  Goliatli. 

Esther  before  Ahasuerus. 

The  Adoration  of  tlie  Magi. 

Mary  washing  the  Feet  of  Christ. 

The  Asisumption  of  tlie  Virgin. 

The  Holy  Family,  with  the  Infant  Christ  and  St.  Johi\ 

playing  with  a  Lamb. 
St.  John  baptizing  Christ. 


Samson  killing  the  Lion,  with  a  companion,  David  kill- 
ing the  Lion  and  the  Bear. 
St.  ScbaKtian. 
Tlie  Toilet  of  Venus. 
Jupiter  and  Antiope. 
Jupiter  and  Juno  (all  after  Eubens). 
Holy  Family. 
The  Fato  of  Phaijton. 
The  Nativity  (these  three  after  Annibale  Carracci). 

PANNI,  an  obscure  Italian  decorative  painter. 
He  was  a  relative  and  pupil  of  Gio.  Bat.  Zaist. 

PANNICCIATI,  JACoro,  according  to  Baruff- 
aldi,  was  born  at  Ferrara  about  the  year  1510. 
He  was  a  disciple  of  Dosso  Dossi,  and  painted 
history  much  in  the  style  of  that  master.  He  died 
young,  in  1.540. 

PANNIER,  Jacques  Etienne,  French  painter 
and  engraver  ;  born  in  Paris  in  1802,  and  became 
a  pupil  of  Abel  de  Pujol.  He  mostly  did  portraits 
in  pastel,  his  engravings  being  after  works  by 
Van  der  Meulen,  Winterlialter,  De  Mirbel,  Sandof, 
&c.,  for  the  Versailles  Galleries  ;  he  also  engraved 
many  portraits  by  well-known  artists.  In  1849 
lie  obtained  a  third-class  medal.  He  died  November 
14,  1869. 

PANNINI,  Cavaliere  Giovanni  Paolo,  or  Giam- 
POLO,  (or  Panini,)  was  born  at  Piacenza  in  1691, 
or  1695.  He  went  early  to  Rome,  where  he  became 
a  scliolar  of  Andrea  Locatelli  and  Benedetto  Luti. 
He  also  partly  adopted  the  style  of  Salvator  Rosa. 
He  applied  himself  to  designing  the  remaining 
monuments  of  ancient  architecture  in  the  Roman 
vicinity.  His  merit,  however,  is  not  confined  to 
architecture  ;  he  decorated  his  pictures  with  figures, 
gracefully  designed,  and  grouped  with  taste. 
Although  he  usually  confined  himself  to  pictures 
of  an  easel  size,  he  was  not  incapable  of  succeed- 
ing in  works  on  a  larger  scale  ;  and  Lanzi  speaks 
in  very  favourable  terms  of  a  '  Christ  clearing  the 
Temple,'  with  life-size  figures,  in  the  church  of  the 
Signori  della  Missione,  at  Piacenza.  Works  of 
Pannini  are  to  be  found  in  most  large  collections 
in  England,  and  several  decorate  the  palaces  of 
Rome.  Two  of  the  finest  are  in  the  gallery  of 
the  royal  palace  of  Monte  Cavallo.  Pannini  died 
in  1764.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Academies  of 
San  Luca,  at  Rome,  and  of  Paris.  Many  of  his 
pictures  have  been  engraved  by  Lempereur,  Le 
Bas,  J.  S.  Miiller,  Vivares,  Benazech,  Bartolozzi, 
and  other  eminent  engravers.  The  following  are 
among  those  that  remain  : 

Florence.  Uffizi.     Ruins.      (A   similar  subject  at 

London.      Nat.  Gallcrj/.     The  Pyramid  of  Cestius. 
Madrid.  Escorial.     A  Cardinal  visiting  a  Picture 

„  „  Vestibule    of    St.    Peter's    at 

Montpellier.       Museum.     Monuments  of  Rome. 
Paris.  Louvre.     A  Banquet  (two  copies). 

„  A  Concert. 

„  „  Architectural  Ruins  (three  sub- 

,,  „  Interior  of  St.  Peter's  at  Rome 

(■Signed  1.  P.  Panini.  Rom.k. 


„  „  Concert  given  at  Rome  on  the 

Birth  of  the  Dauphiu  in  1729. 
,,  „  Preparations  for   the   Fi^te   on 

the  same  occasion. 
Rome.       Corsini  Palace.     The  Porch  of  Octavia. 
„  „  The  Temple  of  Vesta. 

„  „  The  Pantheon. 

Turin.  Gallery.    Three  Views  in  Rome. 

PANNINI,  Giuseppe,  painter,  was  born  at  Rome 


aDout  1745.  He  was  instructed  by  his  father, 
Giovanni  Paolo  Pannini.  He  painted  chiefly  land- 
scape and  marine  pictures,  and  travelled  in  Italy, 
France,  and  England.     He  died  about  1812. 

PANCENDS,  a  distinguished  painter  of  ancient 
Greece,  was  the  nephew  of  the  great  sculptor, 
Phidias,  and  probably  some  years  younger  than 
Polygnotus  and  Micon.  He  exercised  his  talents 
in  conjunction  with  his  uncle,  in  adorning  the 
temple  of  the  Olympian  .Jupiter,  where  he  painted 
'Atlas  supporting  the  World,'  and  'Hercules,  ac- 
companied by  Tlieseus  and  Peiritlioiis,  preparing 
to  relieve  him  of  his  burden.'  He  also  painted 
'  Hercules  combating  the  Nemean  Lion  ; '  '  Hippo- 
damia,  the  daughter  of  .^Inomaiis,  with  her  mother ;' 
'  Prometheus  chained  to  the  Rock,  whom  Hercules 
is  about  to  deliver ; '  and  '  Penthesilea  killed  by 
Achilles.'  But  the  work  which  most  contributed 
to  the  establishment  of  his  fame,  was  the  '  Battle 
of  Marathon,'  with  which,  assisted  by  Micon,  he 
decorated  the  Poecile  at  Athens. 

PANTALEO,  a  Byzantine  miniaturist  of  the 
10th  century,  by  whom  several  of  the  miniatures 
in  a  missal  sent  to  Luigi  Sforza,  Duke  of  Milan, 
by  the  Emperor  Basilius  Porphyrogenitus,  were 

PANTOJA  DE  LA  CRUZ,  Juan,  was  bom  at 
Madrid  in  1551,  and  was  a  scholar  of  Alfonso 
Sanchez  Coello,  in  whose  school  he  so  greatly  dis- 
tinguished himself  that  Philip  II.  named  him  one 
of  his  painters  and  valets-de-chambre.  He  became 
very  eminent  both  as  an  historical  and  portrait 
painter.  Palomino  possessed  the  original  designs 
by  him  for  the  beautiful  tombs  of  Cliarles  V. 
and  Philip  II.  in  the  Escorial,  which  he  painted  in 
oil,  together  with  two  escutcheons  of  the  Arms  of 
Austria,  en  grisaille,  which  were  used  at  the 
funeral  ceremony  of  the  great  Emperor.  He  painte/1 
a  great  number  of  portraits  of  the  family  of  Philip 
II.,  of  which  many  exist  at  the  Escorial,  the  Retiro, 
and  in  the  tower  of  the  Paradas.  Several  were 
destroyed  at  the  burning  of  the  Prado.  At  the 
death  of  Philip,  he  continued  in  favour  with  his 
successor,  Philip  III.,  who  commanded  him  to 
paint  his  portrait  on  horseback,  as  a  model  for  the 
famous  sculptor,  Giovanni  de  Bologna,  then  at 
Florence,  to  fonn  the  equestrian  group  in  bronze 
placed  in  the  garden  of  La  Casa  del  Campo  ;  Tacca 
also  executed  a  statue  from  it.  He  painted  also 
two  magnificent  portraits  of  Philip  III.  and  his 
Queen,  which  are  dated  1606,  and  are  still  pre- 
served in  the  palace  of  the  Dukes  d'Uceda  at 
Montalvan.  Bermudez  lays  particular  stress  upon 
the  portrait  of  the  councillor  Ruiz  Perez  de  Ribera, 
which  is  in  the  monastery  of  Santa  Maria  de  Naxera. 
It  is  dated  in  1596.  Mention  is  further  made  of 
a  picture  of  the  '  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds,' 
in  which  the  portraits  of  Philip  II.  and  his 
family  are  introduced.  Among  the  other  notable 
persons  whom  he  portrayed,  we  find  the  Empress 
Maria  and  the  Princess  Juana  in  the  Descalzas 
Realee,  and  the  same  Empress  with  the  Princess 
Margarita  of  Austria  and  Isabel  de  Valois  in  the 
Madrid  Gallery.  He  was  also  a  successful  painter 
of  animals.  After  a  laborious  life  he  died  at 
Madrid  in  1609.  The  Spanish  parallel  to  the  story 
of  Zeuxis  is  attached  to  a  work  by  this  master. 
It  is  related  that  a  superb  eagle  having  been  cap- 
tured near  the  Prado,  the  king  gave  orders  to  Pan- 
toja  to  paint  its  likeness ;  which  he  did  with  so 
much  truth,  that  the  royal  bird  on  seeing  it  mistook 
it  for  a  real  eagle,  and  notwithstanding  all  their 
VOL.  IV.  F 

efforts  to  control  it,  attacked  the  picture  with 
impetuosity  and  tore  it  to  pieces.  The  Madrid 
Museo  possesses  the  following  examples  of  his  work : 

Portrait  of  Donna  Maria,  daughter  of  Philip  II.,  and 
wife  of  the  Emperor  Maximilian  II. 

Portrait  of  Isabel  of  Valois,  third  wife  of  PliLlip  II. 
iJitto.  ditto. 

Portrait  of  Margaret  of  Austria,  wife  of  Philip  III. 

Portrait  of  the  Emperor  Charles  V. 

Portrait  of  the  Infanta  Juana,  daughter  of  Philip  II. 

Portrait  of  Philip  II. 

The  Birth  of  the  Virgin. 

The  Birth  of  Jesus  Christ. 

Two  female  portraits. 

One  male  portrait. 

PANTOT.  A  French  painter  of  this  name, 
a  native  of  Lyons,  was  the  intimate  friend  of 
Thomas  Blanchet  during  the  latter's  stay  in  Rome, 
about  the  middle  of  the  17th  century. 

PANVINUS,  Onulph,  is  stated  to  have  been 
a  native  of  Antwerp.  He  flourished  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  16th  century.  He  engraved  and  pub- 
lished a  set  of  twenty-seven  portraits  from  his  own 
designs,  entitled  '  Elogiae  et  Imagines  Pont.  Max. 
ad.  viv.  delin.'  1568.  Zarii  mentions  an  Onofbio 
Panvinus,  a  designer  and  engraver  of  Verona, 
who  was  at  work  about  the  same  period. 

PANZA,  Fbederigo,  was  bom  at  Milan  between 
1633  and  1643.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Nuvolone,  and 
went  to  Venice  to  coj  y  the  works  of  Titian  and 
Paolo  Veronese.  On  his  return  he  settled  at  Milan, 
where  he  executed  several  pictures,  and  was 
knighted  by  the  Duke  of  Savoy.     He  died  in  1703. 

PANZACCHI,  Maria  Helena,  (Panzachia,  Pan- 
ZDCCHi,)  was  born,  according  to  Orlandi,  at  Bologna 
in  1688.  She  was  instructed  in  design  by  Emilio 
Tarufii,  and  became  a  reputable  painter  of  land- 
scapes, embellished  with  figures.  Some  of  her 
works  are  to  be  found  in  the  private  collections  at 
Bologna.    Zani  says  she  died  in  1737. 

PAOLETTI,ANTONlOD'EEJiOLAS,paint''r,  worked 
at  Venice,  decorating  the  court  of  the  Casa  Luna 
with  frescoes  and  oil  pictures  in  the  style  of  Louis 
XVI.,  and  producing  scenes  from  the  fashionable 
life  of  Venice  in  the  18th  century. 

PAOLEITI,  Paolo,  was  a  native  of  Padua,  and 
flour  shed  in  the  first  half  of  the  18th  century.  He 
exc-lled  in  painting  fruit,  fisli,  and  dead  game. 
His  pictures  are  held  in  considerable  estimation 
throughout  Friuli.     He  died  at  Udine  in  17.35. 

PAOLI,  Francesco  da.  Florent  le  Comte  men- 
tions this  artist  as  the  engraver  of  a  View  of  the 
City  of  Rome.     He  lived  about  1640. 

PAOLI,  Jacobus,  was  an  inferior  artist,  living 
at  the  beginning  of  the  15th  century,  who  was  the 
painter  of  an  'Annunciation'  with  a  kneeling 
patron,  in  the  Archivio  of  the  Podesta's  Palace  at 
Bologna,  and  also  part  author  of  an  altar-piece  in 
the  chapel  of  San  Croce,  in  San  Giacomo  Maggiore. 

PAOLI,  MicHELE,  a  pupil  of  Crespi,  who  practised 
at  Pistoja  as  a  historical  painter  at  the  beginning 
of  the  18th  century. 

PAOLILLO,  a  Neapolitan,  and  the  best  pupil 
of  Sabbatini,  to  whom  his  works  used  invariably 
to  be  ascribed.     Paolillo  died  young. 

PAOLINI,  Giacomo.    See  Paulini. 

PAOLINI,  PiETRO,  or  LncA  Pieteo,  (or  Paulini,) 
was  born  at  Lucca  in  1603,  and  was  sent  early  in 
his  life  to  Rome,  where  he  entered  the  school  of 
Angelo  Caroselli,  and  where  he  remained  thirty 
years.  After  returning  to  Lucca  he  established  an 
academy  there.  His  death  occurred  in  1681  or 
1682.     He  painted  a  fine  picture  of  the  Martyrdom 



of  St.  Andrew,  for  the  church  of  San  Miohele  at 
Lucca ;  and  his  large  work  in  the  library  of  San 
Frediano,  representing  Pope  Gregory  entertaining 
the  Pilgrims,  is  in  the  style  of  Paolo  Veronese. 
He  invented  an  instrument  for  taking  perspective 
views,  and  designing  them  in  their  due  proportions  : 
perhaps  the  Camera  Itidda. 

PAOLINI,  Pio  (or  Fabio),  was  a  native  of 
Udine,  but  studied  at  Rome  under  Pietro  da  Cor- 
tona.  He  painted  historical  subjects,  and  was  re- 
ceived into  the  Academy  at  Rome  in  1678.  There 
are  several  of  his  frescoes  in  the  Roman  churches  ; 
a  ceiling  of  one  of  the  chapels  in  San  Carlo  al 
Corso  is  particularly  good. 

PAOLINO,  Fra.     See  Del  Signoraccio. 

PAOLO  DEL  MAESTRO  NERI,  was  a  Sienese, 
living  in  the  middle  of  the  14th  century,  and  a 
pupil  and  follower  of  the  Lorenzetti.  His  name 
first  appears  on  the  roll  of  the  Sienese  Guild  of 
Painters  in  1355.  He  is  the  author  of  a  series  of 
chiaroscuro  frescoes  in  the  cloisters  of  the  convent 
of  Lecceto,  representing  Heaven  and  Hell,  the 
Works  of  Mercy,  incidents  from  the  lives  of  certain 
Augustine  Hermits,  and  other  subjects  both  sacred 
and  profane,  which  were  finished  in  1343. 

PAOLO  DEL  MASACCIO.    See  Pittori. 

PAOLO  Di  DONO.     See  DoNO. 

PAOLO  VENEZIANO,  (or  Maestro  Paolo,)  a 
north  Italian  painter,  who  was  at  work  at  Vicenza 
in  1340.  His  two  sons,  Giovanni  and  Jacopo, 
helped  him  in  his  work.  In  the  Hopenzollern 
collection,  at  Sigmaringen,  there  is  a  'Coronation 
of  the  Virgin '  with  the  following  inscription : 
begina  celi  letarb  aleluia  quen  meruisti 
CHRISTAM  portare  aleluia  ;  and  under  the  throne 
the    signature:     MCCCLVIII    johaninus    eiv(s) 


PAOLOTTO.Il  Frate.  See  Ghislandi,  Vittore. 

PAON.     See  Le  Paon. 

PAOUL,  Jean.  An  artist  of  this  name  was 
painter-in-ordinary  to  the  court  of  Lorraine  in 
1575.  Portraits  by  him  are  still  extant  in  Nancy 
and  the  neighbourhood. 

PAF'A,  SiMONE,  "il  Giovine,"  born  at  Naples  in 
1506,  was  the  son  of  a  goldsmith.  He  was  placed 
under  the  instruction  of  Giovan'  Antonio  d'Amato, 
the  elder,  and  becinie  a  painter  of  history.  In  the 
church  of  Santa  Maria  la  Nuova,  at  Naples,  are 
two  frescoes  by  this  master,  in  one  of  which  he 
has  represented  the  Assumption  of  the  Virgin,  and 
in  the  other  the  Annunciation.  Another  of  his 
frescoes  is  in  the  choir  of  Monte  Oliveto,  in  the 
same  city.     He  died  at  Naples  in  1567. 

PAPA,  SiMONE, "  il  Vecchio,"  was  born  at  Naples 
about  the  year  1430  ;  his  death  occurred  in  1488. 
He  was  the  scholar  of  Antonio  Solario,  surnamed 
"  lo  Zingaro."  In  the  church  of  San  Niccol6  alia 
Dogana,  Naples,  there  is  a  picture  of  the  Annun- 
ciation by  Papa ;  and  the  church  of  San  Lorenzo 
in  the  same  city  possesses  his  altar-piece  of  the 
Virgin  and  Child,  with  Saints. 

PAPARELLO,  ToMMASO,  (or  Papacello,)  painter, 
■n-as  a  native  of  Cortona.  In  1651  he  was  employed 
as  assistant  by  Giulio  Romano.  He  was  still  alive 
in  1653. 

PAPE,  A.  DE.     See  De  Pape. 

PAPE,  JiksiDiDS  Simon  (de),  a  native  of  Oude- 
narde,  who  flourished  from  1685  to  1636.  He 
epent  his  life  in  his  native  town,  where  he  enjoyed 
a  considerable  reputation  as  painter,  goldsmith,  and 
architect.  His  son  JossE  was  also  a  painter,  and 
en  the  death  of  his  father,  migrated  to   Rome. 


Another  son,  Simon,  lived  and  worked  at  Oudenarde, 
where,  and  at  Ghent,  some  of  his  works  are  to  be 
found.  This  Simon  died  in  1677.  His  son  Gillis 
practised  as  an  historical  painter  in  Oudenarde, 
where  he  died  in  17051 

PAPE,  F.  de,  a  Flemish  miniaturist  and  painter 
in  water-colours.  He  was  born  in  1814,  and  died 
at  Bruges  in  1863. 

PAPE,  Martin  Didier,  was  an  enamel  painter, 
who  lived  at  Limoges  from  1574  to  1609,  and  was 
about  the  former  date  superintendent  of  the  enamel 
factory  there. 

PAPELEU,  Victor  de,  French  painter ;  born 
February  10,  1810,  at  Ghent ;  he  became  a  pupil 
of  A.  Benouville  and  Jules  Dupre ;  afterwards 
travelled  in  Europe  and  the  East.  Painted  French, 
Italian,  and  Dutch  landscapes,  as,  for  instance, 
'  Fenne  dans  les  Landes,'  '  lie  de  Capri,  prfes  de 
Naples,'  and  '  Abecoude  ;  environs  d' Amsterdam.' 
He  died  at  Ghent  in  1885. 

PAPERMANN,  Ernst  Moritz,  German  painter ; 
born  October  28,  1830,  at  Fischergasse,  near 
Meissen  ;  became  a  pupil  of  Bendemann  and  of 
the  Dresden  Academy.  Painted  on  porcelain; 
also  portraits  and  genre  pictures,  such  as  his 
'  Sandalenkinder.'  He  died  at  his  birthplace, 
April  2,  1893. 

PAPETY,  Dominique  Louis  Fer^ol,  a  French 
painter,  born  at  Marseilles  in  1815.  He  was  a. 
pupil  of  L.  Cogniet,  and  carried  off  the  Grand  Prix 
in  1836.  In  Rome  he  painted  'Moses  in  the 
bulrushes  ; '  a  copy  of  the  '  Council  of  the  Gods,' 
after  a  fresco  of  Raphael's ;  and  '  Dream  of  Hap- 
piness.' He  travelled  in  Greece  and  the  East,  and 
made  many  drawings ;  on  his  last  voyage  he  laid 
the  seeds  of  a  fever  wliich  carried  him  off  in  1849. 
PAPI,  Cristofano  di,  called  Dell'  Altissimo, 
was  a  Florentine  painter  of  the  middle  or  latter 
half  of  the  16th  century.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Bron- 
zino  and  Pontormo,  and  in  his  youth  produced 
several  important  pictures,  chiefly  portraits,  for 
Cosmo  I.  Duke  of  Tuscany ;  also  a  large  number 
of  those  portraits  of  distinguished  persons  which 
hang  in  the  corridor  of  the  Uffizi  at  Florence. 
Neither  the  year  of  his  birth  nor  that  of  his  death 
has  been  ascertained,  but  he  was  still  living  in 

PAPILLON,  Jean,  '  the  elder,'  a  French  engraver 
on  wood,  was  born  at  Rouen  in  1639.  He  was 
instructed  by  Du  Bellay,  but  his  design  was  not 
equal  to  his  engraving.  He  died  in  Paris  in  1710. 
PAPILLON,  Jean  Baptists,  '  the  younger,'  the 
son  of  Jean  Papillon,  was  bom  at  St.  Quentin  in 
1661.  After  receiving  some  instruction  in  drawing 
from  his  father,  he  was  sent  to  Paris,  where  he  was 
placed  under  the  tuition  of  Noel  Cochin.  His  first 
pursuit  was  drawing  with  a  pen.  He  afterwards 
turned  his  attention  to  engraving  on  wood,  and  his 
cuts  possess  considerable  merit.  He  executed  a 
great  variety  of  vignettes  and  book  ornaments, 
and  is  said  to  have  been  the  inventor,  about  the 
year  1688,  of'paper-hangings  for  rooms.  He  died 
in  Paris  in  1723.  Among  his  cuts  were  the  por- 
traits of  Popes  Paul  III.,  Julius  III.,  and  Pius  IV., 
also  of  King  James  II.  of  England.  His  most 
famous  work  was  a  '  Mass-book '  in  chiaroscuro 
after  Leclerc. 

PAPILLON,  Jean  Baptiste  Michel,  the  son  of 
Jean  Baptiste  Papillon,  was  bom  in  Paris  in  1698, 
and  was  instructed  by  his  father  in  the  art  of 
engraving  on  wood,  which  he  practised  with  great 
success.     Among  his  best   performances   are    the 


cuts  he  executed  in  conjunction  with  N.  le  Sueur, 
from  the  designs  of  J.  J.  Bachelier,  for  the  fine 
edition  of  'Les  Fables  de  la  Fontaine,'  in  four 
volumes  ffilio.  He  also  furnished  217  plates  to 
the  Amsterdam  Historical  Bible.  He  published  a 
history  of  the  art  of  engraving  on  wood,  in  two 
volumes,  entitled,  '  Traite  Historique  et  Pratique 
de  la  Gravure  en  Bois,'  in  which,  however,  he  was 
guilty  of  many  mistakes,  while  the  appearance  of 
more  recent  works  on  the  subject  has  destroyed 
its  value.     He  died  in  Paris  in  1776. 

PAPILLON,  Jean  Nicolas,  wood  engraver,  was 
bom  at  St.  Quentin  in  1663.  He  was  the  son  of 
Jean  Papillon  '  the  elder.'  He  executed  several 
unimportant  works.     He  died  in  1714. 

PAPIN,  J.  A.,  a  French  painter,  and  native  of 
Bordeaux,  was  bom  in  1800.  He  never  rose  above 
mediocrity,  and  died  in  1880.  His  best  work  is  a 
'  Dream  of  St.  Joseph.' 

PAPINI,  GiDSEPPE,  (or  Giuseppe  Benedetti  de 
Papini,)  an  Italian  engraver,  who,  according  to 
Zani,  was  born  in  1707,  and  died  in  1782.  He 
executed  several  plates  of  ceilings,  and  other 
decorations  for  the  '  Museo  Etrusco,'  by  Gori  ;  the 
'  Museum  Capitolinum  ;'  and  other  works  published 
between  17.87  and  1750. 

PAPPANELLI,  Niccol6,  a  native  of  Faenza, 
was  born  in  1537.  He  was  a  knight,  and  an 
amateur  in  art,  which,  however,  he  studied  with 
enthusiasm  under  the  influence,  at  least,  of  Baroccio. 
His  best  work  is  a  '  St.  Martin'  in  Faenza  cathe- 
dral.    Pappanelli  died  in  1620,  aged  83. 

PAPPERITZ,  Gdstav  Friedrich,  landscape  and 
genre  painter  and  etcher,  was  born  at  Dresden  in 
1813.  He  studied  at  the  Academy  there  under 
Clausen-Dahl,  and,  after  1836,  at  Munich.  He 
travelled  in  Italy  and  Spain.  His  death  occurred 
at  Dresden  in  1861.  In  1836  he  brought  out  twelve 
etchings  of  Italian  views.  Among  his  paintings 
there  are : 

The  Valley  of  Elche,  in  Spain.    (Dresden  Museum.) 

Ruins  of  Petersberg,  near  Halle. 

Sicilian  Pilgrim  scene. 

PAPPINO  della  PIEVE,  an  Italian  painter  of 
the  16th  century.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Niccol6  Soggi, 
but  died  in  liis  first  youth. 

PAPWORTH,  Edgar  George.  For  his  clever 
drawings,  and  especially  for  his  sketches  for  a 
panoramic  view  of  Rome,  this  talented  sculptor 
finds  mention  in  this  volume.  He  was  born  in 
1809,  resided  at  Rome  in  the  time  of  his  youth, 
having  won  a  travelling  scholarship  at  the  Royal 
Academy,  and  died  at  Highgate  in  1866. 

PAPWORTH,  George,  an  architect,  the  uncle 
of  E.  G.  Papworth,  and  a  man  of  unusual  skill  as 
a  draughtsman  and  colourist.  He  was  responsible 
for  many  important  buildings  in  Ireland,  but  especi- 
ally deserves  notice  on  account  of  the  intrinsic 
beauty  of  his  architectural  designs,  the  originality 
of  his  drawing,  and  the  refinement  of  his  schemes 
of  colour.  He  was  born  in  1781  and  died  in 

PAPWORTH,  John  Buonarotti,  another  mem- 
ber of  this  talented  family,  son  of  John  Papworth, 
born  1775,  and  died  in  Huntingdonshire  in  1847. 
He  was  not  only  an  architect,  but  also  "  a  designer 
of  decorations,  furniture,  and  accessories,"  and 
remarkable  as  an  artist  in  water-colour.  He  was 
an  honorary  member  of  the  Old  Water-Colour 
Society,  and  a  frequent  exhibitor  in  its  Galleries. 
He  was  appointed  Director  of  the  Government 
School  of  Design  in  1836,  and  was  the  author  of 

F  2 

many  important  works  on  decoration,  architecture, 
and  ornamental  gardening. 

PAPWORTH,  John  Woody,  born  1820,  died 
unmarried  in  1870,  the  elder  son  of  J.  B.  Pap- 
worth, and  the  brother  of  W.  A.  V.  S.  Papworth. 
He  was,  like  other  members  of  his  family,  an 
architect,  but  he  was  also  a  very  clever  heraldic 
painter,  and  an  admirable  designer  for  "glass, 
pottery,  terra  cotta,  paperhangings,  and  carpets." 
He  was  the  author  of  numerous  works  on  art  and 
arch  itecture 

PAPWORTH,  W.  A.  V.  S.,  the  younger  son  of 
J.  B.  Papworth,  and  the  editor  of  the  '  Dictionary 
of  Architecture.'  He  was  born  in  1822,  became 
curator  in  1893  of  the  Soane  Museum,  and  died 
therein  1894.  He  was  a  most  skilful  draughtsman 
and  desigTier,  intimately  connected  with  many 
architectural  and  artistic  societies,  the  author  of 
many  treatises  and  books  on  art,  and  a  very 
diligent  student  of  archaeology.  His  designs  were 
of  great  merit  and  beauty,  and  all  students  of 
architecture  are  indebted  to  him  for  the  results  of 
his  diligent  and  persevering  study. 

PAQUEST,  AiMABLE  Louis  Claude,  a  pupU  of 
David,  born  in  1790,  and  died  in  1819.  Though 
well  endowed  by  nature,  his  early  death  and  his 
laborious  finish  curtailed  his  productiveness ;  a 
portrait  of  M.  de  Nanteuil-Lanorville,  exhibited  in 
1817,  with  three  or  four  other  portraits  and  a  few 
studies,  complete  the  list  of  his  pictures. 

PARADISI,  NiccoLO,  a  Venetian  painter  of  the 
15th  century,  whose  name  is  preserved  by  the 
signature  on  a  '  Crucifixion,'  which  runs  thus : 
Nicholaus  Paradixi  Miles  de  Venetiis  pinxit, 
1404.  The  picture  belongs  to  the  Agostiniani 
family  at  Verucchio. 

PARANT,  — ,  a  painter  referred  to  in  the  will  of 
Pierre  Mignard.  Probably  a  journeyman  who 
'forwarded '  that  master's  pictures  and  completed 
the  accessories. 

PARANT,  Louis  Bertin,  a  famous  painter  on 
ivory  and  porcelain,  was  born  in  1767.  He  was 
distinguished  by  Napoleon  when  First  Consul ;  for 
him  he  executed  several  works.  Parant  died  in 

PARASACCHI,  DoMENico,  an  Italian  designer 
and  engraver,  resided  at  Rome  about  the  year  1630. 
In  conjunction  with  Giovanni  Maggi,  he  engraved 
a  set  of  plates  of  the  Fountains  at  Rome,  published 
in  1618,  and  again,  with  additions,  in  1636. 

PARASOLE,  Bernardino,  was  the  son  of  Leo- 
nardo Parasole,  and  studied  painting  in  the  school 
of  Giuseppe  Cesari.  He  was  a  native  of  Norcia. 
He  had  begun  to  distinguish  himself  as  an  his- 
torical painter,  when  lie  died,  in  the  bloom  of  life. 
He  executed  a  few  engravings  on  wood,  from  his 
own  designs. 

PARASOLE,  Geronima,  was  a  sister  of  Isabella 
Parasole.  We  have  by  her  some  engravings  on 
wood  ;  and,  among  others,  the  '  Battle  of  the  Cen- 
taurs,' after  Terapesta ;  and  a  series  of  scenes  from 
the  Life  of  St.  Anthony. 

PARASOLE,  Isabella,  was  the  wife  of  Leonardo 
Parasole,  who  assumed  her  family  name.  She 
executed  several  cuts  of  plants  for  an  herbal,  pub- 
lished under  the  direction  of  Prince  Cesi,  of  Aqua- 
sparta.  She  published  a  book  on  the  methods  of 
working  lace  and  embroidery,  with  ornamental 
cuts,  which  she  engraved  from  her  own  designs. 
She  was  working  at  Rome  about  1600,  and  died 
there  in  her  50th  year. 

PARASOLE,  Leonardo,  born  Noesini  (or  Ncr- 



CINO),  an  Italian  eugraver  on  wood,  was  born  at 
Rome  about  the  year  1570.  He  chiefly  distinguislied 
himself  by  his  cuts  in  the  Herbal  of  Castor  Durante, 
physician  to  Pope  Sixtus  V.,  which  were  engraved 
by  order  of  that  pontiff.  He  also  engraved  the 
wood-cuts  to  a  'Testamentum  novum,  arabice  et 
latine,'  and  several  prints  from  the  designs  of 
Antonio  Tempesta,  including  an  '  Annunciation.' 
He  married  Isabella  Parasole,  and  thenceforth 
went  by  her  name. 

PARCELLES,  Jan,  (Parcellis,  Percelles,  Por- 
CELLIS,  &c.,)  painter  and  etcher,  was  born  at 
Ghent  about  the  year  1597,  and  was  a  scholar  of 
Hendrik  Cornells  de  Vroom.  He  lived  at  Haarlem 
from  1622  to  1680,  and  died  there  in  or  subsequent 
to  the  latter  year.  He  excelled  in  painting  marines, 
particularly  tempests,  thunderstorms,  and  shij)- 
wrecks.  His  pictures  of  calms  have  also  con.siderable 
merit ;  tliey  usually  represent  views  of  the 
coast  of  Holland,  with  fishing-boats,  and  groups 
of  figures  on  the  strand.  Among  his  etchings  are 
the  following : 

A  set  of  twelve  large  and  eight  small  Sea-pieces. 
A  set  of  twelve  plates  of  the  differeut  Shipping  used  iu 
Holland,  with  a  Latin  inscription.     1627. 

PARCELLES,  Julius,  the  son  and  scholar  of 
Jan  Parcelles,  was  born  at  Leyerdorp  in  1628. 
He  painted  similar  subjects  to  those  of  his  father, 
whose  style  he  imitated  with  some  success.  His 
productions  cannot  always  be  distinguished  from 
those  of  the  elder  Parcelles,  as  they  both  marked 
their  pictures  with  the  initials  J.  P.  Good  ex- 
amples of  their  work  are  to  be  seen  in  the  galleries 
of  Berlin,  Frankfort,  and  Vienna. 

PAKEDES,  Juan  de,  was  a  Spanish  painter, 
who  studied  under  Miguel  Menendez  at  Madrid, 
and  afterwards  with  Evaristo  Munoz  at  Valencia. 
According  to  Cean  Bermudez  his  drawing  and 
colouring  excelled  many  of  his  contemporaries. 
His  best  works  are  in  the  convent  of  the  Shod 
Trinitarians  and  in  the  College  of  Augustines,  at 

PAREJA,  Juan  de,  known  as  the  Slave  of 
Velasquez,  was  born  at  Seville  in  1606.  He 
accompanied  Velasquez  to  Madrid  in  1623,  and  re- 
mained in  his  service  till  he  died.  Being  employed 
in  the  menial  work  of  the  studio  he  took  every 
opportunity  to  perfect  himself  as  an  artist,  but 
kept  his  ambition  studiously  concealed  from  his 
master.  At  length  he  painted  a  picture  which  he 
placed  in  his  master's  studio  in  such  a  position  as 
to  attract  the  attention  of  Philip  IV.  The  king 
was  so  pleased  with  the  work  that  he  asked  for 
^he  author,  whereupon  Pareja  owned  that  it  was 
himself,  and  in  return  received  his  liberty.  Velas- 
quez promoted  him  to  the  rank  of  a  pupil,  but  he 
remained  in  his  master's  service  till  the  latter  died, 
aud  afterwards  served  his  daughter  till  his  own 
death  in  1670.  The  Madrid  Gallery  possesses  a 
single  work  of  Pareja, '  The  Calling  of  St.  Matthew,' 
and  tlie  Gallery  of  St.  Petersburg  the  portrait  of  a 
Provincial  of  some  religious  order.  He  excelled 
in  portraiture. 

PARENTANI,  Antonio,  an  obscure  Italian 
painter,  who  was  at  work  in  Turin  in  1550.  He 
painted  a  '  Paradise,'  with  many  angels,  in  the 
Chapter  House  of  the  Consolata. 

PARENTING,  Bernardino,  who  lived  iu  the 
15th  and  16tli  centuries,  is  thought  to  have  belonged 
to  the  Benedictine  Order,  to  liave  taken  the  name 
of  Lorenzo,  and  to  have  died  at  Vicenza  in  1531. 
He  was  an  imitator  of  Squarcione,  and  his  earliest 


production  is  a  Religious  Allegory  in  the  Gallery 
of  Modena,  representing  the  Saviour  carrying  His 
Cross,  St.  Jerome  penitent  before  a  crucifix,  and 
a  kneeling  bishop  in  a  landscape.  The  Doria 
Gallery,  in  Rome,  possesses  three  panels  by  him, 
with  scenes  from  the  life  of  St.  Anthony,  which 
show  a  Mantegnesque  feeling.  His  latest  work 
consists  of  some  unfinished  frescoes  of  scenes  from 
the  life  of  St-  Benedict,  in  the  cloisters  of  San 
Giustina,  Padua. 

PARET  T  ALCAZAR,  Luls,  painter,  designer, 
and  etcher,  was  born  at  Madrid  in  1747.  He 
received  a  liberal  education,  and  becoming  a  scholar 
of  Antonio  Gonzalez  Velasquez,  he  obtained  in 
1760-6  prizes  at  the  Academy  of  St.  Ferdinand. 
Having  finished  his  artistic  education,  he  applied 
himself  to  studying  oriental  and  other  languages 
and  history.  Returning  to  Madrid  he  became  a 
member  of  the  Academy,  and  was  employed  by 
Charles  III.  to  paint  views  of  the  various  harbours 
of  Spain  on  the  Atlantic  coast.  He  held  the  post 
of  vice-secretary  to  the  Academy,  and  secretary 
to  a  board  of  architecture  for  the  purpose  of  exam- 
ining works  to  be  constructed  at  the  state  expense. 
He  died  at  Madrid  in  1799.  He  painted  a  large 
picture  representing  the  '  Estates  of  the  kingdom 
taking  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  Prince  of 
Asturias,  afterwards  Charles  IV.'  According  to 
Cean  Bermudez,  his  best  work  was  a  series  of 
drawings  made  by  request  of  Don  Gabriel  Sancha, 
to  illustrate  '  Don  Quixote : '  unfortunately  they  were 
never  engraved.  He  left  several  etchings  and  a 
few  frontispieces  for  books. 

PARIA.     See  Pereier,  FRANgois. 

PARIGI,  GiULlo,  a  Florentine  architect,  en- 
gineer, and  designer,  was  the  son  of  the  architect 
Alfonso  Parigi.  There  are  three  etchings  ascribed 
to  Giulio  by  Bartsch  and  Nagler:  'The  Garden  of 
Calypso,'  '  The  Temple  of  Peace,'  and  a  Landscape 
after  R.  Canta-Gallina,  who  was  his  scholar.  Giulio 
died  in  1635.  His  son,  Aleokso  Paeigi,  '  the 
younger,' etched  some  plates  of  opera  scenes  in  the 
manner  of  Canta-Gallina  ;  also  some  other  theatrical 
decorations,  one  of  which  represents  a  '  Dance  of 
Cavaliers  and  Ladies.'  He  was  at  one  time  military 
engineer,  and  afterwards  architect  to  the  Duke  of 
Tuscany.     He  died  at  Florence  in  1656. 

PAKILLA,  Miguel,  a  painter,  was  born  at 
Malaga  about  1620.  He  was  at  first  only  a  village 
painter,  but  he  afterwards  rose  to  considerable 
distinction.     He  died  about  1683. 

PARIS,  Camille,  French  painter  ;  born  in  Paris, 
March  22,  1834  ;  was  a  pupil  of  Ary  Scheffer  and 
of  Picot ;  devoted  himself  to  landscape  art.  His  work  exhibited  at  the  Salon  in  1864  was 
'  Roche  dflla  Fata'  ;  this  was  followed  by  various 
Italian  Ian  scapes;  his  'Taureau,'  shown  at  the 
Uuiversal  Exh  bi  ion  of  1878,  is  now  in  the  Luxem- 
bourg. He  o'ltained  a  third-class  medal  in  1874, 
a  second-class  medal  in  1889,  and  also  a  bronze 
medal,  receivint;-  the  Legion  of  Honour  in  1895, 
and  a  medal  at  the  Universal  Exhibition  in  1900. 
He  died  suddenly  at  Barbizon,  August  19,  1901. 

PARIS,  Di.     See  Alfani. 

PARIS,  Jkan  de.     See  Perreal. 

PARIS,  Jerome,  engraver,  was  born  at  Versailles 
in  1744.  He  was  instructed  by  Longueil,  and 
engraved  several  landscapes  and  views,  among 
which  were : 

Views  of  Provence  ;  after  Hackert, 
Views  of  Besan^on  ;  after  Zingy, 
Views  of  Dresden  ;  after  the  same. 


Views  of  Blois,  Nantes,  Noyon,  etc. ;  aftir  Desfriehts. 
Landscape  ;  after  Van  dcr  Meet. 
Landscapes ;  after  Ter  Heinpel. 

He  died  about  1810. 

PARIS,  Pierre  Adrien,  an  architect  and  archi- 
tectural designer,  was  born  at  Besanqon,  in  1747, 
and  died  in  1819.  His  architectural  designs  appear 
in  '  Le  Voyage  e  Naples,'  by  Saint  Non  ;  in  '  Les 
Tableaux  de  la  Suisse,'  by  Delaborde  ;  and  in  workB 
published  by  himself:  such  as  '  Recueil  de  desseins 
et  etudes  d'Architecture,'  nine  vols,  in  folio  ;  '  Exa- 
men  des  Ediiices  de  Rome,'  in  folio  ;  '  Restoration 
du  Colysse,'  forty-five  plates ;  and  other  pub- 

PARISE,  Francesco,  a  painter  of  Calabria,  was 
called  Cabresello.  He  studied  at  Naples  under 
P.  de  Matteis,  and  afterwards  went  to  Rome  to 
study  under  Maratti.  He  painted  pictures  for 
churches,  landscapes,  and  sea-pieces.  He  died 
about  1743. 

PARISET,  D.  P.,  a  French  engraver,  was  born 
at  Lyons  in  1740.  He  is  supposed  to  have  been  a 
pupil  of  Deinarteau,  under  whom  he  learned  the 
art  of  engraving  in  the  chalk  style.  In  1769  he 
came  to  England,  where  he  was  for  some  time 
employed  by  Ryland,  and  engraved  some  plates 
for  the  collection  of  prints  from  the  drawings  of  the 
great  masters,  published  by  Rogers.  He  also 
worked  for  Bartolozzi.  The  date  of  his  death  is 
unknown.  We  have  also  by  him  several  portraits 
after  Falconet  and  others,  among  them  the  follow- 

Sir  Joshua  Reynolds ;  P.  Falconet  del.     1 768. 

Benjamin  We-st,  with  his  family ;  after  West. 

Francis  Cotes. 

"William  Kyland. 

Paul  Sandby. 

Ozias  Humphrey. 

J.  Meyer. 

Oliver  Cromwell ;  after  Cooper. 

The  Death  of  Admiral  de  Coligny. 

The  Death  of  the  Dulie  of  Guise. 

PARISINUS,  AuGUSTisus,  is  supposed  to  have 
been  a  native  of  France,  and  to  have  flourished 
about  the  year  1640.  He  engraved  several  plates 
of  book  ornaments,  which  are  executed  with  the 
graver ;  also,  in  conjunction  with  J.  B.  Coriolano 
and  Olivier  Gatti,  a  book  of  emblems  by  Paul 
Macchi,  publi,shed  at  Bologna  in  1628.  There  are 
also  a  few  landscapes  with  his  mark,  a  large  A. 
with  a  P.  beneath  it. 

PARIZEAU,  Philip  Lodis,  a  French  engraver, 
was  born  in  Paris  in  1740  or  1748,  and  died  in 
1801.  We  have  by  him  several  etchings  after 
Salvator  Rosa  and  other  masters,  among  them 
the  following : 

An  Assembly  of  Eomau  Soldiers  ;  after  Salv.  Rosa. 

Marius  seated  on  the  Ruins  of  Carthage ;  after  the  same. 

The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Andrew  ;  after  Deshayes. 

The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Bartholomew  ;  after  the  same. 

Psyche  refusing  the  Honours  of  Divinity  ;  after  Boucher. 

PARK,  Thomas,  an  English  engraver,  horn  in 
1760.  His  works  are  in  mezzotint,  and  were  pro- 
duced in  the  early  part  of  his  career.  After  1797 
he  devoted  himself  to  literature  and  to  antiquarian 
pursuits.     Amongst  his  plates  are : 

Hon.  Lincoln  Stanhope  ;  after  jSir  J.  Reynolds.     1788. 

Dr.  Thomas,  Bishop  of  Rochester  ;  after  the  same.    1788. 

Miss  Penelope  Boothby  ;  after  the  same.     1789. 

Holman  and  Miss  Brunton  as  Romeo  and  Juliet ;  after 

Mrs.  Jordan  as  the  Comic  Muse  ;  after  Hoppner.    1786. 

Lord  Henry  Fitzgerald  ;  after  the  same. 

PARKER,  Frederick,  an  English  wood  en- 
graver of  much  promise,  who  died  young  in 

PARKER,  Henry  Perlee,  a  portrait  painter 
from  the  west  of  England,  son  of  the  teacher  of 
marine  drawing  at  Plymouth.  He  was  born  in 
1795,  and  resided  in  his  native  town  till  1816, 
when  he  moved  to  the  north  and  settled  at  New- 
castle, and  was  there  ultimately  associated  with 
the  foundation  of  the  Northumberland  Institution 
of  Fine  Arts.  During  his  residence  on  the  Tyneside 
he  became  very  popular  by  reason  of  his  selection 
of  local  incidents  as  the  subjects  for  his  pictures. 
He  was  a  Wesleyan,  and  was  appointed  in  about 
1840  to  the  position  of  drawing-master  at  Wesley's 
College  in  Sheffield.  In  that  town  he  resided  for 
some  four  years,  and  then  moved  to  London,  where 
he  died  in  1873.  He  exhibited  very  constantly  at 
the  Royal  Academy. 

PARKER,  James,  an  engraver,  was  born  in 
1750,  and  was  a  pupil  of  Basire.  He  was  one  of 
the  engravers  employed  by  Boydell  in  his  '  Shake- 
speare : '  eleven  of  the  plates  are  by  him.  He  also 
engraved  '  The  Revolution  of  1688  ; '  '  The  Novel ; ' 
and  '  Yorick  feeling  the  Lady's  Pulse,'  after  North- 
cote  ;  '  The  Commemorations  of  the  14th  of  Feb- 
ruary and  the  11th  of  October,  1797,'  afterSrairke  : 
several  of  the  plates  for  Flaxman's  illustrations  of 
Homer's  Iliad  ;  for  the  '  Vicar  of  Wakefield  '  (1792), 
after  Stothard  ;  and  for  Falconer's  '  Shipwreck  ' 
(1795).  He  was  one  of  the  founders,  and  a 
governor,  of  the  Society  of  Engravers.  He  died 
in  1805. 

PARKER,  John,  was  an  historical  and  portrait 
painter,  and  was  born  in  England  about  1730.  He 
resided  several  years  in  Rome,  where  he  displayed 
sufficient  ability  to  be  employed  to  paint  an  altar- 
piece  for  the  church  of  San  Gregorio,  on  Monte 
Celio,  representing  St.  Silvia.  He  returned  to 
England  about  the  year  1762,  and  was  an  exhibitor 
at  the  Society's  Rooms,  in  the  Strand,  in  1763, 
where  he  had  two  pictures.  The  subject  of  one 
was  '  The  Assassination  of  David  Rizzio ; '  the 
other,  his  own  portrait.  He  did  not  long  survive 
his  return  to  England,  but  died  at  Paddington 
about  the  year  1765. 

PARKER,  John,  landscape  painter,  was  for 
Borne  time  a  student  in  the  Duke  of  Richmond's 
Gallery,  and  received  some  instruction  from  the 
Smiths  of  Chichester.  He  was  at  Rome  about 
1768,  but  had  returned  to  England  by  1770.  He 
exhibited  at  the  Academy  in  1771,  and  again  and 
for  the  last  time  in  1776. 

PARKES,  David,  an  English  draughtsman,  born 
at  Hales  Owen  in  1763.  He  was  a  schoohnaster, 
and  made  sketches  of  antiquarian  interest,  some 
of  which  appeared  in  the  'Gentleman's  Magazine.' 
He  died  at  Shrewsbury  in  1833. 

PARKES,  English  draughtsman,  the  son 
of  D.  Parkes,  was  born  in  1794.  He  taught  draw- 
ing at  Shrewsbury.  Twelve  etchings  of  antiquities 
in  Shrewsbury  by  him  were  published  in  the  year 
after  his  death,  which  took  place  in  1828. 

PARKINSON,  Thomas,  an  English  portrait  and 
subject  painter,  in  the  second  half  of  the  18th 
century.  He  had  considerable  practice  in  theatrical 
subjects,  and  exhibited  at  the  Academy  from  1775 
to  1789.     Amongst  his  works  are: 

Scene  from  '  She  Stoops  to  Conquer.'    1775. 
Scene  from  •  Cymon.'     1775. 
Scane  from  '  The  Duenna.'     1776. 
Garrick  as  Macbeth. 




Mrs.  Bradshaw  as  Dorcas.     Garrick  dub,  London. 
Palmer  and  Keddish  in  '  Cymbcline.' 

Some  of  his  pictures  have  been  engraved. 

PARMA,    Battista    Pensieri   da.     See   Pab- 


PARMA,  Cbistoiiofo  da.     See  Caselli. 

PARMA,  Daniele  da.     See  Poem. 

PARMA,  Fab.  Akdrea  da.     See  Parmigiano. 

PARMANTIO,  Jacques.  A  painter  of  this  name, 
of  French  extraction,  lived  at  the  end  of  the  17th 
century  at  the  Hague,  where  he  painted  some 
ceilings  in  the  Binnenhof. 

PARME,  JcLiEN  DE.    See  Julien,  Simon. 

PARMEGIANO  (or  Parmegianino).  See  Maz- 
zuoLA,  Francesco. 

PARMENSIS,  Battista  Pensieri,  (or  da 
Parma,)  an  Italian  engraver,  was  born  at  Parma 
in  the  former  part  of  the  16th  century,  and  worked 
from  1538  to  1601.  He  chiefly  resided  at  Rome, 
where  he  engraved  several  plates  after  various 
masters,  and  from  bis  own  designs.  He  was 
patronized  by  Pietro  Aretino,  and  praised  by  him 
in  some  of  liis  letters.  His  prints  are  executed 
with  the  graver,  in  a  style  resembliBg  that  of 
Cornelis  Cort.  Among  others,  we  have  the  follow- 
ing by  him : 

The  Portrait  of  Philip  II.,  King  of  Spain.     1589. 

The  Virgin  and  Infant  appearing  to  St.  John;  after 

Baroccio.     Baptista  fnrmciisis  fee.     1588. 
The  Baptism  of  Christ.     Bnpf.  Farmensis  del. 
The  Chastity  of  Joseph.     1592. 
The  Crucifixion,  in  two  .sheets  ;  Bapt.  Farmensis  for- 

mis.     1584. 

PARMENSIS.  Jacobus.     See  Caragho. 

PARMENTIER,  Jacques,  called  James,  was 
born  in  France  in  1658.  He  was  a  nephew  of 
Sebastian  Bourdon,  by  whom  he  was  instructed 
in  art.  On  the  death  of  Bourdon,  he  came  to 
England  in  1676,  and  was  for  some  time  employed 
by  Charles  de  la  Fosse,  to  assist  him  in  the  works 
upon  which  he  was  engaged  at  Montague  House. 
King  William  sent  Parmentier  to  Holland,  to 
ornament  his  palace  at  Loo,  but  he  quarrelled  with 
Marot,  the  superintendent  of  the  works,  and 
returned  to  London.  Not  finding  much  employ- 
ment on  his  arrival,  lie  went  into  Yorkshire,  and 
was  engaged  in  several  historical  subjects  as  well 
as  portraits.  He  painted  an  altar-piece  for  the 
principal  church  at  Hull,  and  a  picture  of  'Moses 
receiving  the  Law,' for  St.  Peter's  church  in  Leeds. 
His  best  performance  was  the  staircase  at  Work- 
sop. He  gave  a  picture  of  Diana  and  Endymion' 
to  Painters'  Hall.  On  the  death  of  Laguerre,  in 
1721,  he  returned  to  London,  where  he  died  in 

PARMENTIER,  L.,  engraved  a  title  for  the 
'  Works  of  Philips  Wouwerman,'  with  the  portrait 
of  the  painter  at  the  bottom,  from  a  design  by 
J.  de  la  Jore. 

PARMIGIANINO.     See  Rocca,  Michele. 

PARMIGIANO.  (or  Parmioianino).  See  Maz- 
zuoLA,  Francesco. 

PARMIGIANO  (or  Parmigiakino).   See  Scaglia. 

PARMIGIANO,  GiULlo,  a  battle  painter  of 
Venice,  called  Ca  Grimani,  was  educated  in  the 
school  of  F.  Monti.  He  accompanied  General 
Grimani  to  the  Morea,  to  make  drawings  of  battles, 
which  he  painted  for  the  Palazzo  Grimani  at  Venice, 
He  died  in  1734. 

PARMIGIANO,  Fabrizio  Andrea,  (or  da 
Parma,)  was  born  about  1555,  and  flourished  at 
Rome  as  a  landscape  painter  in  the  pontificate  of 


Clement  VII.  In  the  church  of  Santa  Cecilia  in 
Trastevere,  are  eight  large  pictures  by  him,  painted 
in  fresco,  in  which,  like  some  of  the  landscapes  by 
the  Carracci,  there  is  more  fancj'  than  truth.  He 
died  in  1600. 

PAROCEL.     See  Parrocel. 

PARODI,  Domenico,  (or  Parrodi,)  was  born  at 
Genoa  in  1668.  He  was  the  son  of  Giacomo 
Filippo  Parodi,  an  eminent  sculptor,  who  bestowed 
on  him  an  excellent  education.  He  acquired  the 
first  elements  of  design  under  his  father,  and  for 
some  time  applied  himself  to  the  pursuit  of 
sculpture ;  but  a  partiality  for  painting  prevailed, 
and  he  was  sent  to  Venice,  where  he  entered  the 
school  of  Bombelli,  and  became  an  excellent 
colourist  by  studying  the  works  of  Tintoretto 
and  Paolo  Veronese.  He  also  visited  Rome,  where 
he  attached  himself  to  the  manner  of  Carlo 
Maratti.  His  '  S.  Francesco  di  Sales,'  in  the 
church  of  San  Filippo  Neri  at  Genoa,  is  in  the 
style  of  that  master.  He  further  painted  '  The 
Holy  Trinity,  with  SS.  Stephen  and  Leonard,'  in 
Santa  Vergine  delle  Vigne,  and  representations  of 
the  deeds  of  the  Negroni  family  in  their  palace  in 
the  same  city.     He  died  in  1740. 

PARODI,  Ottavio,  was  born  at  Pavia  in  1659, 
and  was  a  scholar  of  Andrea  Lanzano.  He  after- 
wards visited  Rome,  where  he  studied  some  years. 
On  his  return  to  Pavia  he  executed  several  works 
for  the  public  places  in  that  city,  which  established 
his  reputation  as  a  painter  of  history.  He  was 
still  living  in  1718. 

PARODI,  Pellegro,  a  portrait  painter,  was  the 
son  of  Domenico  Parodi.  He  went  to  Portugal, 
and  in  Lisbon  painted  portraits  of  many  leading 
men.  Capinetti  engraved  after  him  the  portrait 
of  the  Marquis  Pombal,  and  Gregori  that  of  the 
Doge  Spinola.     He  died  about  1769. 

PAROLINI,  Giacomo  (or  Giacomo  Filippo),  was 
born  at  Ferrara  in  1663.  His  father  dying  when 
he  was  only  five  years  of  age,  he  was  taken  under 
the  protection  of  a  maternal  uncle,  who  perceiving 
his  disposition  forart,  placed  him  with  the  Cavaliere 
Peruzzini  at  Turin,  with  whom  he  remained  until 
lie  was  sixteen,  when  he  visited  Bologna,  and 
entered  the  school  of  Carlo  Cignani.  He  returned 
to  Ferrara  in  1699,  and  finished  some  pictures 
left  imperfect  by  M.  Aurelio  Scannavini,  who  had 
been  his  fellow-student  under  Cignani.  He  was 
successful  in  the  design  of  his  female  figures  and 
children,  and  his  bacchanals  and  festive  dances 
remind  us  of  Albani.  His  pictures  of  those 
subjects  are  to  be  found  in  almost  every  collection 
in  Ferrara.  Of  his  historical  works  the  most 
considerable  are,  the  'Last  Supper,'  in  the  cathedral 
at  Ferrara;  and  a  fresco  representing  'St.  Sebastian 
with  a  glorj'  of  angels,'  in  the  church  dedicated  to 
that  Saint  at  Verona.  He  was  the  last  eminent 
painter  of  his  country,  and  "  with  him,"  says 
Lanzi,  "  was  buried  the  glorj'  of  the  Ferrarese 
school."     He  died  at  Ferrara  in  1733. 

PAROLINI,  Pio,  was,  according  to  Titi,  a 
native  of  Udine,  though  he  chiefly  resided  at 
Rome,  where  he  was  received  into  the  Academy  in 
1678.  He  painted  an  allegorical  subject  on  the 
ceiling  of  one  of  the  chapels  in  San  Carlo  al  Corso. 

PARONE,  Francesco,  was  born,  according  to 
Baglione,  at  Milan,  near  the  end  of  the  16th 
century.  He  was  the  son  of  an  obscure  artist ; 
but  at  an  early  age  be  visited  Rome,  where  he 
had  the  good  fortune  to  be  taken  under  the 
protection   of  the    Marquis   of    Giustiniani,   who 


enabled  him  to  study  the  works  of  art  in  his  own 
collection  and  elsewhere.  In  the  church  of  the 
monastery  of  San  Romualdo,  is  an  altar-piece  by 
him,  representing  the  '  Martyrdom  of  a  Saint.' 
Parone  died  at  Rome  in  the  prime  of  life,  in 
the  year  1634. 

PAROY,  Jacques  de,  glass  painter,  was  born  at 
Saint  Pourcain  sur  AUier,  Auvergne,  towards  the 
end  of  the  16th  century.  He  studied  in  Rome 
under  Donienichino.  He  painted  the  choir  windows 
in  St.  Mery,  Paris  ;  he  designed  the  story  of 
Susanna  for  another  set  of  windows  in  the  same 
church,  and  also  tlie  four  '  Fathers  of  the  Church.' 
Paroy  died  at  the  end  of  the  17th  century,  aged  102. 
PAROY,  Jean  Philippe  Guy,  a  French  painter 
and  engraver,  was  born  in  Brittany  in  1760.  In 
his  youth  he  showed  great  talent  for  art,  in  spite 
of  the  opposition  of  his  father.  In  1800  he 
produced  his  engraving  of  the  'Modern  Antigone,' 
which  had  great  success.  He  wrote  a  history 
of  the  Royal  Academj-  of  Painting,  and  other 
works.     He  died  in  1822. 

PARR,   Remi,  (or    Remigius,)  an  architectural 
designer   and   engraver,    was   born   at   Rochester 
in  1723,  and  in  1737  published  a  View  of  London 
from  Westminster  Bridge,  with  other  plates  of  a 
similar  kind.     He  was,  however,  chiefly  employed 
by  the    booksellers  in  portraits,  book-plates,  and 
humorous  subjects.     He  was  still  living  in  1750. 
Among    others,  we  have  the  following  engraved 
portraits  by  him  : 
Maria  Louisa,  daughter  of  Charles  II. 
John  Fisher,  Bishop  of  Rochester. 
WiUiam  Becket,  prefixed  to  his  Chirurgical  Observations. 

PARRASIO,  Angelo,  a  Sienese  painter,  who  was 
employed  at  the  court   of  the  Marquis   Leonello 
d'Este,  in  the  middle  of  the  15th  century. 

PARRASIO,  MioHELE,  a  painter  of  the  16th  cen- 
tury, was  a  pupil  of  Titian  and  of  Paolo  Veronese. 
He  was  a  man  of  wealth,  and  continued  through 
life  in  intimate  correspondence  with  Titian.  There 
remain  by  him  : 

Madrid.  Escorial.    The  Marys  at  the  Sepulchre. 

„  „  Adoration  of  the  Kings. 

„  Museum.    The    Dead    Christ  adored  by 

Pius  V. 
Venice.  Academy.    Deposition  from  the  Cross. 

^  „  Male  Portrait. 

PARRE,  Mathieu,  a  Dutch  painter  of  the  present 
century,  who  was  at  work  in  Amsterdam  from  1811 
to  1849.     He  was  a  pupil  of  J.  Van  der  Stok. 

PARREU,  Jos^,  was  born  at  Rusafa,  Valencia, 
in  1694.  He  was  a  pupil  of  D.  Vidal,  and  executed 
several  works  for  the  churches  in  Valencia.  He 
died  in  1766. 

PARRHASIUS,  the  younger  contemporary  and 
rival  of  Zeuxis,  was  a  native  of  Ephesus,  and  a 
disciple  of  Euenor.  He  was  in  the  fulness  of  his 
reputation  about  400  B.C.  According  to  Pliny,  he 
W!is  the  first  who  arrived  at  perfect  symmetry  in 
the  proportion  of  his  figures,  and  Quintiliau  terms 
him  "  the  legislator  of  art,"  from  the  canon  which 
he  established  on  this  point  having  been  accepted 
by  succeeding  artists.  He  gave  to  his  forms  more 
relief  and  roundness,  more  life  and  motion,  than 
were  known  before  his  time.  He  was  also  par- 
ticularly successful  in  the  treatment  of  the  hair, 
and  in  the  expression  of  his  female  figures.  This 
characteristic  he  carried  so  far  as  to  impart  to  his 
pictures  some  of  the  soft  and  sensuous  quality  of 
the  Asiatic  school,  and  this  not  to  the  female 
figures  only,  for  Euphranor   remarked    that    the 

'Theseus'  of  Parrhasius  had  been  fed  on  roses, 
while  his  own  was  fed  upon  beef.  The  painter, 
moreover,  was  voluptuous  in  his  own  habits,  and 
used  to  add  to  his  signature  the  epithet,  djSpoiiairoc, 
'  the  luxurious.'  Parrhasius  was  remarkable,  too, 
for  vanity  and  arrogance.  He  styled  himself  the 
prince  of  painters,  and  asserted  that  he  had  carried 
the  art  to  the  highest  possible  perfection.  He 
was  always  clothed  in  sumptuous  attire,  and 
claimed  to  be  descended  from  Apollo.  He  pre- 
tended to  have  painted  Hercules  from  a  revelation 
of  his  form  in  a  vision  ;  and  when  defeated  by 
Timanthes  in  a  contest  for  a  picture  upon  the 
'  Strife  of  Ajax  and  Ulysses,'  he  declared  that 
Ajax  %vas  a  second  time  overcome  by  an  unworthy 
rival.  The  story  versified  by  the  American  poet 
Willis,  of  his  putting  a  slave  to  the  rack  in  order 
to  himself  with  a  model  for  the  expression 
of  intense  agony,  whether  it  be  founded  upon  fact 
or  not,  is  too  much  in  accordance  with  his  nature  : 
"  I'd  rack  thee  though  a  thousand  lives  were  thine  ; 
What  were  ten  thousand  to  a  fame  like  mine !  " 
Notwithstanding  these  serious  personal  defects, 
Parrhasius  cannot  be  denied  the  glory  of  having 
been  one  of  the  most  accomplished  painters  of 
Greece.  The  well-known  story  of  Pliny  in  refer- 
ence to  the  contest  between  him  and  Zeuxis  is 
related  in  the  article  upon  the  latter  artist.  One 
of  his  principal  works,  representing  a  '  High  Priest 
of  the  goddess  Cybele,'  was  afterwards  purchased 
by  the  Emperor  Tiberius,  for  sixty  thousand 
sesterces.  Pliny  highly  commends  two  pictures 
by  Parrhasius,  one  representing  a  warrior  rushing 
to  the  combat,  the  other  a  soldier  taking  off  his 
armour.  His  celebrated  picture  of  '  Theseus  '  was 
in  that  historian's  time  preserved  in  the  Capitol  at 
Rome  ;  and  another  representing  Melenger,  Her- 
cules, and  Perseus,  in  one  group,  was  formerly  at 
Rhodes.  Yet  another  of  his  most  notable  produc- 
tions was  his  picture  of  '  The  Athenian  People,'  in 
which  he  appears  to  have  caught  imd  expressed 
all  the  varying  modes  and  passions  of  the  populace. 
Some  of  his  subjects  were  lascivious. 

PARRHASIUS  (of  Antwerp).  See  ScHOONJANS 
PARRIS,  EdmundThomas,  was  born  in  the  parish 
of  Marylebone  on  June  3,  1793,  and  served  an 
apprenticeship  with  Ray  and  Montague,  the 
jewellers,  where  he  learnt  enamel-painting  and 
metal-chasing  ;  he  studied  mechanics  in  his  spare 
time.  In  1816  he  was  admitted  as  a  student 
in  the  schools  of  the  Royal  Academy  ;  in  this 
year  two  of  his  pictures  were  hung  at  the  Royal 
Academy.  'The  Butterfly,'  and  a  view  of  West- 
minster Abbey,  "with  old  houses  as  they  appeared 
in  1816."  Between  1816  and  1874  eighty-six  of 
his  works  were  exhibited  in  London,  including 
twenty-six  at  the  Royal  Academy ;  thirty-six  at 
the  British  Institution  ;  and  eighteen  at  Suffolk 
Street  ((iraves,  'Dictionary  of  Artists').  From 
1824  to  Nov.  1829  Parris  chiefly  engaged  in 
painting  Horner's  Colosseum,  erected  near  Regent's 
Park  (in  1845  he  repainted  it)  ;  and  from  1853  to 
1856  he  so  completely  "restored"  Sir  J.  Thoru- 
hill's  paintings  in  the  cupola  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral 
as  to  leave  practically  nothing  of  the  original 
work.  Between  these  two  undertakings  he  as- 
sisted W.  Daniell,  R.A.,  in  painting  a  panorama 
of  Madras,  the  building,'  of  which  was  also  from 
his  design.  His  exhibits  were  chiefly  fancy  sub- 
jects, and  probably  the  most  popular  of  these 
was  'The  Bridesmaid'  (inspired  by  Haines  Bailey's 
'Lay  of  the  Minstrel'),  exhibited  at  the  British 



Institution  in  1830,  and  of  which  the  engraving 
by  J.  Bromley  had  a  great  success  ;  the  picture, 
thirty  inches  by  twenty-two  inches,  was  bought 
by  Sir  Robert  Peel,  and  at  the  sale  of  the  Peel 
heirlooms,  ilay  11,  1900,  it  realized  only  eleven 
guineas.  To  the  three  sets  of  plates  from  his 
drawings,  '  Flowers  of  Loveliness,'  '  Gems  of 
Beauty,'  and  'The  Passions'  (1836-38),  Lady 
Blessington  wrote  the  accompanying  verses,  and 
he  illustrated  her  '  Confessions  of  an  Elderly 
Gentleman,'  1836,  and  '  Confessions  of  an  Elderly 
Lady,'  1838.  He  had  for  many  years  a  consider- 
able vogue  as  a  fashionable  portrait  painter,  his 
sitters  including  Queen  Adelaide;  this  was  lent 
to  the  Guelph  Exhibition  in  1891  by  Mr.  John 
Cleland  ;  in  1832  he  was  appointed  historical 
painter  to  Queen  Adelaide.  He  made  a  sketch  of 
Queen  Victoria  on  her  visit  to  Drury  Lane  in 
Nov.  1837,  and  this  was  engraved  by  Wagstaffe, 
who  also  engraved  (in  1842)  his  picture  of  the  same 
Queen's  coronation  ;  the  Queen  gave  him  sittings  ; 
the  original  drawings  in  pencil  and  crayon  were 
sold  at  Sotheby's  on  July  10,  1899,  and  several  of 
these  are  now  the  property  of  the  present  writer. 
An  early  picture,  '  Christ  Blessing  Little  Children,' 
is  in  St.  George's  Church,  Sheffield ;  his  cartoon  of 
'  Joseph  of  Arimath^a  converting  the  Britons ' 
won  a  prize  of  £100  at  the  Westminster  Hall 
competition  in  1843  ;  and  he  designed  a  model 
for  a  piece  of  tapestry  forty  feet  long  for  the  Paris 
Exhibition  of  1867,  and  "  was  much  employed 
in  decorating  the  mansions  of  the  nobility."  A 
number  of  his  historical  costume  plates  were 
reproduced  in  the  fourth  and  fifth  volumes  of  'The 
Connoisseur.'  Parris  was  a  man  of  untiring  and 
extraordinary  industry,  but  he  is  now  perhaps 
best  remembered  by  the  many  pretty,  sentimental 
plates  which  he  designed  for  the  '  Keepsakes  '  and 
*  Annuals'  of  the  earlier  years  of  the  19th  century; 
he  was  not  in  any  sense  a  great  artist,  but  he  was 
a  conscientious  and  painstaking  workman,  and  it  is 
a  matter  of  regret  that  he  is  not  represented  in  any 
public  Gallery.    He  died  on  Nov.  27, 1873.     W.R. 

PARROCEL,  Charles,  the  son  of  Joseph  Parro- 
<:el,  was  born  in  Paris  in  1688,  and  was  first  in- 
structed by  his  father,  who  dying  when  he  was 
only  sixteen  years  of  age,  he  was  placed  under  the 
tuition  of  Charles  de  la  Fosse,  and  on  leaving  that 
master,  travelled  to  Italy,  where  he  studied  some 
years  in  Rome.  On  his  return  to  France  he  ac- 
quired considerable  reputation  as  a  painter  of 
battle-pieces,  and  though  these  and  his  hunting- 
pieces  are  inferior  to  those  of  his  father,  they 
possessed  sufficient  merit  to  procure  his  reception 
into  the  Academy  at  Paris,  of  which  in  1745  he 
further  became  professor.  He  was  in  the  same 
year  appointed  to  accompany  the  king  to  Flanders, 
to  depict  his  victories.  Among  his  best  pamtmgs 
are  those  of  'The  Turkish  Ambassador  before  and 
after  his  audience  in  the  Tuileries,'  now  at  the 
Gobelins.  Parrocel  has  left  thirty-seven  etchings, 
from  his  own  designs,  representing  horse  and  foot 
soldiers,  among  them  six  in  the  style  of  Salvator 
Rosa.     He  died  in  Paris  in  1752. 

PARROCEL,  Etienne,  was  the  son  of  Pierre 
Parrocel.  He  was  born  in  Paris  about  the  year 
1720,  and  is  stated  to  have  been  a  painter,  perhaps 
also  an  engraver.  . 

PARROCEL,  Barthelemy,  a  native  of  Bng- 
noUes,  father  and  first  instructor  of  Joseph  Parrocel. 
He  was  of  no  repute  as  an  artist,  and  died  about 


PARROCEL,  Ignace,  the  nephew  of  Joseph 
Parrocel,  was  born  in  Paris  in  1668.  He  was 
apparently  the  scholar  of  his  uncle,  as  he  painted 
similar  subjects,  battles  and  huntings,  and  in  a 
closely  similar  style.  He  died  in  Paris  in  1722. 
A  '  Turkish  Battle  '  and  a  '  Field  Encampment '  by 
him  are  in  the  Belvedere  of  Vienna. 

PARROCEL,  Joseph,  an  eminent  painter  of 
battles,  was  born  at  Brignolles,  in  Provence,  in  1648. 
He  was  the  son  of  Barthelemy  Parrocel,  a  painter 
of  little  note,  who,  together  with  his  elder  son 
Louis,  instructed  Joseph  in  the  first  elements  of  the 
art.  Without  the  help  of  any  other  teaching,  the 
latter  went  to  Paris,  where  he  obtained  the  notice  of 
some  distinguished  artists,  who  recommended  him 
to  visit  Italy.  On  his  arrival  at  Rome,  he  found 
the  works  of  Borgognone  in  the  highest  estimation  ; 
and  he  entered  the  school  of  that  artist.  After  a 
residence  of  some  years  at  Rome,  he  visited  Venice, 
where  he  rapidly  improved  his  colour  by  study- 
ing the  works  of  the  best  Venetian  masters.  The 
encouragement  he  experienced  in  Venice  led  him 
to  think  of  establishing  himself  there,  when  one 
evening  he  was  assailed  on  the  Rialto  by  several 
assassins,  posted,  it  was  believed,  by  persons  jealous 
of  his  success,  and  it  was  only  by  his  courage  and 
personal  vigour  that  he  escaped.  In  1676  he  re- 
turned to  Paris,  and  immediately  met  with  public 
favour.  He  was  made  a  member  of  the  Academy 
the  following  year,  on  which  occasion  he  painted 
the  '  Siege  of  Maestricht '  for  his  reception  picture. 
He  was  commissioned  by  the  Marquis  de  Louvois, 
to  decorate  one  of  the  four  refectories  of  the  In- 
valides,  with  the  conquests  of  Louis  XIV.,  and  after 
this  he  was  employed  on  some  of  the  works  at 
Versailles  and  Marly.  He  became  one  of  the 
favourite  painters  of  Louis  XIV.,  in  whose  service 
he  remained  until  his  death,  which  occurred  in 
Paris  in  1704.  He  painted  several  historical  sub- 
jects for  the  Hotel  de  Toulouse,  and  an  admirable 
picture  of  '  St.  John  in  the  Wilderness,'  for  the 
church  of  Notre  Dame  de  Paris.  The  Museum  of 
Lyons  possesses  a  '  Horsemen  Resting  '  by  him. 
We  have  ninety  etchings  by  Parrocel  from  his  own 
designs  :  among  which  are  the  following  : 
The  Four  Parts  of  the  Day  ;  J.  Parrocel  inv.  et.fec. 
Four  Battles  ;  t/ie  same  insci-iption. 
A.  set  of  forty-eight  prints  from  the  Life  of  Christ. 

PARROCEL,  Louis,  a  painter,  the  eldest  son  of 
Barthelemy  Parrocel,  was  born  at  Avignon  in  1640. 
He  was  instructed  by  his  father,  and  painted  chiefly 
historical  pictures. 

PARROCEL,  Pierre,  nephew  of  Joseph  and  son 
of  Louis  Parrocel,  was  born  at  Avignon  in  1664, 
and  died  in  Paris  in  1739.  He  was  first  instructed 
by  his  uncle,  and  afterwards  entered  the  school  of 
Carlo  Maratti  at  Koine,  and  in  1730  became  a 
member  of  the  Academy  there.  His  principal  work, 
as  a  painter,  was  in  the  gallery  of  the  Hotel  de 
Noailles,  at  St.  Gerraain-en-Laye,  where  he  repre- 
sented the  history  of  Tobit  in  thirteen  pictures ; 
but  the  '  Coronation  of  the  Virgin,'  in  the  church 
of  St.  Mary  at  Marseilles,  is  considered  his  chef- 
d'oeuvre.  He  also  etched  and  engraved.  His 
etchings  are  executed  with  dexterity  and  spirit,  in 
a  style  analogous  to  that  of  A.  Rivalz;  but  he  was 
not  equally  successful  with  the  graver.  Of  the 
fourteen  etchings  left  by  him,  'The  Triumph  of 
Amphitrite  '  is  perhaps  the  most  noteworthy. 

PARROCEL,  Pierre  Ignace,  was  born  at  Avig- 
non in  1702,  and  was  at  Rome  in  1739-40.  He 
was  afterwards  director  of  the  school  of  art  there. 


He   etched  thirty-six   plates,  comprising  among 
them  a  series  of  Bernini's  statues. 

PARRODI.     See  Parodi. 

PARROTT,  William,  the  son  of  a  farmer  at 
Aveley  in  Essex,  was  horn  in  October  1813. 
Coming  to  London,  he  was  apprenticed  to  John 
Pye  the  engraver,  but  soon  forsook  the  bnrin  for 
the  brush.  In  1840  he  published  a  series  of  twelve 
lithograph  views  of  'Loudon  from  the  Thames,' 
and  in  1843  his  residence  in  Paris  is  marked  by  a 
similar  set  of  Paris  views.  During  the  years  1844 
and  1845  he  travelled  in  Italy,  and  on  his  return 
settled  in  Warren  Street,  Fitzroy  Square,  which 
neighbourhood  he  never  left  till  his  death.  In 
1851  he  visited  Germany,  and  afterwards  spent 
much  time  in  Normandy  and  Brittany.  From 
1836  to  1857  he  was  a  regular  exhibitor  at  the 
Eoyal  Academy,  showing  twenty-five  pictures  in 
all.  From  1835  to  1869  he  also  exhibited  twenty- 
five  pictures  at  Suffolk  Street,  and  nineteen  at  the 
British  Institution.  His  work  consists  mainly  of 
landscapes,  but  he  occasionally  produced  figure 
subjects  full  of  life  and  vivacity,  such  as  '  The 
Monk  preaching  in  the  Colosseum,'  '  Catering  for 
the  Convent,'  &c.  One  of  his  best-known  works  is 
his  caricature  portrait  of  Turner,  painted  in  1842, 
and  now  in  the  Ruskin  Museum.  To  his  last  years 
belong  the  'Part  of  St.  Malo'  (1864);  'Margate 
Jetty  '  (1865) ;  '  Sea  View,  Isle  of  Wight '  (1866)  ; 
'Across  the  Thames  at  Henley'  (1867);  'The 
Romantic  Fair  of  Quhnperle,  Brittany,'  and 
'Vesuvius  in  Eruption '(1868).  His  last  exhibit 
was  in  1869,  and  it  may  be  presumed  that  he  died 
in  that  year,  or  shortly  after. 

PARRY,  Charles  James,  a  younger  son  of  D. 
E.  Parry,  and  a  clever  amateur  artist.  He  was 
born  in  1824,  educated  at  Manchester,  where  he 
was  afterwards  engaged  in  commercial  pursuits, 
and  died  in  London  in  1894.  Two  of  his  sons 
were  also  artists. 

PARRY,  David  Henry,  junior,  a  painter  of  mili- 
tary subjects,  and  a  writer,  son  of  Charles  Parry. 

PARRY,  David  Henry,  a  son  of  Joseph  Parry, 
born  in  1793,  whose  success  in  the  world  as  a 
portrait  painter  caused  him  to  remove  to  London, 
where  he  died  in  1826.  He  painted  both  in  oil 
and  in  water-colour,  and  some  notable  portrait 
■drawings  were  executed  by  him  in  pastels. 

PARRY,  James,  a  son  of  Joseph  Parry,  and  an 
engraver.  His  work  is  well  represented  in  Corry's 
'  History  of  Lancashire,'  and  he  both  drew  and 
engraved  many  views  of  buildings  in  that  county. 
He  died  in  1871. 

PARRY,  Joseph,  a  Liverpool  artist,  the  son  of 
a  master  pilot,  who  was  apprenticed  to  a  ship 
painter,  but  who  speedily  proved  his  capacity  for 
artistic  work.  He  painted  a  great  many  pictures 
dealing  with  the  curious  by-streets  and  quaint 
buildings  of  Manchester  and  Liverpool,  and  he 
also  had  considerable  practice  as  a  portrait  painter 
in  those  towns.  He  etclied  a  very  clever  portrait 
of  himself  which  is  exceedingly  rare.  He  died  at 
Manchester  in  1826,  and  two  of  his  sons  practised 
•as  artists. 

PARRY,  Thomas  Gambier,  a  well-to-do  amateur 
artist,  born  in  1816,  whose  chief  title  to  fame  rests 
upon  his  discovery  of  the  "  spirit  fresco  "  process, 
which  was  adopted  both  by  Ford  Madox  Brown  an(i 
Lord  Leighton  in  their  most  notable  works.  He 
decorated  a  church  which  he  built  at  Highnara,  the 
roof  of  the  nave  at  Ely  Cathedral,  and  some  im- 
portant   portions    of    Gloucester    Cathedral,   and 

Tewkesbury  Abbey  at  his  own  cost  with  fresco 
work,  and  attained  to  a  very  eminent  position 
thereby,  being  considered  the  greatest  living 
authority  on  internal  decorative  work.  He  was 
a  great  collector  of  fine  old  Italian  paintings, 
many  of  which  were  described  in  the  '  Burlington 
Magazine '  for  July  1903.  He  died  suddenly  in 

PARRY,  William,  was  bom  in  London  in  1742. 
He  was  the  son  of  Parry,  the  celebrated  blind  per- 
former on  the  Welsh  harp,  and  received  his  first 
instructions  in  design  in  Shipley's  drawing-school. 
He  afterwards  studied  from  the  plaster-casts  in 
the  Duke  of  Richmond's  gallery,  and  became  a 
pupil  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  ;  about  which  time  he 
also  entered  the  academy  in  St.  Martin's  Lane.  He 
was  considered  at  that  time  a  very  promising  artist, 
and  obtained  several  premiums  from  the  Society 
of  Arts,  and  in  1766  he  became  a  member  of  the 
Incorporated  Society  of  Artists.  On  leaving  Sir 
Joshua  he  was  favoured  with  the  patronage  of  Sir 
Watkin  Williams  Wj'nn,  by  whose  liberality  he 
was  enabled,  in  1770,  to  visit  Italy,  where  he 
remained  four  years,  and  among  other  things  he 
painted  for  his  protector  a  copy  of  Raphael's 
'  Transfiguration,'  at  that  time  in  the  church  of 
San  Pietro  in  Montorio.  He  returned  to  London 
in  1775,  and  in  1776  was  chosen  an  Associate  of 
the  Royal  Academy  ;  he  then  exhibited  some  por- 
traits, as  he  did  again  in  1778,  1779,  and  1788. 
Not  meeting  with  the  employment  he  expected,  he 
removed  to  Wales,  and  on  the  death  of  his  wife, 
in  1788,  revisited  Rome,  where  he  found  sufficient 
encouragement  to  induce  him,  with  the  help  of  a 
small  fortune  acquired  through  his  wife,  to  remain 
several  years.  His  ill  state  of  health  obliged  him 
to  return  to  bis  native  country  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  year  1791  ;  hut  he  only  survived  his 
arrival  a  few  days,  and  died  on  February  13th. 
There  is  a  small  etching  by  Parry,  prepared  as  a 
ticket  for  a  benefit  concert  on  behalf  of  his  father, 
whom  it  represents  plaj'ing  on  the  harp. 

PARS,  Henry',  an  English  draughtsman,  born  in 
1734.  He  was  the  elder  brother  of  W.  Pars, 
A.  R.  A.,  and  was  brought  up  as  a  chaser.  His 
chief  claim  to  remembrance  is  in  connection  with 
the  St.  Martin's  Lane  School,  of  which  lie  was 
master  so  long  that  it  became  known  by  his  name. 
He  died  in  1806. 

PARS,  William,  was  born  in  London  in  1742, 
and  was  educated  in  the  rudiments  of  art  in  Ship- 
ley's drawing-school.  He  afterwards  frequented 
the  St.  Martin's  Lane  school,  and  the  Duke  of 
Richmond's  Gallery.  He  exhibited  at  the  Society 
of  Arts  in  1761,  and  in  1764  obtained  from  them 
the  third  premium  of  twenty  guineas,  for  historic 
painting.  Shortly  afterwards  he  went  as  draughts- 
man with  the  expedition  sent  into  Ionia  by  the  Dilet- 
tanti Society,  with  Dr.  Chandler  and  W.  Revett 
as  his  colleagues.  On  this  expedition  he  was  ab- 
sent over  two  years,  and  some  time  after  his  return 
he  was  engaged  by  the  second  Lord  Palmerston, 
to  accompany  him  in  a  tour  through  Switzerland 
and  Italy,  to  make  drawings  of  the  most  remark- 
able views  and  antiquities.  In  1770  he  was  elected 
an  Associate  of  the  Royal  Academy  ;  and  in  1774 
the  Dilettanti  Society  having  determined  to  send 
an  artist  to  Rome,  for  a  certain  number  of  years, 
upon  a  pension,  to  complete  his  studies  as  a  painter, 
Pars  was  made  choice  of,  and  arrived  at  Rome  in 
1775.  He  continued  his  studies  in  Italy  until  the 
autumn  of  the  year  1782,  when  he  died  of  a  fever. 



He  had  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  constantly 
from  its  establishment  until  1776,  producing  both 
small  and  life-size  portraits,  as  well  as  drawings 
and  stained  views  of  temples  in  Asia  Minor  and 
Greece.  Several  of  the  views  he  made  iii  Greece 
have  been  engraved  by  Byrne ;  and  some  of 
those  in  Switzexland  and  Italy  were  reproduced  in 
aquatint  by  Paul  Sandby.  WooUet  also  engraved 
five  Swiss  views  after  Pars. 

PARSON,  William,  an  amateur  architectural, 
landscape,  and  fruit  painter,  was  born  in  London 
in  1736.  His  father  was  a  builder,  and  at  fourteen 
he  was  apprenticed  to  an  architect.  He  afterwards 
went  on  the  stage,  and  became  a  popular  comic 
actor,  but  never  relinquished  his  art.  He  died  in 

PARSONS,  Francis,  an  English  portrait  painter, 
in  the  second  half  of  the  18th  century.  He  was 
taught  in  the  St.  Martin's  Lane  school,  and  became 
a  member  of  the  Incorporated  Society  of  Artists. 
In  his  later  years  he  became  a  picture-dealer. 
Works  : 

Portrait  group  of  Indian  Chiefs  who  visited  London  in 
1763.     Eiif/raved  hy  3TcArdell. 

Portrait  of  Miss  Da\-i's  as '  Madge,'  in  '  Love  in  a  Village.' 

Portrait  of  Brindley,  the  Engineer.  Engraved  by  Dun- 

PARTRIDGE,  John,  a  portrait  painter  was  born 
in  1790.  He  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  from 
1815  to  1846.  In  1843  he  exhibited  portraits  of 
the  Queen  and  Prince  Albert,  which  were  engraved 
and  became  very  popular.  Two  years  later  he 
was  appointed  portrait  painter  extraordinary  to  the 
Queen.  For  thirty  years  he  held  a  good  position 
in  the  second  rank  as  a  portrait  painter,  exhibiting 
for  the  last  time  in  1846.  On  two  occasions  only, 
in  1830  and  1836,  did  he  send  a  subject  picture  to 
the  Academy  ;  these  were  respectively,  '  Titania, 
Puck,  and  Bottom,'  and  '  A  Sketching  Society,  the 
Critical  Moment.'  Partridge  died  November  25, 
1872.  The  National  Portrait  Gallery  possesses  a 
large  picture  by  him  of  a  meeting  of  the  Fine  Arts 
Commission  of  1841  at  Gwydyr  House,  Whitehall; 
and  the  National  (iallery  of  Ireland  a  portrait  of 
SirT.  Wyse,  K.C.B. 
PAS,  DE  (Pass).  See  Van  de  Pass. 
PASADOS,  Miguel,  a  Spanish  Dominican  monk, 
born  at  Valencia  in  1711.  He  painted  historical 
pictures,  and  died  in  1753. 
PASAROT.  See  Passerotti. 
PASCAL,  Antoine,  a  painter  of  still-life,  and 
pupil  of  Redoutd.  He  was  at  work  at  Macon  in 
the  early  years  of  the  present  century.  His  wife 
followed  the  same  profession. 

PASCAL,  Joseph  Andkeas,  a  miniature  painter 
of  Munich,  who  flourished  in  1729.  He  painted 
portraits  and  other  pictures  in  miuiature  for  the 
Bavarian  court.  He  died  in  1758. 
PASCALINI.  See  Pasqdalini. 
PASCH,  LoRENZ,  a  painter  of  Stockholm,  was 
born  in  1733.  He  painted  the  Swedish  king  and 
the  members  of  his  house  and  court,  and  decorated 
the  royal  palace  with  pictures.  He  was  a  professor 
and  rector  of  the  Academy,  and  inspector  of  the 
Gallery.     He  died  in  1805.    Works: 

Stockholm.  Galleiy.    Portrait  of  the  Engineer  Daniel 

Tliunberg.       [Pascli     jniixit, 
„  Half-length   portrait    of   Gus- 

tavus  Adolphus  IV. 

His  sister,  Friederica  Ulrica  Pasch,  who  was  at 

Stockholm  in  1735,  and  died  in  1796,  was  also 
a  portrait  painter  and  member  of  the  Academy. 
PASBNA,  RoG.  DE.  See  Van  der  Weyden. 
PASINELLI,  Lorenzo,  was  born  at  Bologna  in 
1629,  and  was  first  a  scholar  of  A.  Baroni  and 
Simone  Cantarini,  but  afterwards  studied  under 
Flaminio  Torre,  whose  school  he  left  at  an  early 
age.  He  then  visited  Turin,  Mantua,  and  Rome, 
and  spent  some  time  at  Venice,  where  the  style_  of 
Paolo  Veronese  exercised  great  influence  over  him. 
On  leaving  Venice  he  returned  to  Bologna,  where 
he  died  in  1700.  Among  his  best  paintings  are : 
'Christ's  Entry  into  Jerusalem,'  and  'The  Return 
of  Christ  from  Limbus,'  in  the  Certosa  of  Bologna  ; 
'  St.  Francis  raising  a  Dead  Man  to  Life,'  at  San 
Francesco  in  the  same  city ;  and  the  '  History  of 
Coriolanus,'  in  the  Palazzo  Ranuzzi.  We  have 
the  following  etchings  by  Pasinelli  from  his  own 
designs : 

St.  John  pre.tching  in  the  Wilderness. 
The  Slartyrdom  of  several  Saints. 
The  Murder  of  the  Innocents  ;  after  Guido  Rent. 
PASINI,  Alberto,  an  Italian  painter,  born 
September  3,  1826,  at  Busseto  (i'arma) ;  was  a  pupil 
of  Giceri  at  the  Parma  Academy  ;  then  he  studied 
in  Paris  under  Isabey  and  Rousseau  ;  travelled  in 
Turkey,Arabia,  and  Persia,  which  served  to  develop 
and  confirm  his  taste  for  Oriental  subjects,  as  a 
painter  of  which  he  attained  excellence.  For  a 
time  he  worked  in  Paris,  and  afterwards  at  Mon- 
calieri,  near  Turin.  He  also  painted  Venetian 
scenes,  though  his  Eastern  subjects  show  him  at 
his  best.  He  obtained  a  third-class  medal  at  the 
Salon  in  1859  ;  a  second-class  one  in  1863  ;  a 
medal  in  1854  ;  a  medaille  d'lionneur  in  1878  ;  the 
Legion  of  Honour  in  1868;  being  nominated  Officer 
in  1878.  He  died  at  Cavoretto,  near  Turin, 
December  14,  1899. 

PASINI,  BoNiFAZio,  of  Verona,  son  of  Bartolo- 
meo  Pasini,  born  1489,  traceable  as  a  painter  at 
Verona  from  1515.  In  1523  he  became  a  member 
of  the  Confraternity  of  SS.  Siro  e  Libera,  and 
appears  to  have  held  the  oliice  of  Sacristan  to  that 
body  until  his  deatli  in  1540.  This  painter  was 
formerly  designated  in  the  history  of  Art,  Bonifazio 
I.  of  Verona,  and  was  regarded  as  the  oldest 
member  of  a  family  of  three,  the  others  being 
styled  respectively,  Bonifazio  Veronese  II.  and 
Bonifazio  HI.  Veneziano.  The  important  dis- 
coveries of  Dr.  Gustav  Ludwig  in  the  archives  of 
Verona  and  Venice  have,  however,  proved  this  to  be 
incorrect.  In  his  exhaustive  treatment  of  the  sub- 
iect  ('Jahrbuch  d.  K.  Preussischen  Kunstsamm- 
'lungen,'  1901,  Heft  II.  and  III.,  and  1902,  Heft  I.)  he 
has  shown  conclusively  that  the  second  Bonifazio 
of  Verona  was  named  "  Di  Pitati  "  (see  that  painter), 
and  was  no  relation  of  Bonifazio  Pasini,  and  that 
a  tliird  painter  of  the  name  of  Bonifazio  never 
existed.  No  works  can  be  ascribed  to  Bonifazio 
Pasini  witli  any  certainty.  C.  J.  Ff. 

PASQUALI  FiLirro,  was  a  native  of  Forli,  and 
a  scholar  of  Carlo  Cignani.  He  flourished  about 
the  year  1680,  and  in  conjunction  with  Marc 
Antonio  Francescliini,  jiainted  several  fresco  works 
at  Bologna  and  Rimini.  There  are  some  of  his 
paintings  in  the  portico  of  the  Serviti  at  Bologna  : 
and  Laiizi  makes  honourable  mention  of  his 
pictures  in  the  church  of  San  Vittore,  at  Ravenna. 
PASQUALINI,  Felice,  a  pupil  of  Sabbatini ; 
some  of  Ijis  works  are  still  extant  at  Bologna  and 
its  neighbourhood. 
PASQUALINI,  Giovanni  Battista,  (or  Pasca- 


LiNi,)  an  Italian  painter  and  engraver,  was  born 
at  Cento,  near  Bologna,  about  the  year  1600.  He 
frequented  for  some  time  the  school  of  Giro  Ferri ; 
but  it  does  not  appear  that  he  arrived  at  great 
eminence  as  a  painter.  We  have  several  etchings 
by  him,  principally  after  Guercino,  his  countryman, 
in  which  he  endeavoured,  not  very  successfully, 
to  imitate  with  the  point  the  masterly  pen  drawings 
of  that  master.  The  earliest  is  dated  1619,  and  the 
latest  1630.  He  frequently  signed  his  plates  J.  B. 
Centensis.  We  have,  among  others,  the  following 
prints  by  him : 

St.  Felix  kneeling  before  the  Virgin  and  Infant ;  after 

L.  Carracci, 
St.  Diego  working  a  Miracle  :  irfter  Ann.  Carracci. 
The  Death  of  St.  Cecilia  ;  after  Bomenichi/io. 
The  Aurora  ;  after  Guido. 


Christ  dictating  the  Gospel  to  St.  John. 

The  Resurrection  of  Lazarus. 

Christ  giving  the  Keys  to  St.  Peter. 

The  Treaclicry  of  Judas. 

Angels  showing  Mary  Magdalene  the  Instruments  of 

the  Passion. 
Christ  with  the  Disciples  at  Emmaus. 
The  Incredulity  of  Thomas. 

The  Virgin  and  Infant,  with  an  Angel  presenting  Fruit. 
The  Virgin  and  Infant,  to  whom  St.  John  presents  an 

S.  Carlo  Borromeo. 
St.  FeUx  resuscitating  a  Dead  Child. 
Tancred  and  Erminia. 
Tithonus  and  Aurora. 

PASQUALINO.    See  Rossi,  Pasquale. 

PASQUALINO,  an  imitator  of  Bellini  and  Cima, 
who  lived  in  the  latter  part  of  the  15th  centurj'. 
In  the  Correr  Museum,  Venice,  there  is  a  '  Virgin 
and  Child,  with  St.  Mary  Magdalene,'  dated  and 
signed  by  him  in  1496.  Nothing  is  known  of  his 
birth  or  death. 

PASQUALOTTO.    See  Ottini. 

PASQUETTI,  For.TUNATO,  portrait  and  historical 
painter,  was  a  pupil  of  N.  Cassana.  In  1741  he 
was  director  of  the  Academy  at  Venice,  and  died 
about  1770. 

PASQUIER,  Jean  Jacques,  a  French  engraver, 
was  born  in  the  early  part  of  the  17th  century,  and 
was  a  pupil  of  Laurent  Cars.  He  has  engraved 
several  plates  after  French  painters,  and  a  variety 
of  vignettes  and  other  illustrations  for  books.  We 
may  name  the  following  by  him  : 

Arion  upon  the  Dolphin  ;  after  Houcher. 

Two  Pastoral  Subjects  ;  after  the  same. 

The  Graces  ;  after  C.  van  Loo. 

A  set  of  Twelve  Academical  Figures  ;  after  X'atoire. 

PASS,  DE  (or  PASsa:ns).     See  Van  de  Pass. 

PASSANTE,  Bartolommeo,  a  Neapolitan  painter 
of  little  note,  and  a  pupil  of  Spagnoletto. 

PASSARl.     See  Passeri. 

PASSAKOTO  (or  Passarotti).   See  Passekotti. 

PASSAVANT,  Johann  David,  a  German  his- 
torical painter,  born  at  Frankfort  in  1787.  His  art 
studies  were  carried  on  under  David,  Gros,  and 
Overbeck.  But  he  chiefly  devoted  himself  to  the 
literature  and  criticism  of  art,  publishing  works  on 
Raphael  (by  which  he  is  best  known),  engraving, 
art  in  England,  &c.  He  died  in  1861.  At  Frank- 
fort there  is  a  portrait  of  the  Emperor  Henry  II. 
by  him,  and  a  picture  of  St.  Hubert.  We  give  the 
titles  and  dates  of  publication  of  his  books : 

'  Kunstreise  durch  England  und  Belgien.'     1833. 
'  Raphael  von  XJrbino  und  sein  Vater  Gioranni  Santi.' 

'Die  Christliche  Kunst  in  Spanien.' 
'  Le  Peintre  Graveur.'     1860—1864. 


PASSE,  De  (Pass).    See  Van  de  Pass. 

PASSERI,  Andrea,  was  a  native  of  Como,  in 
the  Milanese.  In  the  year  1505  he  painted  in  the 
cathedral  of  his  native  city  a  picture  of  the  Virgin 
surrounded  by  the  Apostles. 

PASSERI,  Bernardino,  (Passari,  or  Passero,) 
an  Italian  engraver,  flourished  at  Rome  about  the 
year  1580.  He  is  doubtfully  stated  to  have  been 
also  a  painter,  and  to  have  adopted  the  style  of 
Taddeo  Zuccaro.  Among  others  we  have  the 
following  prints  by  him  : 

The  Holy  Family  in  which  the  Virgin  is  attired  as  a 

A  set  of  plates  of  the  Life  of  St.  Bruno. 

Several  Madonnas,  and  other  subjects. 

PASSERI,  Giovanni  Battista,  was  bom  at 
Rome  about  the  year  1610,  and  is  reported  by 
Lanzi  to  have  been  a  friend  of  Domenichino,  and  a 
follower  of  his  style.  He  was  employed  by  Canini, 
in  the  Villa  Aldobrandiui,  in  16.35,  and  was  president 
of  the  Academy  of  St.  Luke,  in  1641,  when  Domeni- 
chino died.  At  the  close  of  his  life  Passeri  entered 
into  holy  orders,  and  in  1675  obtained  a  benefice 
in  the  college  of  Sta.  Maria  in  Via  Lata.  He  died 
in  1679.  In  the  church  of  San  Giovanni  della 
Malva,  at  Rome,  is  a  picture  by  him  of  the  Cruci- 
fixion ;  but  his  works  are  more  frequent  in  jirivate 
collections  than  in  public  edifices.  He  sometimes 
painted  pictures  of  dead  game,  birds,  &c.,  of  which 
there  are  several  in  the  Palazzo  Mattel.  In  the 
Academy  of  St.  Luke  there  is  a  portrait  of  Domeni- 
chino, painted  by  him,  and  placed  there  at  the  death 
of  his  friend,  whose  funeral  oration  Passeri  pro- 
nounced. Passeri  was  one  of  the  chief  Italian 
\vriters  on  art.  His  principal  work  is  entitled 
'  Vite  de'  Pittori,  Scultori,  e  Architetti,  che  hanuo 
lavorato  in  Roma,  e  che  son  morti  dal  1641  al 
1673.'  It  was  published  in  full  for  the  first  time 
in  1772,  in  Rome. 

PASSERI,  Giuseppe,  the  nephew  of  Giovanni 
Battista  Passeri,  was  born  at  Rome  in  1654,  and, 
according  to  Pascoli,  was  a  favourite  disciple  of 
Carlo  Maratti,  of  whose  style  he  was  one  of  the 
most  successful  followers.  His  principal  works  at 
Rome  are  his  picture  of  the  Conception,  in  the 
church  of  San  Tommaso  in  Parione  ;  and  one  of 
the  wings  to  the  picture  of  the  Baptism,  by  Maratti, 
in  the  Vatican,  in  which  he  has  represented  St. 
Peter  baptizing  the  Centurion,  which  was  executed 
in  mosaic,  and  the  original  placed  in  the  church  of 
the  Conventuali  at  Urbino.  At  Pesaro  there  is 
one  of  his  best  works,  representing  St.  Jerome 
meditating  on  the  Last  Judgment.  Passeri  died  in 

PASSEROTTI,  Bartolommeo,  (or  Passarotti,) 
was  born  at  Bologna  about  the  year  1520  or  1530. 
He  was  first  a  scholar  of  Giacomo  Baroccio  da 
Vignola,  but  afterwards  he  became  the  disciple 
and  coadjutor  of  Taddeo  Zuccaro.  at  Rome,  where  he 
resided  in  the  early  part  of  his  life.  For  the  public 
buildings  here  he  painted  some  pictures  of  which 
tlie  most  esteemed  is  the  Martyrdom  of  St.  Paul,  in 
the  church  of  San  Paolo  alle  Tre  Fontane.  On  his 
return  to  Bologna  he  painted  a  great  number  of 
altar-pieces  for  the  churches,  of  which  the  most 
celebrated  are  the  Adoration  of  the  Magi,  in  San 
Pietro  ;  the  Annunciation,  in  San  Martino  Mag- 
giore ;  and  the  Virgin  on  a  throne,  surrounded  by 
St.  John  the  Baptist  and  other  Saints,  in  San 
Giacomo  Maggiore.     The  last-named  was  painjed 



in  competition  with  the  Carracci,  and  excited  their 
admiration.  He  died  at  Bologna  the  3rd  June, 
1592.  Hie  works  are  very  unequal,  as  he  frequently 
sacrificed  correctness  and  refinement  to  his  desire 
of  gain  and  to  the  indulgence  of  an  uncommon 
facility  of  hand.  He  was  the  founder  of  a  respect- 
able academy  at  Bologna,  and  counted  among  his 
disciples,  Francesco  Vanni,  Agostino  Carracci,  and 
other  distinguished  artists.  He  particularly  ex- 
celled in  portrait  painting.  Among  the  personages 
whom  he  portrayed  were  Popes  Pius  V.,  Gregory 
XIII.,  and  Sixtus  V.,  and  Cardinal  Guastavillani. 
Bartsch,  who  speaks  highly  of  his  ability  as  a 
designer  with  the  pen,  and  of  the  freedom  and 
boldness  of  his  Avork  with  the  burin,  mentions  the 
first  fifteen  of  the  following  etchings  : 

The  Chastity  of  Joseph  ;  after  Parmiyiano. 

The  Visitation  ;  after  F.  6'alvi'ati. 

The  Virgin,  with  the  Infant  and  St.  John,  m.irked 

A  similar  subject  with  the  letters  S.  P. 

The  Virgin  sitting  on  the  ground,  with  the  Infant 
Jesus  on  her  icnees  ;  signed  i?.  Pasarot. 

Jesus  Christ  holding  a  banner ;  P.  Pasarot.  This  and 
the  five  following  are  supposed  to  be  part  of  a  suite 
of  thirteen,  representing  Christ  and  his  Apostles. 

St.  Peter,  with  the  letters  £.  P. 

St.  Andrew.     B.  Pasarot. 

St.  John  the  Evangelist.     B.  Pasiirot. 

St.  Bartholomew.     P.  Pasarot. 

St.  Paul,  with  the  letters  £.  P. 

Eeligion,  represented  by  a  woman  seated  in  the  sun ; 
signed  P. 

Painting,  represented  by  a  young  Female  with  Wings ; 
with  the  letters  £.  P. 

A  young  Woman  in  Bed.  i?.  Passarato,  written  back- 
wards, the  letter  B.  reversed  and  joined  to  the  P. 

A  Sacriiice,  in  which  there  are  eight  figures.  The 
letters  £.  P.  on  the  left  at  bottom. 

A  Charity,  mentioned  by  Goj'i. 

The  Marriage  of  Isaac  and  Kebecca;  after  Peniyim ; 

mentioned  by  Host. 
A  Holy  Family,  doubtful. 
St.  Peter  delivered  from  Prison  by  an  Angel,  marked 

£.  P. ;  mentioned  by  Zani. 

PASSEROTTI,  TiBURZio,  the  eldest  son  and  the 
disciple  of  Bartolommeo  Passerotti,  was  born  at 
Bologna  in  1576.  He  painted  history  and  por- 
traits, in  the  style  of  his  father.  Of  his  works  in 
the  public  edifices  at  Bologna,  the  following  are 
the  most  deserving  of  notice.  In  the  church  of 
Santa  Maria  Mascarella,  a  picture  of  the  '  Assump- 
tion ;'  in  Santa  Cecilia,  '  St.  Francis  and  St.  Jerome 
kneeling  before  tlie  Virgin  ; '  in  Santa  Cristina,  the 
'  Annunciation  ; '  and  in  San  Giacomo  Maggiore,  the 
'  Martyrdom  of  St.  Catharine,'  his  best  performance. 
He  died  at  Bologna,  in  the  prime  of  life,  in  1612. 
Zani  calls  him  an  amateur. 

PASSEROTTI,  Ventura,  the  fourth  son  of  Bar- 
tolommeo Passerotti,  was  born  at  Bologna  about 
1586.  He  was  instructed  by  his  father,  and  assisted 
by  his  brother  Tiburzio.  He,  however,  chiefly 
delighted  in  making  pen  drawings.  His  practice 
as  a  professed  paiuter  was  confined  to  portraiture, 
in  whicli  he  won  nmch  success.  There  is  no  account 
of  any  public  work  by  him.     He  died  in  1630. 

PASSIGNANO,  II.     See  Cresti. 

PASSINI,  JoHANN,  engraver  and  painter,  was 
horn  at  Vienna  in  1798  or  1799,  and  studied  at  the 
Academy  there  under  Seipp,  and  afterwards  under 
J.  G.  Mansfeld.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Academy 
of  Vienna,  and  professor  in  the  Ober  Realschule 
at  Gratz.  His  death  occurred  at  Gratz,  on  January 
14th,  1874.  He  painted  landscapes  in  oil  and 

aquarelle,  but  was  best  known  by  his  engravings, 
many  of  which  are  in  Pezzel'  s  '  Sketches  of 
Vienna,'  and  Lichnowsky's  'Memorials  of  Old  Ger- 
man Architecture.'  Besides  these  we  may  name 
the  following : 

*  La  Notte  ' ;  after  Corregyio. 

The  Imperial  Family  ;  after  Feiidi. 

The  Two  Foscaris  ;  after  Hai/ez. 

The  Crucifixion  ;  after  Tintoretto. 

The  Guardian  Angel ;  after  Kadlik. 

Croatian  Peasants  ;  after  Klein. 

Eeturning  Home  in  the  Storm  ;  after  Gaiiermann. 

Charles  V. ;  after  Titian. 

The  Repose  o{  the  Holy  Family ;  after  Guido  Reni. 

Rio  Janeiro,  two  plates  ;  after  Ender. 

PASSINI,  Louis,  son  of  the  engraver  Jean 
Passini,  was  born  at  Vienna  in  1832,  and  educated 
in  the  same  city.  He  lived  much  in  Italy,  chiefly 
at  Rome  and  Venice,  and  his  pictures  obtained 
great  repute  in  Germany,  where  he  settled,  becom- 
ing Professor  in  the  Berlin  Academy  of  Fine  Arts. 
He  was  awarded  a  medal  at  the  Salon  of  1870,  and 
became  Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honour  in  1878. 
His  water-colours  are  notable  for  their  luminous 
quality,  and  lie  also  painted  genre  pictures  and 
many  portraits.  His  '  Choristers  in  Church,'  a 
water-colour  painted  at  Rome  in  1870,  liangs  in 
the  National  Gallery  of  Berlin.  He  died  at  Venice 
in  November  1903. 

PASSOT,  Gabriel  Aristide,  miniature  painter, 
was  born  at  Nevers  about  1798.  He  was  taught 
successively  by  Madame  de  Mirbel,  Dubufe  the  elder, 
and  Fr6deric  Millet.  He  died  in  1875.  Among 
his  works  we  may  name  the  following  : 

Portrait  of  Rossini. 
.,  Lamartine. 

„  Dupin. 

,j  Giulia  Grisi. 

„  Le  Due  de  Bassano. 

,  Prince  Napoleon. 

„  Napoleon  III.  and  the  Empress  Eugenie ; 

aftcj-  JVintcrhalter. 
„  Napoleon  I. 

Queen  Hortense  ;  after  Gerard. 
Lady  playing  the  Harp. 
"Woman  bathing. 
After  the  Bath. 

PASTI,  Matteo,  (Pawino,  Pasto,  De  Pastib, 
or  Db  Praxis,)  an  Italian  artist.  He  was  a  native 
of  Verona,  and  flourished  from  1446.  He  was 
a  wood-engraver,  a  painter  in  miniature,  a  sculptor 
in  bronze  and  marble,  a  medallist,  and  a  gem 
engraver.  Neither  the  year  of  his  birth  nor  of  his 
death  is  correctly  ascertained.  He  worked  in  the 
above  year  upon  the  Breviary  of  the  Marchese 
Leonardo  da  Ferrara,  and  executed  a  set  of  prints 
for  a  folio  volume,  entitled  '  De  Re  Militare,'  by 
R.  Valturius,  which  was  published  at  Verona  in 
1472.  In  that  he  signed  his  work  :  0  M  D  P  V 
{Opus  Matthai  de  Fastis  Veroiiensis). 

PASTILL,  J.  DE,  was  a  French  engraver,  who 
appears  to  have  been  chiefly  employed  in  copying 
the  prints  of  other  artists.  Among  other  plates 
we  have  the  '  Murder  of  the  Innocents,'  from  the 
engraving  by  Louis  Audran.  after  Le  Brun. 

PASTORINI,  Benedetto,  was  an  Italian  en- 
graver, who  resided  in  London  in  the  latter  part 
of  the  18th  century,  and  was  one  of  the  governors 
of  the  Society  of  Engravers,  founded  in  1803.  He 
engraved  some  plates  in  imitation  of  the  style  of' 
Bartolozzi,  and  with  his  assistance.  We  have, 
among  others,  the  following  by  him  • 


t'Allegro;  Anyel.  Katiffman pinx.     B.  Pastorini fee. 
II  Pensieroso  ;  the  companion. 
A  View  of  Loudon  ;  from  his  own  design. 
Guntherus  and  Griselda  ;  J.  F.  Higaud  pinx.  B.  Pasto- 
rini fee. 
Griselda  returning  to  her  Family  ;  the  companion. 

PASTORINI,  J.,  a  miniature  painter,  born  in 
1773.  He  exhibited  at  tlie  Royal  Academy  from 
1812  to  1826,  and  died  in  London  in  1839. 

PASTORINO,  Giovanni  Michele,  a  glass  painter 
and  medallist  of  Siena,  who  worked  frequently 
from  designs  furnished  by  Pierino  del  Vaga.  In 
1549  be  painted  the  '  Last  Supper  '  on  glass  in  the 
cathedral  of  Siena.  In  this  art  he  is  said  to  have 
been  taught  by  Claude  of  Marseilles. 
PASTURE,  RoGiERDELA.  See  Van  DER  Weyden. 
PATANAZZI,  a  painter  whose  "  vigorous  brush 
and  consummate  powers  of  invention  "  are  extolled 
in  the  '  Galleria  de'  Pittori  Urbinati.'  He  was 
probably  a  pupil  of  Claudio  Ridolfi. 

PATAROL,  Lawrence,  engraved  some  book 
illustrations,  among  which  was  a  frontispiece  for  a 
book  on  coins,  published  at  Venice  in  1702. 

PATAS,  Jean  Baptiste,  a  French  designer  and 
engraver,  was  born  in  Paris  in  1744  or  1748,  and 
died  in  1817.  He  engraved  some  of  the  plates  for 
the  '  Galleries '  of  Florence  and  Orleans,  the  '  Musee 
Frangais,'  the  '  Cabinet  Poullain,'  and  other  works 
of  the  same  class ;  also  several  small  plates  after 
various  French  painters,  and  from  his  own  designs  ; 
among  which  are  the  following  : 

The  Judgment  of  Paris  ;  after  Queverdo. 

The  dangerous  Model ;  after  the  same. 

Henry  IV.  permitting  Provisions  to  enter  Paris  wliilst 

he  was  besieging  it ;  after  Careme. 
An  allegorical  subject  on  the  Accession  of  Louis  XVI. 

to  the  Throne  of  France  ;  from  his  own  design. 

PATAVINUS.    See  Osello. 

PATCH,  Cozens.  At  Petworth  there  is  a  picture 
by  this  artist,  in  the  style  and  of  the  same  period 
as  Hogarth. 

PATCH,  Thomas,  was  an  English  engraver,  who 
flourished  about  1770.  In  that  year  he  engraved 
a  set  of  twenty-six  plates,  from  the  frescoes  in  the 
Brancacci  Chapel  ;  a  series  of  caricatures  and  two 
landscapes  after  Poussin  were  published  in  1768-70. 
He  worked  also  after  Giotto,  FrJi  Bartolommeo, 
and  other  old  Italian  masters.  He  practised  land- 
scape and  figure  painting  to  some  slight  extent, 
and  two  pictures  by  him  are  at  Hampton  Court, 
a  'View  of  the  Arno,  Florence,  by  Day,'  and  a 
view  of  the  same  place  by  Night.  Patch  went  to 
Italy  with  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  and  probably  died 
there  after  1772. 

PATEL,  the  name  of  two  French  landscape 
painters,  father  and  son,  who  flourished  in  the  17th 
century.  But  little  is  known  of  them.  Beyond 
the  fact  that  some  of  the  earlier  pictures  which  are 
assigned  to  the  father  are  signed  '  P.  Patel,'  and 
that  some  later  works  assigned  to  the  son  bear 
a  monogram  before  the  surname,  composed  appar- 
ently of  the  letters  A.  P.  T.,  their  Christian  names 
are  unknown. 

The  elder  painter,  who  is  generally  known  as 
'  Patel  le  pere,'  appears  to  have  been  born  in 
Picardy,  shortly  before  the  year  1620.  It  is  sur- 
mised that  he,  like  many  of  the  French  artists  of 
his  time,  owed  his  training  to  Vouet,  and  that  he 
completed  his  art  education  by  a  visit  to  Italy. 
The  latter  surmise  is  founded  on  the  fact  that 
several  of  his   works  are   evidently  inspired  by 

scenes  in  the  neighbournood  of  Rome.  It  is  also 
stated  that  he  painted  the  landscape  backgrounds 
in  some  of  Le  Sueur's  pictures.  With  greater 
certainty  he  is  included  amongst  the  illustrious 
band  of  painters  who  in  1649  were  engaged  on  the 
decorations  of  the  mansion  of  the  President  Lam- 
bert de  Thorignj'  on  the  Island  of  Notre  Dame  in 
Paris.  His  brush  was  also  employed  in  decorating 
the  apartments  of  Anne  of  Austria  in  the  Louvre. 
He  was  received  into  the  Guild  of  Master  Painters 
in  1635,  and  became  a  director  in  1650.  In  the 
following  year  he  was  one  of  the  elders  who  signed 
the  agreement  amalgamating  the  Guild  with  the 
newly-founded  Academy.  His  death  occurred  in 
Paris  on  the  5th  August,  1676.  The  elder  Patel 
ranks  amongst  the  most  able  imitators  of  Claude 
Lorrain,  whose  aerial  effects  he  imitates  with  con- 
siderable success.  Like  his  model  he  delights  in 
the  ruins  of  ancient  architecture,  which  form  a 
prominent  feature  in  his  compositions.  Not  many 
pictures  have  survived  under  his  name.  This  is 
due  to  two  causes.  First,  that  he  probably  executed 
but  few  easel  works,  owing  to  his  having  been 
much  emplo3'ed  on  decorations.  Second,  thatmany 
of  his  pictures  have  doubtless  been  passed  ofE 
under  the  greater  name  of  Claude. 

Concerning  the  younger  painter,  'Patel  le  fils,' 
even  less  is  known  than  concerning  his  father, 
with  whom  he  is  often  confounded.  He  appears 
to  have  been  born  shortly  before  the  middle  of 
the  17th  century,  as  it  is  expressly  stated  that  he 
assisted  his  parent  in  the  decoration  of  the  apart- 
ments of  Anne  of  Austria.  He  is  also  said  to  have 
painted  twelve  pictures  representing  the  months, 
for  the  church  of  St.  Louis-la-Culture,  in  Paris, 
four  of  which  are  now  in  the  Louvre.  His  career 
was  prolonged  to  the  beginning  of  the  18th  century, 
as  there  are  two  pictures  at  Marseilles  bearing  his 
monogram,  which  are  dated  1705.  He  was  killed 
in  a  duel :  hence  he  is  by  some  writers  called 
'  Patel  le  tue,'  which  cognomen  is  sometimes  wrongly 
applied  to  his  father.  Two  etchings  by  him  are 
known,  described  by  Dumesnil  as  '  Architectural 
Ruins  '  and  '  View  of  a  Forest.'  His  art  is  not 
equal  to  that  of  his  father,  whose  style  he  followed 

The  following  is  a  list  of  pictures  by  the  two 
Patels.  It  is  frequently  doubtful  whether  a  work 
I  should  be  ascribed  to  the  father  or  to  the  son.  In 
the  eases  in  which  some  degree  of  certainty  exists, 
*  is  placed  against  the  pictures  of  the  elder,  and  t 
against  those  of  the  younger  painter. 













The  Finding  of  Moses,  t 


Landscapes  (2). 



Two  Landscapes. 

Landscape:  Morning  (1705).  + 

Landscape  :  Sunset  (1706).  t 

Cephalus  and  Procris. 



Two  Landscapes. 

Jochabed       exposing      Moses 

Moses  burying  the  Egyptiau 

(1660).  * 
Two  Landscapes.  * 
January,  Snow  scene  (1699).  t 
April  (1699).  t 
August,      arvest  (1699).t 
September,  Harvest  (1699).  t 
Landscape,  Harvest  (170...).  t 



I'ttersburg.  Hermitage.    Christ  and  the  Oeuturion.* 

,,  ,,  Two  Landscapes.t 

Rennes.  Museum.     Kuins  by  the  Sea, 

„  „  Two  Landscapes. 

Valenciennes.  Museut.i.     Landscape  with  Water-mill. 
1,  „  Landscape  with  Castle, 

ana.  Archduke'}  -r      j 

Jlirecht's  Gallery,  j  Landscape. 

A  BenoIt  Nicolas  Patel,  a  painter  of  the  18th 
centiiiy,  was  of  the  same  family,  but  very  little  is 
known  about  him. 

PATENTER.     See  Patinir. 

PATER,  Jean  Baptiste  Joseph,  a  French 
painter  of  fetes  galantes,  was  born  at  Valenciennes 
on  the  29th  December,  1695.  He  early  showed 
artistic  predilections,  and  his  father,  a  wood-carver, 
having  grounded  him  in  the  first  principles  of  art, 
took  him,  while  still  young,  to  continue  his  studies 
in  Paris.  Tliere  he  became  a  pupil  of  his  fellow- 
townsman  Watteau,  but  the  irritable  temperament 
of  the  master  caused  a  separation.  When,  how- 
ever, Watteau  felt  his  end  approaching  in  1721, 
he  sent  for  Pater  to  come  to  him  at  Nogent-sur- 
Marne.  For  a  short  time  the  pupil  painted  daily 
under  the  eye  of  the  master,  receiving  his  latest 
inspiration.  This  instruction  thoroughly  imbued 
him  with  the  spirit  of  the  chief  of  his  school,  aud 
lie  ever  gratefully  acknowledged  his  obligation. 
In  1728  he  was  received  into  the  Academy  as  a 
member  of  the  new  class  of  "  peintres  de  sujets 
modernes."  There  are  but  few  incidents  to  record 
in  the  short  career  of  Pater.  He  did  not  cultivate 
friendships,  and  rarely  went  out  of  his  studio.  His 
time  was  entirely  devoted  to  art :  the  whole  day 
was  occupied  in  painting,  and  the  evening  brought 
no  relaxation  to  his  labours.  This  feverish  industry 
was  caused  by  an  ever-haunting  fear  of  poverty, 
which  led  him  to  stint  himself  to  provide  for  his 
latter  days.  His  health  at  length  gave  way  under 
such'a  strain,  and  he  died  in  Paris  on  the  'J5th  July, 
1736,  before  he  could  enjoy  the  provision  which 
he  had  laid  up.  Pater  was  a  good  colourist,  but 
his  drawing  is  without  the  precision  of  Watteau, 
and  his  touch  is  wanting  in  delicacy.  He  followed 
Watteau  not  only  in  choice  of  subject,  but  also  in 
composition.  The  following  are  some  of  his  more 
accessible  works  ; 



Women  Bathing. 



Bal  Champetre. 


Alter  Schloss. 

Fete  a  la  Champagne. 


Les  Pecheurs. 



Le  Jeu  de  Colin-Maillard. 


Neues  Palais, 

F^te  Champetre. 


Les  Comediens  Italiens. 


Les  Baigneuses. 


Un  Paysage. 


Dause  en  plein  air. 


The   Suite   (14),  '  Le    Koman 
Comique  de  Scarron.' 

Brunswick.  OrandBucal 

^  Conversation      musicale      un 


j      Guitariste. 


The  Guitariste. 
F4te  Champetre. 


Koyal  Cortege  au  Pare  (1745). 


Danse  dans  la  Foret  (1753). 

Edinburgh.       Nat.  Gal. 

Women  Bathing. 

Foutainebleau.     Palace, 

Chinese  Hunting  Scene. 



)  Picnic. 

Gallery,  |  Fete  Champ^tre. 


Victoria  and 

Alhert  Museuvi. 

I  Fete  Champetre. 


Wallace  Coll. 

F6t«  Galante. 





Les  Baignenses. 




FSte  dans  un  P.arc. 
Le  Bain. 


trallace  CM. 

Le  Boudoir. 

Detachement  faisaut  halte. 



Conversation    Galante    (three 



,Le  Jeu  de  Colin-Maillard. 

J  La  Danse. 



)  L'Escarpolette. 
I  Fete  Champetre. 



Plaisirs  pastorals. 



Reunion  dans  un  Jardin. 



FSte  Champetre  (1728). 

Louvre,  Coll.  la 

)  Reunion       des         Com^iens 
/     Italiens. 




La  Toilette. 


Conversation  dans  un  Pare. 



La  Baigneuse. 


Schloss  Sans- 

)  1  Soldats  en  marche. 

j    (  Soldats  devant  un  Auberge. 



Bain  d.ans  la  Maison. 

L'Amour  en  plein  air. 



Le  Sultan  (two  compositions). 


Lii  Gaiety  Villageoise. 
j  Danse  a  la  Campagne. 
(  Concert  en  plein  air. 



La    Boh6mienne    Diseuse    de 

bonne  Aventure. 



Reunion  de  Musiciens. 
Reunion  en  plein  air. 


Stadt  Schloss. 

Le  Jeu  de  Colin-Maillard. 

Stockholm.       JVai.  Gal 

Young  Girls  Bathing. 

Valenciennes.    Museum. 

Portrait  of  the  Painter's  Sister. 



The  Nest  of  Turtle-Doves. 

La  Soiree. 


s.               Grand 

)  The  Bath. 
/  Fishing. 


PATICINA.     See  Adlek,  Philip. 

PATIGNY,  Jean,  a  French  engraver,  flourished 
from  1650  to  about  1670.  He  executed  a  few 
plates,  in  which  lie  appears  to  have  imitated  the 
style  of  Agostino  Carracci,  but  with  little  success. 
A  print  of  the  '  Virgin  and  Infant  Christ,  with  St. 
John,'  after  Annibale  Carracci,  may  be  named. 

PATIN,  Jacques,  was  painter  in  ordinary  to 
Henry  111.  of  France,  and  to  his  Queen,  Louise  de 
Lorrain.  He  was  employed  by  the  Queen  to 
paint  the  scenes  for  a  masque,  or  ballet,  given  by 
her  on  the  marriage  of  her  sister  Marguerite  de 
Vaudemont  with  the  Duke  de  Joyeuse,  in  1581, 
on  which  occasion  the  king's  valet-de-chambre, 
Baltazarini  Beaujoyeux,  prepared  the  book.  This 
book  is  illustrated  with  twenty-seven  etchings  by 

PATINIR,  Joachim  D.,  (or  Patinier,)  was  born 
either  at  Dinant  or  at  Bouvignes,  on  the  opposite 
bank  of  the  Meuse,  about  1490.  He  became  a 
member  of  the  Antwerp  Guild  of  Painters  in  1516. 
He  contracted  a  first  marriage  with  Franijoise  Buyst, 
and  a  second,  in  1521,  with  Jeanne  Noyts.  At  this 
secoud  marriage  Albrecht  Diirer  was  present ;  he 
saw  Patinir's  work  with  admiration,  and  he  drew 
his  portrait.  Patinir  must  have  died  before  the 
5tli  October,  1524,  because  on  that  date  his  widow 
and  children  sold  the  house  he  had  bought  on  the 
30th  March,  1519.  Patinir  left  a  son,_  Heeki 
Patinir,  who  also  devoted  himself  to  painting,  but 
with  slight  success.  Patinir  has  been  called  the 
inventor  of  landscape  painting  so  far  as  the  North 
is  concerned,  but  that  is  an  exaggeration.  It 
would  be  truer  to  say  that  he  was  the  first  Fleming 
to  make  his  landscapes  distinctly  more  important 
tlian  the  figures  with  which  they  are  peopled. 
His  style  may  be  placed  between  those  of  Gerard 
David  and  of  Jerom  Bosch.  His  pictures  are  not 
numerous,  out  most  of  the  important  galleries  have 
good  examples  to  show.  Among  these  we  may 
name  : 



'{Junes'  Bequest,  South  Kensington 



{Colleilioii  oj R.  II.  Vrietliin,  Esq. 







BerliD.  Museum. 

Brussels.       J?.  Museum. 

Darmstadt.        Museum. 


Lille.  „ 

London.  Nat.  Gall. 

Antwerp.  Museum.    The  Flight  into  Egypt  {signed 

Opts.  Joachim.  D.  Patiote, 

in  a  cai-touch). 
{This  saitie  gallery  possesses  two 
pictures  on  which  Paiinir  is 
said  to  have  collaborated  xcith 
Bernard  van  Orley.) 
A  *  Kiposo.' 

Conversion     of     St.      Hubert 
{formerly  ascribed  to  Herri  de 
A  '  Mater  Dolorosa '  (the  land- 
scape by  Patinir;  the  figures 
perhaps  by  another  hand). 
Virgin  and  Child  in  a  landscape 
{J'ormetly  ascribed  to  Mostaert 
and  to  Herri  de  Bles). 
Glasgow.        Corp.  Gall.    Virgin  and  Child  in  a  landscape, 
with  rich  architecture. 
Museum.     History  of  Tobias. 

St.  John  the  Baptist  preaching. 
The  Crucifixion. 
St.  Christopher  carrying  Christ. 
„  „  St.    John    on    the    Island    of 

„  „  The  Visit  of  the  Virgin  to  St. 

„  „  The  Flight  into  Egypt. 

ANun(?).  , 

Madrid.  Museum.    A  '  Eiposo  '  {three  versions). 

„  „  Landscape  with  St.  Jerome. 

„  „  The  Temptation  of  St.  Anthony 

(a  masterpiece). 
„  „  Paradise  and  Hell. 

„  „  St.  Francis  of  Assisi  and  another 

monk   of    the   order  in   the 
Desert  (?  van  Eyck). 
Munich.  Gallery.    Christ    on    the   Cross   (with  a 

forged  inscription). 
Vienna.  Gallery.     The  Baptism  of  Christ. 

„  „  Landscape  with  the  Martyrdom 

of  St.  Catherine 
„  „  The    Flight    into    Egypt   (two 

„  „  St.  Jerome. 

„  „  The  Battle  of  Pavia.    (^s  the 

battle  was  fought  the  year  after 
Patinir  died.,  according  to  the 
dates  we  have  given,  the  picture 
must  either  be  wrongly  named 
or  cannot  be  his  work.) 
„  Liechtenstein  Col.  Christ  on  the  Cross. 
„  „  St.  Jerome  in  a  landscape,  with 

his  Lion  {with  the  forged  sig~ 
nature  Ktinten  Masts  1513). 

PATON,  (or  Patton.)  David,  a  Scottish  portrait 
and  miniature  painter,  who  worked  with  some 
success  about  the  middle  of  the  17th  century.  A 
portrait  of  General  Thomas  Dalzell,  still  in  the 
possession  of  the  Dalzell  family,  is  ascribed  to  him. 
PATON,  Sir  Joseph  Noel.  This  venerable  artist 
was  born  at  Dunfermline  in  1821,  and  was  one  of 
the  oldest  survivors  of  what  may  be  called  the  pre- 
pre-Raphaelite  epoch  in  art.  Paton  was  ap- 
penticed  to  his  father's  craft  as  a  pattern  designer, 
but  soon  relinquished  that  branch  of  the  profession 
and  went  to  study  first  at  the  Edinburgh  Academy, 
and  then  at  the  Ro3'al  Academy  schools,  London. 
In  1844  he  contributed  to  the  Edinburgh  Exhibi- 
tion his  first  work,  entitled  '  Ruth  Gleaning.'  In 
1845  he  obtained  one  of  the  three  premiums  of 
200J.  for  a  cartoon  called  '  The  Spirit  of  Religion  ' 
for  Westminster  Hall.  Armitage  and  Sir  John 
Tenniel  won  the  other  two.  At  a  further  com- 
petition in  1847  he  won  the  larger  prize,  300!., 
with  pictures  of  '  Christ  bearing  the  Cross '  and 
'The  Reconciliation  of  Oberon  and  Titania.'  'The 
Quarrel  of  Oberon  and  Titania,'  by  him,  was  bought 
for  700!.  by  the  Scottish  Academy  in  1847,  and  is 

now  with  its  sequel  in  the  Public  Gallery  at  Edin- 
burgh. In  1847  he  was  made  an  Associate  of  the 
Scottish  Academy.  In  1856  the  fuller  honours  of 
that  society  fell  to  him.  Ten  years  later  he  was 
appointed  Her  Majesty's  Limner  for  Scotland,  and 
accepted  knighthood  at  Windsor.  In  1878  the 
University  of  Edinburgh  made  him  an  LL.D.  His 
paintings  were  of  a  very  sentimental  and  religious 
character,  but  attained  to  extraordinary  popularity. 
Many  of  them  were  engraved,  and  the  reproductions 
commanded  a  large  and  important  sale,  especially 
amongst  Nonconformists.  Queen  Victoria  pur- 
chased several  of  Paton's  works,  and  the  patronage 
and  approval  of  Her  Majesty  assisted  very  largely 
in  making  the  artist  well  known.  Some  of  his 
most  important  paintings  were  :  '  Home  from  the 
Crimea,'  'The  Good  Shepherd,'  'Thomas  the 
Rhymer  and  the  Queen  of  Fairyland,'  '  Dante 
meditating  the  Episode  of  Francesca '  (1852), 
'The  Dead  Lady,'  'The  Pursuit  of  Pleasure'  (1855), 
'Home'  (1856),  'In  Memoriam'  (1858),  'Dawn,' 
'  Luther  at  Erfurt,'  '  The  Dowie  Dens  of  Yarrow,' 
illustrated  in  six  pictures  (1860),  '  Mors  Janua 
VitiB,'  '  Faith  and  Reason,'  '  Caliban  listening  to 
the  Music,'  'Nickes  the  Soulless,'  'The  Bluidy 
Tryste,'  'Oskold  and  the  EUe  Maids'  (1874), 
'The  Entombment,'  'Gethsemane,'  'The  Man  of 
Sorrows,'  '  Thy  Will  be  done  ! '  '  In  Die  Male,' 
'  Ezekiel's  Vision'  (1893),  'Puck," By  Still  Waters,' 
'Queen  Margaret  reading  the  Gospel,'  'Satan 
watching  the  Sleep  of  Christ,'  and  'The  Spirit  of 
Twilight.'  His  paintings  were  elaborate  and  full 
of  detail,  but  distinguished  by  a  hardness  of 
texture  and  an  over-strained  pathos  and  sentiment 
in  their  subject.  With  a  certain  class  of  religious 
thought  they  were  the  only  pictures  wliich 
appealed  strongly,  and  in  Presbyterian  circles 
their  vogue  was  immense.  Sir  Noel  was  a  most 
courteous,  kind-hearted,  and  sympathetic  man,  dis- 
tinguished by  a  considerable  amount  of  religious 
fervour.  He  was  an  ardent  collector  of  armour, 
books  and  medals,  an  archseologist  of  no  mean 
attainments,  and  a  scholar  of  polished  and  refined 
manner.  He  published  two  volumes  of  verses,  and 
wrote  several  archaeological  papers.  He  died  at 
Edinburgh  in  1902,  aged  81. 

PATt)N,  Richard,  an  English  painter  of  marines 
and  combats  by  sea,  was  born  in  London  in  1717. 
He  was  found  in  the  streets  as  a  poor  boy  by 
Admiral  Knowles,  and  by  him  sent  to  sea.  He 
exhibited  largely  at  the  Royal  Academy  from  1776 
to  1780.  He  held  an  appointment  in  the  Excise 
for  a  great  part  of  his  life.  He  died  in  London  in 
1791.  His  works  were  very  popular,  as  he  painted 
most  of  the  great  sea-fights  that  occurred  during 
his  time.  Many  of  them  have  been  engraved  by 
Woollet,  Fittler,  Lerpeniere,  and  Canot.  Among 
his  paintings  we  may  name  : 

Engagement  of  the   Monmouth    and    Foudroyant   by 

MoonUght  {etclied  by  himseif).     1758. 
Attack  upon  Gibraltar.     1782. 
The  Lord  Mayor's  Show  hy  Vf&ter  {Guildhall ;  figures 

bi]  JVheatle//). 
Four  pictures"  of  Dockyards,  at  Hampton  Court. 

We  have  also  a  few  etchings  by  him.     Among 
others,  the  following : 
The  Victory  gained  by  the  English  over  the  French 

21st  September,  1757. 
The  Engagement  of  the  Monmouth  and  Foudroyant 

(as  above). 
The  Engagement  between  the  Buckmgham   and   the 
Florissant,  supported  by  two  Frigates,  3rd  Nov.  1758. 



PA  TON,  Waller  Hugh,  tlie  brother  of  Sir  Noel 
Paton,  was  born  at  Dunfermline  in  1828.  For  a 
few  years  be  assisted  his  father  in  his  work  of 
pattern  designing,  but  in  1848  he  resolved  to 
become  a  landscape  painter,  and  got  lessons  from 
John  A.  Houston,  R.S.A.  His  first  exhibited 
picture  was  a  water-colour,  'Antique  Room,  Wooers' 
Alley,  by  firelight.'  He  had  a  landscape,  '  Glen 
Massen,'  in  the  Koyal  Scottish  Academy  Exhibition 
of  1861,  and  afterwards  was  a  regular  exhibitor. 
His  pictures  became  popular,  and  in  1857  he  was 
elected  Associate  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Academy, 
becoming  an  Academician  in  1868.  In  1858  be 
collaborated  with  his  brother  Sir  Noel  in  illustrat- 
ing Aytoun's  'Lays  of  the  Scottish  Cavaliers' 
(published  five  years  later).  He  settled  at  Edin- 
burgh in  1859,  occasionally  going  abroad,  and  to 
tours  made  in  1861  and  1868  drawings  of  French, 
Swiss,  Gorman  and  Italian  scenery  are  due.  In 
1862  he  first  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  of 
London,  and  in  that  year  received  a  royal  com- 
mission for  a  drawing  of  Holyrood.  For  the  last 
ten  years  of  his  life  he  had  poor  health,  and  in 
1895  he  died.  He  was  a  Fellow  of  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  of  Scotland,  an  honorary  member  of 
the  Liverpool  Society  of  Water-Colour  Painters, 
and  a  member  of  the  Scottish  Water-Colour  Society. 
He  was  an  industrious  painter,  both  in  oil  and 
water-colour,  the  Highlands  of  Perthshire  and 
Aberdeenshire,  Arran,  Wales  and  the  Lake  c»untry 
fumisliing  the  subjects  of  most  of  his  landscapes. 
'The  Mouth  of  the  Wild  Waters,  Inveruglas,'  won 
the  warm  commendation  of  Mr.  Ruskin,  and  all 
were  characterized  by  the  loving  accuracy  with 
which  he  rendered  natural  detail.  His  diploma 
picture, '  Lamlash  Bay,  Isle  of  Arran,'  hangs  in  the 
Scottish  National  Gallery.  At  one  time  he  made 
a  careful  study  of  Turner's  water-colours  at  South 
Kensin-ton.  He  kept  a  careful  catalogue,  with 
dates  and  miniature  sketches,  of  all  his  important 
pictures.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  Scot- 
tish artist  who  painted  a  picture  entirely  out  of 
doors,  and  his  landscapes,  with  their  carefully- 
finished  detail,  were  for  long  exceedingly  popular 
and  widely  known  in  chromo-lithographic  repro- 
ductions. He  specially  loved  to  depict  the  glowing 
colours  of  sunset,  purple  hills  and  safl^ron  sky,  anil 
repeated  the  theme  so  often  as  to  become  mannered 
and  monotonous. 

PATOUR,  Jean  Adgustin,  a  French  engraver, 
was  born  in  Paris  about  the  year  1730,  and 
flourished  till  1784.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Halle  and 
Flipart,  and  has  engraved  several  plates  in  a  neat 
style,  among  which  are  the  following  : 

The  L  ttle  Lyar  ;  nftfy  Alhrecht  Diirer. 
Le  doux  S  mmeil ;  after  Halle. 
Le  doTix  Kepos ;  after  the  same. 
Hercules  a  d  Omphale ;  after  the  same. 
Two  Views  of  La  Rochelle  ;  after  Lallemand. 

PATROIS,  Isidore,  French  painter ;  bom  in 
1815  at  Noyers  (dep.  Yonne) ;  became  a  pupil  of 
L'Enfant  and  of  Monvoisin.  At  first  he  chose  to 
paint  scenes  of  Russian  national  life,  then  he  dealt 
with  historical  subjects,  and  finally  genre.  The 
Luxembourg  possesses  his  '  Procession  des  Saintes 
images  aux  environs  de  St.  Petersbourg,'  and  the 
Dijon  Museum  has  his  '  Frangois  I.  et  Rosso.'  He 
occasionally  used  water-colour  most  effectively. 
In  1861  he  obtained  a  third-class  medal,  and  a 
rappel  in  1863,  another  medal  in  1864,  and  the 
Legion  of  Honour  in  1872.  He  died  in  Paris  in 


PATTE,  Pierre,  a  French  architect  and  en- 
graver, was  born  in  Paris  in  1723.  He  is  stated  by 
Basan  to  have  engraved  several  plates  of  architec- 
tural ornaments.  He  also  engraved  some  of  the 
plates  for  Blondel's  '  Architecture  Frangaise  ; '  '  Per- 
spective Views,'  after  Piranesi ;  and  the  '  Temple 
of  Venus,'  after  Claude.  He  died  in  1812,  at 

PATTEN,  George,  an  English  portrait  and 
historical  painter,  born  in  1801.  His  first  instruc- 
tion in  art  was  received  from  his  father,  a  minia- 
ture painter.  In  1816,  he  entered  the  schools  of 
the  Academy,  where  be  first  exhibited  in  1819. 
Up  to  1830,  he  practised  miniature  painting,  after 
which  he  devoted  himself  to  oil  portraiture.  He 
made  a  tour  in  Italy  in  1837,  to  study  its  art 
treasures,  and  in  the  same  year  was  elected  an  Asso- 
ciate of  tlie  Academy.  The  Prince  Consort,  whose 
portrait  he  painted  in  Germany  in  1840,  appointed 
liim  his  portrait  painter,  and  he  obtained  a  large 
practice  in  presentation  portraits.  His  art,  how- 
ever, did  not  fulfil  its  early  promise,  and  he  never 
reached  the  front  rauk.  In  the  latter  part  of  his 
life  he  lived  at  Ross,  Herefordshire.  He  died  in 
London  in  1865. 

PATTON.    See  Paton. 

PATZIG,  Otto,  German  painter;  born  near 
Wtirzburg  in  1822,  and  studied  at  the  Dresden 
Academy  under  E.  Bendemann.  For  a  time  he 
worked  at  Wtirzburg,  where  he  held  a  post^  as 
Professor;  he  painted  portraits  and  historical 
subjects  in  which  prominence  was  given  to  costiune- 
details.     He  died  at  Klingenberg-am-Main  in  1885. 

PAU  DE  SAINT  MARTIN,  Alexandre,  a 
French  landscape  painter,  born  at  Mortagne  in  the 
second  half  of  the  18th  century.  He  studied  under 
Le  Prince  and  Vernet,  and  exhibited  (chiefly  views 
in  Normandy)  at  the  Salmi  from  1791  to  1838. 

PAD  DE  SAINT  MARTIN,  Pierre  Alexandre, 
a  French  landscape  painter  and  son  of  the  above, 
was  born  in  Paris  towards  the  close  of  the  18th 
century.  He  studied  under  bis  father,  and  ex- 
hibited at  the  Salon  from  1810  to  1834.  His 
'  Entrance  of  the  Elys6e  '  was  awarded  a  gold  medal 
in  1824. 

PADDITZ,  Christoph,  (Pahdiss,  PnDiss,  Pait- 
dies,  &c.,)  was  born  in  Lower  Saxony  about 
he  year  1582.  After  receiving  some  mstruction 
in  design  from  an  obscure  German  painter,  he 
visited  Amsterdam,  where  be  entered  the  school  of 
Rembrandt.  On  his  return  to  Germany  he  was 
taken  under  the  protection  of  Albert  Sigisraund, 
Duke  of  Bavaria,  in  whose  employment  he  re- 
mained several  years.  He  was  also  favoured  with 
the  patronage  of  the  Duke  of  Ratisbon,  and  dis- 
tinguished himself  as  a  painter  of  history  and 
portraits.  Sandrart  reports  that  his  death  was 
hastened  by  his  failure  in  a  contest  he  had  ac- 
cepted with  a  contemporary  artist,  who  had  chal- 
lenged him  to  paint  a  picture  in  competition. 
Although  the  production  of  Pauditz  was  greatly 
superior  to  that  of  his  rival,  the  decision  was 
against  him,  and  he  did  not  long  survive  it.  This 
occurred  at  Freising  in  1666.  Among  his  best 
works  may  be  mentioned  : 
Augsburg.  Gallery.    Diogenes  and  the  Drunken  Old 

Dresden.  Gallery.     Lady  Conversing  with  a  Gen- 

tleman engaged  in  writiug. 
Freising.  Cathedral.     Christ  clearing  tlie  Temple. 

Munich.         Finakothek.     Wolf  Tearing  a  Lamb. 

Nuremberg.       J^f"^  X  a  Male  Portrait. 
Brotherhood. } 



Gallery,       St.  Jerome. 
Gsell  Coll.     Still-life  subject. 

PAUELSEN,  Erik,  painter  and  engraver,  was 
born  at  Bygom,  near  Viborg,  in  1749,  and  studied 
in  tbe  Copenhagen  Academy,  where  in  1777  hg 
won  the  large  gold  medal  with  a  'Judgment  of 
Solomon.'  In  1780-83  he  visited  France  and  Italy, 
and  after  his  return  was  received  into  the  Academy 
with  an  '  Allegory  of  the  Union  of  the  three  North- 
em  Kingdoms  '  (1784).  After  this  he  travelled  in 
Norway,  and  painted  views,  some  of  which  were 
preserved  at  Frederiksborg  Castle.  His  death 
occurred  at  Copenhagen  in  1790,  by  his  throwing 
himself  from  a  window  in  a  fit  of  melancholy.  He 
painted  a  few  good  portraits,  some  of  which  he 
engraved,  together  with  a  few  vignettes ;  he  also 
etched  '  Canute's  Reproof  to  his  Courtiers.'  The 
following  historical  pictures  were  executed  by  him 
in  grisaille : 

Harder  of  Canute  the  Holy  in  St.  Alban's  Church 
{St.  Knu(Vs  Church,  Odense). 

The  Priest  Madsen  bringing  news  of  the  Enemy  to 
Kantzau  (engraved  by  J.  G.  Fi'eisler). 

Anne  Colbjomsen  in  the  Parsonage  Court  of  Norder- 
hong  {engraved  by  M.  Haas). 

Eolf  Krage  {engraved  by  the  sajne). 

The  Royal  Gallery  of  Copenhagen  possesses  two 
genre  pictures  by  Pauelsen. 

PAUL,  Andriaan,  (or  De  Paulis,)  a  Dutch  or 
Flemish  engraver,  flourished  about  the  year  1640. 
He  engraved  several  plates,  among  which  are  the 
following  : 

Peter  denying  Christ ;  after  Gerard  Segers. 

Titian  and  his  Mistress  ;  after  the  etching  by  Van  Dyck. 

The  Tooth-drawer ;  after  Theodor  Roelants. 

PAUL,  J.  S.,  an  English  mezzotint  engraver, 
flourished  about  the  year  1760,  and  has  left  a  few 
portraits,  among  them  that  of  Mrs.  Barry,  the 
actress,  after  Kettle  ;  and  Lady  Georgiana  Spenser 
and  her  daughter,  after  Reynolds.  He  also  en- 
graved a  '  Conversation '  piece  after  Jan  Steen. 
His  plates  show  much  ability. 

PAUL,  Robert,  was  probably  a  native  of  Soot- 
la'jd.  He  resided  at  Glasgow  in  the  latter  part  of 
the  last  century,  and  studied  in  the  Academy 
there.  He  engraved  some  views  of  that  city,  and 
one  representing  the  Cathedral  is  dated  1762. 

PAULI,  (or  Padx,)  Andreas,  also  called  De 
Pauus,  a  Dutch  engraver,  was  born  about  1598. 
No  details  of  his  life  are  known.  The  following 
plates  by  him  have  much  in  common  with  those  of 
Johann  Anton  Pauli  : 

Portrait  of  the  physician  N.  Bulius. 

Titian  and  his  Mistress ;  copied  on  a  reduced  scale  from 

Van  Dyck^s  ■plate. 
The  Denial  of  Peter ;  after  G.  Zeghcrs. 
Vir^  and  Child ;  after  Rubeii.i. 
Bacchus  and  Ceres  ;  after  .Sprangher. 
The  Entry  of  Maria  de'  Medici  into  the  towns  of  Mons, 

Brussels,  and  Antwerp,  in  1(331 ;  three  plates, 
A  set  of  Fifty  Plates  of  Emblems. 

PAULINI,  Berto  di  Giovanni,  (or  Paolini,)  an 
obscure  painter  of  Citta  della  Pieve,  who  flourished 
early  in  the  16th  century. 

PAULINI,  Giacomo,  (or  Paolini,)  was  an  Italian 
engraver,  a  native  of  Naples,  who  flourished  about 
1600,  and  apparently  resided  at  Venice.  We  have 
a  few  prints  by  him,  among  which  are  the  following: 

St.  Peter  ;  probably  from  his  own  design. 

A  View  of  the  Poute  di  Rialto,  Venice. 

An  Alphabet. 

PAULINI,  PiETRO.     See  Paolinl 
VOL.  ly.  a 

PAULSEN,  Fritz,  German  painter ;  born  May- 
31,  1838,  at  Schwerin  ;  became  a  pupil  of  the 
Diisseldorf  Academy,  and  subsequently  studied  at 
Munich  under  Piloty,  and,  later,  in  Paris.  Settled 
in  Berlin,  where  his  portraits  were  much  appreci- 
ated. His  works  in  genre  include  '  Bauerfanger' 
(1874),  '  Der  Augenblick  zur  Rache  '  (1867),  in  the 
Schwerin  Gallery,  and  '  Bericht  von  Ball '  (1886). 
He  died  at  Berlin,  February  22,  1898. 

PAULUTY,  Zacharie,  portrait  painter,  was  born 
at  Amsterdam  in  1600,  and  died  in  1657. 

PAULUS,  Jacobus.  This  name  is  found  on  part 
of  an  altar-piece  in  the  Santa  Croce  chapel  of  San 
Giacomo,  Bologna.     It  is  of  no  great  merit. 

PAULUZZI,  Stefano,  a  Venetian  painter  who 
enjoyed  some  repute  about  the  middle  of  the  17th 
century.  Lanzi  says  his  pictures  had  greatly 
deteriorated  in  his  time  owing  to  the  badness  of 
his  grounds. 

PAULY,  Nicolas,  a  miniature  painter,  was  born 
at  Antwerp  in  1660,  and  died  at  Brussels  in  1748. 
Very  little  is  known  of  his  life. 

PAULYN,  Horatids,  is  introduced  by  M.  Des- 
camps  among  the  artists  born  about  the  year  1643. 
He  was  a  native  of  Amsterdam,  but  it  is  not  said 
under  whom  he  studied.  According  to  Balkema 
he  died  in  1686.  Some  of  his  pictures  are  in  the 
manner  of  Rembrandt.  He  excelled  in  painting 
conversations  and  '  gallant '  subjects,  but  too  often 
outraged  decorum.  He  affected  piety  and  ex- 
hibited all  the  outward  signs  of  devotion,  while 
he  painted  subjects  which  caused  libertines  to 
blush.  At  one  time  he  set  out  for  the  Holy  Land 
with  a  number  of  companions,  but  they  broke  up 
en  route.  In  the  Ufl&zi,  Florence,  there  is  a  picture 
by  him,  '  The  Miser.' 

PAULYN,  Izaak,  called  by  Lord  Orford,  Paling, 
was  born  at  Amsterdam  about  the  year  1630,  and 
was  a  pupil  of  Abraham  van  den  Temple.  He  was 
an  eminent  portrait  painter,  and  in  that  capacity 
he  visited  England  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II., 
and  there  resided  many  years.  In  1682  he  returned 
to  Holland,  and  established  himself  at  the  Hague, 
where  he  met  with  great  encouragement,  and  where 
he  died.  He  also  painted  conversation  pieces  in 
the  style  of  his  master. 

PAUPELIER,  Pierre,  a  French  miniature 
painter,  was  born  at  Troyes  in  1621.  He  became 
a  member  of  the  Academy  in  Paris  in  1664,  and 
died  in  1665  (?). 

PAUQUET,  Jean  Louis  Charles,  engraver,  was- 
bom  in  Paris  in  1759.  He  was  instructed  by 
Gauchet,  and  engraved  after  Van  Dyck,  Le  Sueur, 
Teniers,  Barbier,  Moreau,  and  others.  He  died 
about  1820. 

PAUSIAS,  one  of  the  ancient  Greek  painters, 
was  a  native  of  Sicyon,  and  was  first  instructed  in 
the  art  by  his  father,  Brietes,  but  afterwards  became 
a  disciple  of  Pamphilus.  He  was  the  first  artist  of 
antiquity  who  painted  ceiling.s.  He  also  painted 
small  pictures,  and  was  particularly  successful  in 
the  representation  of  children.  Some  of  his  rival 
artists  pretended  that  he  made  use  of  those  subjects 
as  best  suited  to  the  slow  and  laboured  style  of  his 
execution.  To  contradict  the  calumny,  and  to 
prove  that  he  was  capable  of  more  spirited  exer- 
tions, he  finished  in  one  day  a  large  picture  repre- 
senting the  infant  Hercules,  which  picture  obtained 
from  this  circumstance  the  title  of  ij^fp^o-ios,  "  the 
day's  work."  In  his  youth  he  became  enamoured 
of  Glycera,  the  beautiful  garland-maker  ;  and  one 
of  his  most  admired  works  was  a  portrait  of  his 



mistress  holding  a  garland.  A  copy  of  this  picture 
was  purchased  at  Athens,  hy  Lucius  Lucullus,  for 
two  talents.  Pausias  also  excelled  in  painting 

PAUSON,  another  Greek  painter,  lived  at  about 
the  same  time  as  Polygnotus  and  Micon.  He  is 
mentioned  hy  Aristotle.  "  Polygnotus,"  says  that 
philosopher,  "  drew  men  more  perfect  than  they 
were,  Pauson  worse  than  they  were,  and  Dionysius 
iBUch  as  they  were."  Whence  we  may  infer  that 
Polygnotus  improved  upon  ordinary  nature,  that 
Pauson  degraded  her  by  a  selection  of  her  more 
vulgar  forms,  and  that  Dionysius  contented  him- 
self with  representing  her  as  she  usually  appears. 

PAUTRE.     See  Le  Paultre. 

PAUWELS,  WiLHELM  Ferdinand,  Belgian 
painter  ;  born  April  13,  1830,  at  Eckeren,  near 
Antwerp  ;  at  first  he  studied  with  Wappers  and 
Dujardin  at  the  Antwerp  Academy  ;  a  subsequent 
residence  in  Italy  served  to  develop  his  powers. 
From  1862  to  1872  he  was  a  professor  at  the 
Weimar  School  of  Art,  and  this  post  he  held  at  the 
Dresden  Academy  from  1876  onwards,  becoming 
eventually  Hofrath.  His  canvas,  '  Graf  Philipp 
von  Elsass,'  is  in  the  Dresden  Gallery.  '  Die 
witwe  Jakobs  van  Artevelde'  is  in  the  Brussels 
Museum.  Other  pictures  of  his  are  at  Munich, 
Leipzig,  Eisenach,  and  Washington.  lie  obtained 
gold  medals  in  1857,  1864,  and  1868,  and  the 
Leopold  Order  in  1861.  He  died  at  Brussels  in 

PAVESE,  El.    See  Sacchi,  Francesco. 

PAVIA,  GlACOMO,  was  born  at  Bologna  the 
18th  February  1655,  and  is  said  to  have  been  a 
scholar  of  Antonio  Crespi.  He  painted  histori- 
cal subjects,  and  was  employed  in  several  works 
for  the  churches  in  his  native  city;  the  most 
esteemed  being  his  picture  of  'St.  Anne  teach- 
ing the  Virgin  to  read,'  in  San  Silvestro  ;  and  the 
'  Nativity  '  in  San  Giuseppe.  Lanzi  states  that  he 
visited  Spain.     He  died  in  1750. 

PAVIA,  Giovanni  da.  Lanzi  ascribes  several 
pictures  in  the  churches  at  Pavia  to  au  artist  of 
this  name.     He  was  a  pupil  of  Lorenzo  Costa. 

PAVIA,  Lorenzo  da.  There  is  a  picture  in  the 
church  at  Savona  signed  Laurentius  Papiensis. 
Its  apparent  date  is  about  1550. 

PA  VON,  Ignatius,  was  a  scholar  of  Raphael 
Morghen.  He  imitated  the  manner  and  copied 
several  of  the  fine  engravings  of  his  master.  The 
dates  of  his  birth  and  death  are  not  known.  The 
following  are  his  principal  works : 

Hater  Amabilis ;  after  Sassoferrato. 

The  Virgin  and  Infant  Christ,  with  St.  John,  in  a  land- 
scape ;  after  Raphael ;  but  copied  from  the  engraving 
by  Ji.  Morghen. 

La  Madonna  del  Trono  ;  after  Raphael. 

La  Madonna  di  Foligno ;  after  the  same. 

La  Vierge  a  I'Oiseau ;  after  the  same ;  copied  after  R. 
Moryhen.  ^ 

The  Transfiguration ;  after  the  same ;  copied  after  S. 
Morijlien.  .     . 

The  Communion  of  St.  Jerome  ;  after  Domemchmo. 

St.  John  'Writing  ;  after  the  same. 

The  Magdalene  ;  after  Schid<>ne. 

Leda ;  after  Correijyio :  and  several  others  after  Car- 
racci,  JV.  I'aussin,  S;c. 

PAVONA,  Francesco,  a  painter,  was  bom  at 
Udine  in  1682.  He  was  instructed  by  A.  Camio 
and  G.  dal  Sole,  and  painted  portraits  and  historical 
subjects.  He  travelled  through  Italy,  Germany, 
Spain,   and   Portugal,    painting  for  the  diflferent 


courts,  but  settling  eventually  at  Bologna.  He  died 
at  Venice  in  1773  or  1777. 

PAXINO.    See  Nova,  Pecino  de. 

PAXTON,  John,  a  Scotch  portrait  and  historical 
painter,  bom  in  the  first  half  of  the  18th  century. 
He  was  taught  at  Foulis's  Academy,  Glasgow,  and 
coming  to  London,  became  in  1766  a  member  of  the 
Incorporated  Society  of  Artists,  where  he  exhibited 
as  well  as  at  the  Royal  Academy.  He  spent  some 
time  at  Rome,  and  finally  went  to  India,  dying  at 
Bombay  in  1780. 

PAY,  Jan  van,  (or  Pey,)  a  painter  of  history  and 
portraits,  was  born  at  Reidlingen  in  1589.  He  was 
painter  to  the  Elector  of  Bavaria,  and  portraits  by 
him  are  to  be  found  in  Munich  and  the  neighbour- 
hood.    He  died  in  1660  (?). 

PAYE,  Miss,  an  English  miniature  painter,  who 
was  probably  the  daughter  of  B.  M.  Paye.  She 
exhibited  at  the  Academy  from  1798  to  1807,  and 
appears  to  have  had  a  fair  practice.  Among  other 
people,  Mrs.  Siddons  sat  to  her. 

PAYE,  Richard  Morton,  an  English  subject 
painter,  born  at  Botley,  Kent,  about  the  middle  of 
the  18th  century.  He  was  brought  up  as  a  chaser, 
but  his  art  tastes  induced  him  to  become  a  painter, 
and  he  produced  some  works  which  rapidly  brought 
him  into  repute.  For  some  time  he  was  on  terms 
of  intimacy  with  '  Peter  Pindar,'  but  the  connection 
did  not  last  long,  and  ended  in  a  quarrel.  Paye 
was  an  unfortunate  genius.  Two  pictures  of  his 
are  said  to  have  been  sold  respectively  as  works  of 
Velasquez  and  of  Wright  of  Derby.  But  his  work 
did  not  find  a  market,  and  he  suffered  much  from 
ill-health.  Poverty  overtook  him,  and  he  sunk  into 
obscurity.  He  is  believed  to  have  died  in  1821. 
Many  of  Paye's  pictures  were  engraved  by  J. 
Young,  who  was  a  friend  of  his  ;  Valentine  Green 
engraved  his  '  Child  of  Sorrow,'  and  three  others, 
while  he  himself  engraved  '  Puss  in  Durance,'  and 
'  No  Dance,  No  Supper.' 

PA  YEN,  Antoine  A.  J.,  a  Flemish  landscape 
painter,  born  at  Tournai  towards  the  close  of  the 
18th  century.  He  resided  for  a  long  time  in  the 
East  Indies.  He  obtained  the  prize  for  landscape 
in  1815  at  Brussels.     Amongst  his  pictures  are; 

Brussels.  Museum.     Landscape :  moonlight. 

Haarlem.  Museum.    Views  in  Java. 

PAYNE,  John,  an  English  engraver,  was  born 
about  the  year  1607.  He  was  a  disciple  of  Simon 
van  de  Pass,  and  is  considered  the  first  artist  of 
this  country  who  distinguished  himself  with  the 
burin.  Had  his  application  been  equal  to  his 
genius,  he  would  have  ranked  among  the  first  of 
his  profession ;  but  he  was  indolent  and  dissipated, 
and  though  recommended  to  King  Charles  I., 
he  neglected  his  fortune  and  his  fame,  and  died 
in  indigence  before  he  was  forty,  in  1647.  He 
engraved  portraits,  frontispieces,  and  other  plates 
for  books,  as  well  as  a  variety  of  other  subjects, 
such  as  landscapes,  flowers,  fruit,  birds,  beasts, 
&c.,  but  his  portraits  are  the  most  esteemed  of  his 
prints.  They  are  executed  entirely  with  the  graver, 
in  a  free,  open  style,  and  produce  a  very  pleas- 
ing effect.  One  is  dated  as  early  as  1620.  In 
Eveljfn's  'Scultura,'  he  is  commended  for  his 
engraving  of  a  ship,  which  Vertue  informs  us  was 
the  '  Royal  Sovereign,'  built  in  1687,  by  Phineaa 
Pett.  It  was  engraved  on  two  plates,  and  when 
joined,  was  three  feet  long,  by  two  feet  two  inches 
high.  The  following  are  his  most  esteemed  por- 
traits : 


Henry  VII.,  prefixed  to  his  Life  by  Lord  Bacou. 
Henry  VIII. 

Robert  Devereux.Eari  of  Essex,  with  a  hat  and  feather. 
Sir  Benjamin  Rudyard  ;  after  Jfyiens. 
Doctor  Alabaster  ;  after  Cornells  Jansen. 
Hugh  Broughton. 
Alderman  Leate  ;  after  C.  Jansen. 
Roger  Bolton.     1632. 
Arthur  Lake,  Bishop  of  Chichester. 
Sir  Edward  Coke.     16l'9. 
Algernon  Percy,  Earl  of  Northumberland. 
George  Wither,  the  Poet,  with  a  hat  on,  for  his  '  Em- 
blems,' published  in  1635. 
William  Shakespeare. 
Ferdinand  of  Austria  ;  after  Van  Dyck, 
Count  Ernest  de  Mansfeld. 
Elizabeth,  Countess  of  Huntingdon. 

PAYNE,  William,  an  Englieli  water-colour  land- 
scape painter,  born  about  1760.  He  was  in  early 
life  employed  in  Plymouth  Dockyard,  but  having 
a  love  of  art,  lie  devoted  himself  to  it.  His  manner 
of  painting  had  originality,  and  he  produced  some 
good  effects  of  colour.  In  1790  he  removed  to 
'  London,  and  obtained  a  good  practice  as  a  drawing- 
master.  From  1809  to  1813  he  was  an  Associate 
of  the  Water-Colour  Society,  after  which  there  is 
BO  trace  of  him.  There  are  several  specimens  of 
his  art  in  the  South  Kensington  Museum. 

PAZ,  Don  Jose,  historical  painter,  was  born  at 
Madrid  late  in  the  17th  century.  He  was  of  no 
importance  as  an  artist,  but  held  an  ofSce  under 
the  Spanish  Court. 

PAZZI,  M.4KIA  Magdalena  de,  was  born  at 
Florence  in  1566.  She  became  a  Carmelite  nun, 
and  painted  saered  pictures.  S.  Maria  in  Cosmedin, 
at  Rome,  possesses  one  of  her  works.  She  died 
in  1607. 

PAZZI,  PiETRO  Antonio,  an  Italian  engraver, 
was  born  at  Florence  about  the  year  1706,  and 
died  in  1770.  He  was  a  pupil  of  G.  Piamontini 
and  C.  Mogalli,  and  engraved  several  portraits  of 
artists  for  the  '  Museo  Fiorentino,'  Gori's  '  Museo 
Etrusco,'  and  the  '  Museo  Capitolino,'  as  well  as 
various  plates  after  pictures  in  the  Florentine 
galleries.  Among  others  we  may  name  the  follow- 
ing : 


Francesco  Albani,  Bologuese  Painter  ;  se  ipse  pinx. 
Federigo  Baroccio,  Painter  ;  ditto, 
Giacomo  Bassano,  Painter ;  ditto, 
Giovanni  Bizelli,  Painter ;  ditto, 
Andrea  Boseoli,  Painter  ;  ditto. 


The  Holy  Family  ;  after  L.  Cambiaso. 

The  Assumption  of  the  Virgin  ;  after  Raphael. 

The  Virgin  and  Christ ;  after  Van  Di/c/c. 

St.  Zanobi  resuscitating  a  dead  Person  ;  after  Betti. 

St.  Philip  refusing  the  Popedom ;  after  the  same. 

A  Sibyl ;  after  Crespi. 

PEACHAM,  Henry.  In  Walpole's '  Anecdotes,' 
this  man  is  said  to  have  engraved  a  portrait  of 
Sir  Tliomas  Cromwell,  afterwards  Earl  of  Essex, 
after  Holbein.  He  was  the  author  of  a  book  called 
'The  Complete  Gentleman,'  published  in  1633. 
He  was  bom  at  South  Minims  in  Hertfordshire, 
and  took  the  degree  of  M.A.  at  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge.  He  was  tutor  for  a  time  to  the  children 
of  Lord  Arundel,  whom  he  accompanied  to  the 
Low  Countries.  In  the  course  of  his  life  he  also 
visited  Italy.  He  was  an  amateur  rather  than  a 
professed  artist,  and  was  skilled  in  music  as  well 
as  painting  and  engraving.  In  his  book  entitled 
'  The  Complete  Gentleman,'  and  another  entitled 

'The  Gentleman's  Exercise,'  he  lays  down  rules 
for  drawing  and  painting  in  oil ;  for  making  of 
colours,  blazoning  coats  of  arms,  &c.  He  died  about 

PEACKE,  Edward,  was  an  English  engraver, 
who  flourished  in  the  middle  of  the  17th  century. 
In  conjunction  with  Robert  Peacke,  who  was 
probably  his  brother,  he  executed  some  plates  of 
friezes,  and  other  architectural  ornaments,  pub- 
lished in  1640. 

PEACKE,  William,  was  an  engraver  and  painter 
of  the  time  of  James  I.  Strutt  mentions  him  as  the 
engraver  of  two  portraits  of  the  Earl  of  Holland 
and  the  Earl  of  Warwick. 

PEAK,  James,  an  English  engraver.  We  have 
several  plates  of  landscapes  by  him,  some  of  which 
were  engraved  for  Boydell ;  he  also  etched  a  few 
plates  from  his  own  designs.  Among  others  the 
following  are  by  him  : 

A  View  of  Waltham  Abbey. 

Two  Landscapes  ;  after  Fil/ement. 

Two  Views  of  Warwick  Hall  in  Cumberland,  and  Ferry 

Bridge,  in  Yorkshire  ;  after  Sellers. 
A  Landscape,  with  figures  ;  after  Claude. 
Morning,  a  Landscape ;  after  the  same. 
A  Landscape,  with  Ruins  ;  after  G.  ^mith. 
A  Landscape,  with  a  Waterfall ;  the  companion ;  after 

the  ^amc. 
Four  Views  ;  after  R.  Wilson, 
Banditti  in  a  rocky  Landscape  ;  after  Boryoynone. 
The  Beggars,  the  companion ;  after  the  same. 

PEAKE,  Robert,  serjeant  painter  to  James  I. 
in  conjunction  witli  John  de  Critz.  He  painted 
many  portraits  of  James  I.  and  Charles  I.,  especially 
a  notable  one  of  the  latter  king,  which  still  hangs 
in  the  University  Library  at  Cambridge.  Fait- 
home  the  elder  was  one  of  his  pupils.  He  was 
born  about  1680,  and  died  in  1620. 

PEAKE,  Sir  Robert,  son  of  the  above  Robert 
Peake,  a  print-seller  "on  Snow  Hill  near  Holborn 
Conduit,"  who  had  some  skill  himself  as  an  en- 
graver, and  who  assisted  both  Faithorne  and 
Hollar,  who  were  his  personal  friends,  in  the 
production  of  their  plates.  He  took  up  arms 
on  the  Royalist  side  at  the  time  of  the  Civil 
War,  and  was  Lieutenant-Governor  under  the 
Slarquis  of  Winchester  at  the  siege  of  Basing  House. 
He  was  knighted  at  Oxford  in  1645.  On  the 
surrender  of  Basing  House  he  was  taken  prisoner, 
but  later  on  was  released,  but  was  exiled  for  refus- 
ing to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  Protector. 
After  the  Restoration  he  became  Vice-President  of 
the  Hon.  Artillery  Company,  and  died  in  1667, 
aged  about  75. 

PEALE,  Charles  Wilson,  an  American  portrait 
painter,  was  born  at  Chesterton  in  Pennsylvania, 
in  1741.  He  was  apprenticed  to  a  saddler,  and 
after  being  successively  saddler,  harness-maker, 
watchmaker,  carver,  naturalist,  and  taxidermist, 
at  the  age  of  twenty-six  he  took  lessons  in  painting 
from  Copley,  in  Boston.  In  1770-1  he  studied  in 
London  under  West,  and  in  1772  painted  the  first 
picture  of  Washington,  as  a  Colonel.  He  painted 
the  portraits  of  many  distinguished  revolutionary 
officers.  He  opened  a  picture-gallery  in  Phila- 
delphia, and  was  instrumental  in  establishing  an 
Academy  of  the  Fine  Arts  in  Pennsylvania.  He 
died  at  Philadelphia  in  1827.  His  eldest  son 
Raphael,  also  a  painter,  died  at  Philadelphia  in 

PEALE,  Rembrandt,  painter,  son  of  Charles 
Wilson  Peale,  was  born  in  Bucks  county,  Penn- 



sylvania,  in  1778.  He  showed  talent  as  a  draughts- 
man in  early  life,  and  in  1796  he  established 
himself  as  a  portrait  painter  at  Cliarleston,  South 
Carolina.  From  1801  to  1804  he  studied  in  London 
under  West,  and  then  went  to  Paris,  where  he 
painted  the  portraits  of  several  eminent  men.  In 
1809  he  returned  to  Philadelphia.  He  there 
painted  two  subject  pictures,  '  The  Roman  Daugh- 
ter,' and  '  The  Court  of  Death,'  and  many  portraits, 
among  which  we  may  specify  those  of  President 
Jefferson,  Mrs.  Madison,  Commodore  Bainbridge, 
Perry,  Decatur,  Genera!  Armstrong,  and  the  sculptor 
Houdon.     Peale  died  in  1860. 

PEARCE,  William,  portrait  painter,  was  born 
in  London  about  the  middle  of  the  18th  century. 
He  painted  rustic  subjects,  and  Charles  Turner 
engraved  his  '  Milkmaid.'  He  exhibited  at  the 
Academy  in  1798-9. 

PEARSON,  Mrs.  Charles,  a  portrait  painter. 
Her  maiden  name  was  Dutton.  She  was  born  in 
1799.  Early  in  life  she  mirried  a  solicitor  named 
Pearson,  who  was  afterwards  a  member  of  Parlia- 
ment. She  exliibited  portraits  at  the  Roj'al  Academy 
from  1821  to  1842,  two  of  them  being  portraits  of 
Lord  Mayors.     Mrs.  Pearson  died  in  1871. 

PEARSON,  COKNELitrs,  was  born  at  Boston,  and 
came  to  London  at  an  early  age,  where  he  was 
apprenticed  to  a  copper-plate  engraver.  He  soon 
abandoned  this  for  the  practice  of  painting  in 
water-colours,  to  which  he  devoted  himself, 
becoming  a  regular  exhibitor  at  the  Suffolk  Street 
Galleries  (1843-79).  He  was  one  of  the  oldest 
members  of  the  Langham  Sketching  Chib,  and 
was  constant  to  the  older  traditions  of  English 
water-colour.     He  died  in  1891  in  his  83rd  year. 

PEARSON,  Egi.ington  Margaret,  daughter  of 
Sanmel  Paterson,  distinguished  herself  by  her  skill 
in  painting  on  glass.  She  was  the  wife  of  James 
Pearson.  She  jiainted  two  sets  of  the  Cartoons, 
after  Raphael,  one  of  which  was  purchased  by  the 
Marquis  of  Lansdowne,and  the  other  by  SirGregory 
Page  Turner.  There  is  also  another  set,  but  whether 
by  the  husband  or  wife,  or  by  both,  is  not  certain. 
She  died  in  1823.  Her  works  were  various,  but 
mostly  copied  from  pictures  by  other  masters. 

PEARSON,  James,  a  glass  painter,  was  born  at 
Dublin  about  the  middle  of  the  18th  century.  He 
learat  his  art  at  Bristol.  There  are  windows  by 
him  at  Brasenose  College,  in  Salisbury  Cathedral, 
and  in  Aldersgate  Church,  London.  Pearson  also 
painted  some  designs  after  James  Barry,  R.A. 
He  married  the  aliove-named  Eglington  Margaret, 
the  daughter  of  Samuel  Paterson,  a  well-known 
book-auctioneer.     He  died  in  1805. 

PEARSON,  John  Loughborodgh,  son  of  a 
water-colour  artist  of  Durham,  was  born  at  Brus- 
sels on  July  5,  1817.  At  the  age  of  fourteen  he 
was  articled  to  Bonomi,  a  Durham  architect,  and 
three  j'ears  later  left  for  London,  where  he  worked 
in  the  offices  of  Anthony  Salvin  and  Philip  Hard- 
wick.  He  devoted  himself  mainly  to  ecclesiastical 
architecture,  and  soon  became  one  of  the  most 
distinguished  of  the  modern  school  of  Gothic  re- 
vivalists. Holy  Trinity  Church,  Vauxliall  Bridge, 
built  in  1850,  was  his  first  work  of  importance, 
and  this  was  followed  by  St.  Peter's,  Vauxhall,  and 
the  Art  Schools  in  the  same  neighbourhood.  St. 
Augustine's,  Kilburn,  in  1871,  and  St.  John's,  Red 
Lion  Square,  in  1875,  are  among  other  London 
churches  of  his  designing.  His  greatest  achieve- 
ment was  the  Cathedral  of  Truro,  which  was  begun 
from  his  designs  in  1878,  and  completed,  except 


for  the  western  towers,  in  1903.  Among  his 
domestic  buildings  may  be  named  Lechlade  Manor 
House  ;  the  reconstruction  of  Westwood,  Syden- 
ham ;  Craigside,  the  seat  of  Lord  Armstrong;  St. 
Peter's  Convalescent  Home,  Woking ;  and  the 
Astor  Estate  OBBce  on  the  Embankment.  Probably, 
however,  it  is  as  a  restorer  that  he  is  best  known. 
He  was  the  official  architect  to  many  cathedrals, 
Bristol,  Rochester,  and  Chichester  among  them ; 
and  his  rather  drastic  restoration  of  Westminster 
Abbey  and  Peterborough  met  with  severe  criticism. ' 
Pearson  was  a  clever  painter  in  water-colours  of 
architectural  views  of  cathedrals,  &c.,  which  he 
naturally  rendered  with  much  sympathy,  and  from 
1851  onwards  the  designs  for  his  current  work 
were  regularly  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy. 
In  1874  he  was  elected  an  Associate  of  the 
Academy,  in  1878  became  a  Knight  of  the  Legion 
of  Honour,  and  in  1880  a  Royal  Academician. 
He  was  also  a  Fellow  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries. 
He  died  on  Dec.  9,  1897,  after  a  short  illness,  and 
was  buried  in  Westminster  Abbey  on  Dec.  16. 

PEA.RT,  (or  Paert,)  Henry,  an  English  portrait 
painter,  born  in  the  first  half  of  the  17th  century. 
He  studied  under  Francis  Barlow  and  Old  Stone, 
and  was  much  employed  on  copies  of  pictures  in 
the  royal  collections.     He  died  about  1697. 

PEAT,  T.,  an  English  portrait  painter,  in  the 
latter  half  of  the  18th  century.  He  was  a  follower 
of  Reynolds,  and  exhibited  at  the  Academy  from 
1791  to  1805.     Much  of  his  work  was  in  enamel. 

PECHAM,  Georg,  (or  Peham),  painter  and  en- 
graver, was  an  artist  of  the  Munich  school.  By 
some  he  is  supposed  to  have  been  a  pupil  of 
Melchior  Pocksberger.  We  have  by  him  some 
etchings,  among  which  are  : 

Hercules  and  Antaeus. 
Neptune  and  the  Tritons. 
Virgin  and  Child. 

View  o£  Gratz. 
He  died  about  1604. 

PECCHIO,  Domenico,  was  born  at  Verona  in 
1712,  or  1715.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Balestra,  and 
one  of  the  most  famous  landscape  painters  of  his 
day.     He  died  in  1759. 

PIllCHEUX,  Benoit,  son  and  pupil  of  Laurent 
P^cheux,  was  born  at  Rome  in  1769.  In  1793  he 
won  the  great  prize  at  the  Academy  of  Parma,  and 
became  three  years  later  professor  at  Turin.  The 
date  of  his  death  is  unknown.  He  painted  the 
'  Assumption  '  and  the  '  Annunciation '  for  the 
churches  of  Rouen  and  Yvetot  respectively.  He 
was  the  author  of  '  Iconographie  Mythologique.' 

PECHEUX,  Laurent,  painter  and  designer,  was 
born  at  Lyons  about  1740,  and  came  when  young  to 
Paris,  whence  he  proceeded  to  Rome,  and  became 
a  pupil  and  friend  of  Rafael  Mengs.  He  was  dis- 
tinguished by  his  frescoes  in  the  Villa  Borghese, 
and  was  later  on  made  chief  painter  to  the  King  of 
Sardinia,  a  member  of  the  Academy,  and  a  Knight 
of  the  Order  of  St.  Maurice  .and  Lazarus.  He  died 
at  Turin  in  1821. 

PECHWELL,  August  Josef,  a  painter,  was 
born  at  Dresden  in  1757.  He  was  instructed  by 
Flutin,  and  afterwards  went  to  Rome,  where  he 
remained  till  1781.  He  painted  altar-pieces  and 
portraits.  He  was  Inspector  of  the  Royal  Gallery 
at  Dresden.     He  died  in  1811. 

PECHWELL,  Carl  von,  a  German  engraver, 
flourished  at  Vienna  in  the  latter  half  of  the  18th 
century.    He  engraved  the  portrait  of  the  Emperor 


Joseph  II.,  after  P.  Batoni,  and  those  of  several 
other  German  princes;  also  the  following  subjects: 

La  Tieille  Amoureuse  ;  ajter  J.  Toornvliet. 

The  Judgment  of  Paris  ;  after  A.  van  der  Werff,  with 

a  dedication  to  the  Graces  of  Europe. 
Venus  uncovered  by  a  Satyr. 
The  Reading  Magdalene ;  after  F,  Satoni's  picture  at 

The  Angry  Mother  and  her  Daughter ;  after  P.  delta 


PECINO.     See  Nova,  Pecino  de. 

PECKITT,  William,  born  in  1731  at  Hurs- 
thwaite,  Yorks,  died  in  1795,  was  one  of  the  most 
important  of  English  glass-painters,  and  the  last 
of  a  school  which  had  for  above  500  years  been 
famous  in  York.  He  was  of  humble  birth  and 
trained  as  a  carver  and  gilder,  but  adopted  the  art 
of  glass-painting.  Though  almost  self-taught  he 
may  have  worked  for  a  time  with  William  Price 
the  younger.  He  especially  devoted  himself  to 
the  chemistry  of  coloured  glass,  in  which  he 
attained  great  skill,  producing  probably  a  greater 
variety  in  transparent  colour,  as  distinct  from 
enamel-colours,  than  has  ever  been  achieved  by 
any  other  artist ;  the  latest  examples  of  old  ruby 
glass  (before  the  manufacture  was  revived  in  the 
19th  century)  were  due  to  his  skill.  He  married 
Mary  Motley,  the  daughter  of  a  sculptor  of  York, 
and  he  was  buried  in  the  churchyard  of  St.  Martin- 
cum-Gregory  in  that  city.  An  inscription  in  his 
honour,  "  designed  and  executed  by  his  afflicted 
widow,"  was  added  to  a  window  in  the  church  of 
that  parish  in  the  year  after  his  death.  His  earliest 
and  latest  works  are  to  be  seen  at  York.  In  and 
after  1757  he  was  engaged  in  repairing  the  ancient 
windows  in  the  Minster,  but  before  that  date  he 
had  produced  original  works. 

York,  Justice-room  of  the  Guildhall :  A  symbolical 
presentment  of  '  Justice  in  a  Triumphal  Car.'  Peckitt 
made  a  gift  of  this  work  to  the  municipality,  and  in 
return  was  admitted  without  payment  to  the  freedom 
of  the  city.  It  was  executed  in  1753  and  put  up  in 

York  Minster,  south  transept,  1754 :  A  figure  of  '  St. 
Peter,'  with  the  arms  of  the  See,  for  which  he  was 
paid  £11  15s.  But  iu  1758,  "having  attained  to 
greater  excellence  in  his  art,"  he  was  dissatisfied  with 
the  figure  and  presented  another  in  its  place. 

York  Minster,  1793 :  The  figures  of  '  Abraham,' 
'"Moses,'  and  *  Solomon' in  the  south  transept,  to 
complete  with  the  '  St.  Peter '  a  set  of  four.  These 
he  bequeathed  to  the  Dean  and  Chapter,  who  had 
them  put  up  in  accordance  with  his  will  in  1795. 

Lincoln  Catliedral,  1762  :  The  east  window ;  geometrical 
patterns  of  coloured  glass  (it  has  been  removed). 

Exeter  Cathedral,  1766 :  The  great  west  window, 
prob.\hly  Peckitt's  finest  work,  was  barbarously 
removed  in  1903. 

Oxford,  Oriel  Chapel,  1767  :  He  painted  the  '  Present- 
ation of  Christ  in  the  Temple' — a  window  now  on 
the  north  side  of  the  ante-chapel.  It  was  designed 
by  Dr.  Wall,  a  physician  of  Worcester. 

Oxford,  New  College  Chapel :  The  north  windows, 
executed  between  1765  and  1774  from  the  designs  of 
Biagio  Eebecca,  E.A.  Each  of  the  five  windows 
contains  eight  figures,  three  of  personages  and 
prophets  from  the  Old  Testament,  and  two  from  the 
New;  the  later  windows  show  greater  variety  and 
delicacy  of  colour  than  the  earlier. 

Cambridge,  Trinity  College  Library,  1775:  A  large 
window  from  a  design  by  G.  B.  Ciimani ;  among  the 
heads  are  portraits  of  Newton,  Francis  Bacon,  and 
George  III.  Little  coloured  glass  or  pot-metal  is 
used  in  this  window. 

Peckitt  also  executed  a  good  deal  of  repairing 
and  ornamental  glazing  in  various  cathedrals,  &c.. 

throughout  the  country,  such  as  may  still  be  seen 
in  the  clerestory  at  Peterborough  and  at  Tewkes- 
bury. He  was  employed  by  Horace  Walpole  to 
paint  some  windows  at  Strawberry  Hill  in  1768  ; 
and  there  were  in  the  chapel  at  Bishopsthorpe, 
Yorks,  several  coats-of-arms,  recently  removed, 
not  without  mutilation,  to  the  "  business-room  "  of 
the  Archiepiscopal  Palace.  c.  B. 

PECORI,  DOMENICO,  was  a  pupil  of  Bartolommeo 
della  Gatta,  and  a  partner  of  Niccol6  Soggi  of 
Arezzo.  He  lived  in  the  15th  century,  but  no 
certainty  exists  as  to  the  dates  of  his  birth  or  death. 
An  '  Adoration  of  the  Virgin '  by  him  is  still  in  the 
Sacristy  of  the  Pieve  at  Arezzo  ;  and  other  works 
of  his  may  be  found  in  that  city  and  its  environs. 
Vasari  says  he  was  more  skilled  in  the  use  of 
tempera  than  in  that  of  oil. 

PEDIUS,  QuiNTDS,  a  Roman  artist,  grandson  of 
C.  Pedius,  flourished  about  twenty  years  before 
Christ.     He  was  dumb,  and  died  young. 

PEDONE,  Bartolo,  an  Italian  painter,  wlio 
worked  in  the  first  half  of  the  18th  century.  He 
painted  landscapes,  sea-pieces,  storms,  and  night- 
pieces.     He  died  in  1735. 

PEDRALI,  GiACOMO,  an  Italian  perspective  and 
architectural  painter,  who  flourished  at  Brescia 
from  1 630  to  about  1660.  He  was  a  companion  of 
Doraenico  Bruni,  and  was  already  dead  in  the 
latter  year, 

PEDRET.     See  Padro  y  Pedret. 

PEDRETTI,  Giuseppe  Carlo,  was  born  at 
Bologna  in  1694,  and  was  a  scholar  of  Marc  An- 
tonio Franceschini.  He  resided  some  time  in  Po- 
land ;  and  on  his  return  to  Bologna  painted  a  great 
number  of  pictures  and  altar-pieces  for  the  churches 
and  public  edifices,  of  which  the  most  esteemed  are 
the  '  Martyrdom  of  St.  Peter,'  in  San  Petronio ; 
'  Christ  bearing  his  Cross,'  in  San  Giuseppe ;  and 
'  St.  Margarita,'  in  the  Anunziata.    He  died  in  1778. 

PEDRIEL,  Santos,  a  Spanish  painter,  who  was 
a  pupil  of  Sanchez-Coello.  He  painted  historical 
subjects,  and  flourished  about  1670.  Siret  gives 
the  date  of  his  death  as  157H. 

PEDRIGNANI,  Girolamo,  a  painter  and  en- 
graver, who  flourished  at  Forli  about  1640  to  1650„ 
Among  his  plates  are  : 

The  Death  of  Abel. 

Adam  and  Eve  in  Paradise. 

Adam  bewailing  the  Death  of  .\bel. 

PEDRINI,  Giovanni,  of  Milan,  who  flourished 
in  the  16th  century,  was  one  of  those  followers  of 
Leonardo  da  Vinci  who  exaggerated  their  master's 
style.  His  works  are  to  be  seen  at  Milan,  Berlin, 
and  elsewhere.  Pedrini  is  supposed  to  be  identical 
with  the  Pietro  Riccio,  mentioned  by  Lomazzo  as  a 
pupil  of  Leonardo. 

PEDRO,  El  Licenciado.     See  Gutierrez. 

PEDRO,  Francesco  del,  an  engraver,  was  born 
at  Udine  in  1736.  lie  established  himself  at  Venice, 
and  among  his  engravings  we  may  name  : 

A  Holy  Family. 

A  sleeping  Jesus. 

Charity;  iijter  Alhanl. 

Judgment  of  Paris  ;  after  Giordano. 

The  Card-player  ;  afier  Tenters. 

Landscapes  ;  after  Londonio  and  Mi'ygiotto. 

PEDRONI,  Pietro,  an  Italian  historical  painter, 
was  a  native  of  Pontremoli.  He  studied  at  Parma 
and  Rome,  and  eventually  settled  at  Florence, 
where  he  became  Director  of  the  Academy.  He 
died  in  1803 



PEDUZZI,  DOMENICO  Antonio,  a  Dutch  painter 
of  Italian  extraction,  was  born  at  Amsterdam  in 
1817.  He  was  a  pupil  of  J.  Pieneman,  and  painted 
eilects  of  light  and  interiors.  He  died  at  Vienna 
in  1861. 

PEE,  Engf.i.hardt  van,  a  Flemish  painter,  who 
was  bom  at  Brussels.  He  resided  chiefly  in  Ger- 
many, and  had  much  success  at  the  Court  of 
Munich.     He  died  in  1605. 

PEE,  Henrietta  van.  See  Wolteus. 
PEE,  Jan  van,  a  Dutch  figure  painter,  born  at 
Amsterdam  about  1640.  He  was  a  son  of  Em- 
manuel Van  Pee,  a  Dutch  picture-seller,  and  was 
chiefly  employed  in  copying  the  works  of  the  Dutch 

PEE,  TheodOR  van,  a  Dutch  historical  portrait 
and  interior  painter,  was  born  at  Amsterdam  in 
1669.    His  painting  not  being  sufficient  to  support 
him,  he  became  a  picture-dealer.     In  this  capacity 
he  came  to  England  in  1715  and  1719,  and  on  the 
last  occasion  he  remained  seven  years,  and  amassed 
a  considerable  fortune.     He  then  returned  to  his 
own  country,  and  died  at  the  Hague  in  1747  or  1750. 
PEEL,  Pactl,  was  born  at  London,  Ontario,  in 
1861.     He  received   his   first  art-training  at   the 
College  of  Fine  Arts,  Pennsylvania,  and  studied 
subsequently  at  the  Royal  Academy,  London,  and 
in  Paris  under  Gerome.     He  settled  in  Paris  and 
only  returned  to  Canada  for  short  visits,  and  his 
art  was  French  both  in  spirit  and  technique.     In 
1889   he  gained   an  honourable   mention   for   his 
'  Life   is   Bitter,'   and   a  gold    medal  in   1890  for 
'After  the   Bath.'     He   specially   loved   to    paint 
children  and  baby-life,  but  he  also  painted  land- 
scapes with  a  fine  sense  of  colour  and  light.     He 
died  in  1892. 
PEER,  Lange.     See  Aartsen. 
PEETERS,  Bonaventura,  a  Flemish  painter  of 
battles  and  sea-pieces,  was  born  at  Antwerp  in  1614. 
His  favourite  subject  was  a  stormy  sea  with  light- 
ning flashing  above,  and  a  ship  in  danger.     His 
works  are  very  unequal  in  merit.    His  strong  point 
was  composition,  and  the  arrangement  of  light  and 
shade.     He   died   at   Hoboken   in  1652,  and  was 
buried  there.     He  usually  signed  his  pictures  P.  B. 
with  the  date.     Works  : 



View  at  Flushiug, 



View  of  Middelburg. 



View  on  a  River-bank. 



Dordrecht  from  the  Maas. 
A  Storm  at  Sea. 



View  of  Corfu  (?)  {Signed 
Bonaventiira  Peelers;  fecit  in 
Hoboken  1652.) 



View  of  Scheveningen  (with 
fiqures  hy  David  Tenters  the 



A  Seaport. 

Vienna.  Liechtenstein  C. 

Three  pictures  of  Storms  at  Sea. 



A  Sea-piece. 



A  Military  Post. 

PEETERS,  Clara,  a  Flemish  still-life  painter, 
who  flourished  in  the  17th  century.  Several  pictures 
by  her  are  in  the  Madrid  Museum,  and  one  bears 
the  date  1611. 

PEETERS,  Gerrit.     See  Pieteeszen. 

PEETERS,  GiLLES  (or  Egidics),  who  was  born 
in  1612,  and  died  in  1653,  was  a  brother  of  Bona- 
ventura  Peeters,  and  worked  in  the  same  atelier. 
Nothing  is  known  of  his  paintings,  but  he  etched  a 
series  of  hunting-pieces  after  Snyders. 

PEETERS,  Jacob,  a  Flemish  painter  of  church 
interiors,  who  flourished  in  1695.  He  was  a  pupil 

of  Pieter  Vandevelde,  at  Antwerp,  in  1672-3,  and 
Master  of  the  Guild  in  1688-9.  He  painted  in  the 
style  of  Pieter  Neefs.  His  brother  Jan  flourished 
at  Antwerp  as  a  painter  and  engraver  in  1680. 

PEETERS,  Jan,  a  brother  and  pupil  of  Bona- 
ventura  Peeters,  was  born  at  Antwerp  in  1624. 
He  painted  similar  subjects  to  those  of  his  brother, 
though  in  general  his  works  are  very  inferior  to 
those  of  Bonaventura.  He  sometimes  painted  com- 
bats at  sea,  and  even  attempted  historical  subjects. 
He  became  a  Master  of  the  Guild  in  1645,  and 
appears  to  have  died  in  1677.  Paintings  by  him 
are  in  the  Antwerp  Museum,  the  Munich  Pinakothek, 
and  the  Museum  and  Liechtenstein  Collections  at 
Vienna ;  and  the  Rijks-Museum  of  Amsterdam 
possesses  a  good  picture  of  the  '  Destruction  of 
the  English  fleet  at  Chatham,  in  1667,'  by  him. 
He  engraved  a  series  of  landscapes  in  the  style  of 

PEGNA  (or  Pegnia).     See  De  la  Peigne. 

PEHAM.     See  Pecham. 

PEINS.     See  Pencz. 

PEIPERS,  Hermine.    See  Stilke. 

PEIROLERI,  Pietro,  an  Italian  engraver,  was  a 
nativeof  Turin,  and  flourished  about  tlje  year  1760. 
Zani  gives  1741  for  the  date  of  his  birth,  and  says 
lie  was  active  in  1777.  Nagler  says  he  was  born 
in  1738,  and  gives  a  list  of  20  prints  by  him. 
Neither  authority  mentions  the  date  of  his  death. 
His  chief  prints  appear  to  be  : 

Bacchus  seated  on  a  Tun ;  after  Rubens. 
Portrait  of  the  Foruarina ;  after  Raphael. 
Portrait  of  Raphael ;  after  the  same. 
Philippe  de  Champagne  ;  copied  from  Edelinck. 
The  Holy  Family  ;  after  Scarsellino. 
The  Finding  of  Moses  ;  after  Lazzarini. 
A  *  Eoman  Charity  ; '  after  the  same. 
Abraham's  Offering  ;  after  Bellncci. 
Jupiter  and  Calisto  ;  after  Amiconi. 
Zephyrus  and  Flora  ;  after  the  same. 

PELACANE.     See  Morone,  Dom. 

PELAIS,  Michel,  (or  Palais?,)  supposed  to  have 
flourished  at  Rome  about  1625.  He  engraved  the 
portraits  of  Cardinal  d'Ossat  and  J.  de  Gasteboig. 
His  mark  is  also  found  on  prints  after  Palma  the 
younger,  and  Federigo  Zuccaro,  and  his  manner 
approaches  that  of  Cornells  Cort.  The  signature 
Palais  fee.  is  to  be  found  on  a  wretched  print  of 
'  St.  John  preaching  in  the  Wilderness,'  but  the 
author  may  have  been  a  totally  difierent  person. 

PELEE,  Pierre,  a  native  of  Courtedoux  in  the 
Canton  of  Bern,  and  a  scholar  of  von  Schenker, 
engraved  from  1820  to  1838.  The  following  prints 
by  him  are  noticed  by  Nagler : 

The  Evangelist  St.  John  ;  after  Dmnenichino. 
The  President  Duranti ;  after  P.  Delaroche. 
Several  Portraits  and  Vignettes  for  the  works  of  Vol- 
taire and  Kousseau  ;  after  Dcsenne  and  Deveria. 

PELEGRET,  Tojias,  a  Spanish  historical  painter 
in  fresco  and  en  grisaille,  was  bora  at  Toledo,  where 
he  studied  the  elements  of  his  art,  but  afterwards 
went  to  Italy  and  placed  himself  under  Baldassare 
da  Siena,  and  Polidoro  da  Caravaggio,  from  whom 
he  derived  his  knowledge  of  chiaroscuro ;  and 
whom  he  made  his  model.  He  returned  to  Spain, 
in  the  time  of  Charles  V.,  and  established  himself 
at  SaragoBsa,  where  he  acquired  considerable  reput- 
ation. His  drawings  were  highly  prized,  not  only 
by  amateurs,  but  by  artists.  "They  were  purchased 
with  avidity  by  painters,  sculptors,  decorators,  and 
goldsmiths.  Unfortunately  few  or  none  of  his 
works  in  fresco  exist,  and  the  only  examples  of  his 


ability  that  can  be  mentioned  with  certainty,  are 
some  pictures  in  the  manner  of  Polidoro  C'aravaggio 
in  the  Monastery  of  Santa  Eugracia,  in  Saragossa. 
He  died  at  the  age  of  84.  He  had  many  scholars  ; 
among  them  was  Cuevas,  who  assisted  hira  in 
painting  the  sacristy  of  the  cathedral  of  Huesca, 
and  some  other  works. 

PELGROM,  Jakob,  a  Dutch  landscape  painter, 
who  flourished  early  in  the  19th  century.  He  was 
a  pupil  of  J.  Pieneman. 

PELHAM,  Henrt,  historical  and  miniature 
painter,  resided  with  Copley,  R.A.,  and  was  moat 
probably  his  pupil.  In  1777  he  contributed  to  the 
Academy  '  The  Finding  of  Moses,'  which  was  en- 
graved by  W.  Ward  m  1787.  In  the  following 
year  he  exhibited  some  miniatures  in  enamel  and 

PELHAM,  James,  miniaturist  and  portrait 
painter,  chiefly  in  water-colour,  was  bom  in 
London,  September  16,  1800,  the  son  of  James 
Pelham  (died  circ.  1850),  also  a  miniaturist  of  some 
note,  but  not  equal  to  his  son  in  ability  ;  he  was  a 
great-nephew  of  the  Prime  Minister,  Henry  Pelham. 
In  early  life  the  second  James  Pelham  travelled 
about  the  kingdom,  painting  portraits  of  notable 
persons,  especially  in  the  eastern  counties  and  in 
Bath  and  Cheltenham.  He  was  appointed  painter 
to  the  Princess  Charlotte,  and  had  many  distin- 
guished sitters.  Pelham  was  resident  at  Bath  in 
1832,  when  he  made  his  first  appearance  at  the  Royal 
Academy  with  portraits  of  Viscount  and  Viscountess 
Weymouth.  In  1836  there  were  five  portraits,  and 
in  1837  one,  by  James  Pelham,  resident  in  London, 
but  it  is  uncertain  whether  this  exhibitor  was  the 
father  or  the  son.  Most  probably  it  was  the  latter. 
In  or  before  1846  he  settled  at  Liverpool.  In  that 
year  he  had  six  portraits  at  the  Exhibition  of  the 
Liverpool  Acaderay,in  1847  three,  and  in  1848  four, 
also  eight  miniatures.  He  was  elected  an  Associate 
of  the  Academy  in  1847,  a  full  member  in  1851, 
and  in  1854  or  1855  Secretary,  in  which  capacity 
he  for  several  years  took  a  prominent  part  in 
arranging  the  Academy's  Exhibitions  during  a 
period  of  great  importance  in  its  history.  He 
exhibited  portraits  yearly  until  1854,  but  not  after- 
wards. The  progress  of  photography  so  greatly 
interfered  about  this  time  with  the  practice  of 
miniature  and  portrait  painters  that,  like  many 
others,  Pelham  had  to  turn  to  another  branch  of 
art — in  his  case  it  was  the  painting  of  domestic 
genre  subjects,  usually  on  a  small  scale.  In  1855 
his  only  contribution  was  entitled  '  Fast  Bind, 
Fast  Find,'  priced  12  guineas.  Thereafter  he 
appears  to  have  exhibited  only  twice  ;  in  1859 
'A  Cup  of  Tea,'  12  guineas,  and  in  1867  'The  Old 
Sempstress'  and  'The  Siimn)er  Tourist,'  not  for 
sale.  It  is  not  well  to  speak  with  certainty,  be- 
cause of  possible  confusion  with  the  artist's  son, 
James  Pelham  the  third,  who  began  to  exhibit  in 
1858.  Pelhani's  interest  in  the  Academy  did  not 
abate.  He  continued  to  act  as  Secretary  until  1860 
or  1861,  and,  after  an  interval,  again,  until  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son  in  1867.  He  died  at  Liverpool, 
April  17,  1874,  and  was  survived  by  eight  of  a 
family  of  nine  children.  J.\mes,  already  mentioned, 
is  a  well-known  Liverpool  artist  in  landscape  and 
genre,  and  Miss  Emily  Pelham  in  early  life  gave 
considerable  promise.  Slie  exhibited  genre  sub- 
jects at  the  Liverpool  Academy  in  1867,  and, 
according  to  Graves,  sent  four  pictures  to  Suffolk 
Street  from  1867  to  1879.  A  painter  named  Henrv 
Pelham,  "at  Mr.  Copley's,  Leicester  Fields,"  who 

exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  in  1777  and 
1778,  does  not  appear  to  have  been  related  to 
James  Pelham.  In  addition  to  ten  miniatures 
(two  in  enamel)  he  showed  'The  Finding  of  Moses.' 
The  portrait  of  James  Pelham,  painted  by  John 
Robertson,  is  in  possession  of  his  son.        E.  R;  D. 

PELHAM,  Peter,  an  English  engraver,  was  born 
in  London  in  1684,  and  died  about  1738.  He  en- 
graved several  portraits  in  mezzotint;  among  which 
are  the  following  : 

King  George  I.;  after  KneUer. 

King  George  II. ;  after  the  same. 

Anne,  Consort  of  the  Prince  of  Orange  ;  after  the  same. 

Oliver  Cromwell ;  after  Walker. 

Thomas  Holies,  Date  of  Newcastle. 

Robert,  Viscount  Molesworth ;  after  Gibson. 

John,  Lord  Carteret ;  after  Kne)ler. 

James  Gibbs,  Architect ;  after  Hys-ing. 

Peter  Paul  Rubens  ;  after  Ruben's. 

Edward  Cooper ;  after  Van  der  Vaart. 

Dr.  Edmund,  Bishop  of  London  ;  after  3[iirray. 

J.  C.  Pelham,  a  painter  chiefly  of  portraits,  born  in 
1721,  was  his  son. 

PELICHY,  Gertrude  de,  a  Flemish  portrait, 
landscape,  and  animal  painter,  born  at  Utrecht  in 
1743.  In  1753  she  followed  her  father  to  Bruges, 
and  afterwards  resided  in  Paris,  where  she  received 
lessons  from  Suvee.  In  1777  she  returned  to  Bruges, 
and  was  made  an  honorary  member  of  the  Imperial 
Academy  of  Vienna.  She  painted  portraits  of  the 
Emperor  Joseph  II.,  and  of  his  mother,  the  Empress 
Maria  Theresa.  In  the  Bruges  Academy  there  are  : 
a  landscape  ;  a  head  of  Christ,  after  Guide  ;  and  an 
old  man's  head,  by  this  lady.     She  died  in  1825. 

PELISSIER,  Theodor,  a  German  painter  of 
French  extraction,  was  a  pupil  of  Wach,  and 
painted  genre  pictures  towards  the  end  of  the  18th 
century.     He  lived  at  Hanau,  Hesse. 

PELKIN,  Cornelis,  an  indifferent  Dutch  en- 
graver, lived  about  the  year  166.'').  He  engraved 
a  frontispiece  to  a  book  entitled  '  Spiegel  der 
Spaensche  Tirannie,'  published  at  Middleburg  in 

PELLEGRINI,  Andrea,  an  Italian  painter, 
flourished  at  Milan  from  1560  to  1595.  He  painted 
historical  subjects,  and  severiil  of  his  pictures  are 
to  be  found  in  the  church  of  St.  Jerome  at  Milan. 

PELLEGRINI,  Carlo,  draughtsman  and  cari- 
caturist, was  born  at  Capua  in  1838,  and  was,  on 
his  father's  side,  the  scion  of  an  ancient  family 
long  settled  in  the  district,  and  known  as  the 
Sedili  Capuani;  on  bis  mother's  a  descendant 
of  the  Medici.  In  his  youth  he  became  involved 
in  the  Italian  struggle  for  liberty,  and  enrolled 
himself  among  the  Garibixldians.  In  1865  he 
arrived  in  England  in  straitened  circumstances,, 
and  a  chance  having  revealed  his  gifts  as  a  satirical 
draughtsman,  he  was  engaged  on  the  staff  of 
'  Vanity  Fair.'  In  1869  his  first  political  carica- 
ture, a  drawing  of  Lord  Beaconsfield,  appeared  in 
that  journal.  It  was  signed  "  Singe,''  a  pseudonym 
which  he  afterwards  changed  for  "  Ape."  Hence- 
forth he  was  a  prolific  contributor  for  many  years 
to  '  Vanity  Fair,'  and  has  left  behind  him  many 
hundreds  of  portraits  of  notabilities  in  the  English 
political,  artistic,  and  social  world.  One  of  the 
most  successful  was  a  statuette  in  red  plaster  of 
Mr.  Lowe  standing  on  a  match-box,  which  the 
artist  modelled  in  Count  Gleichen's  studio.  His 
Last  published  caricature  was  that  of  Sir  William 
Dolby,  the  famous  aurist,  and  the  last  he  drew  a. 
sketch   of  Mr.  Edison,  the  inventor  of  the  phono- 



■graph.  During  his  long  residence  in  London, 
Pellegrini's  gay  and  genial  temper  endeared  him 
to  all  with  whom  he  came  in  contact,  and  in  his 
last  illness  a  fund  was  provided  by  his  more  intimate 
friends  for  his  support.  He  died  in  Mortimer  Street, 
Cavendish  Square,  January  22,  1889,  and  was 
buried  at  Kensal  Green. 

PELLEGRINI,  Giovanni  Antonio,  was  born 
at  Padua  in  1674  (or  Venice  in  1675).  He  was  a 
scholar  of  Genga  ;  and  is  said  to  have  received  some 
instruction  from  Paolo  Pagani.  He  distinguished 
himself  among  the  modern  Venetians,  by  a  ready 
and  ingenious  invention,  and  an  unusual  facility 
of  execution,  though  the  effect  of  his  works  is  im- 
poverished by  a  feeble  and  languid  colouring,  and 
a  total  neglect  of  the  principles  of  chiaroscuro. 
The  reputation  he  had  acquired  at  Venice,  and 
afterwards  in  Paris,  recommended  him  to  the  notice 
of  the  Duke  of  Manchester,  who  invited  him  to 
England,  where  he  resided  some  years,  until  1712, 
in  which  year  he  entered  the  service  of  the  Elector  of 
Saxony  at  Dresden,  and  finally  returned  to  Venice. 
He  died  in  1741.  He  executed  several  ornamental 
works  for  the  mansions  of  the  English  nobility. 
He  is  noticed  in  the  '  Guida  di  Venezia,'  with  this 
addition,  '  Fu  pittore  piu  di  fortuna  che  di  merito  ' 
('  he  was  a  painter  rather  by  favour  than  by  merit '). 
Some  of  his  pictures  have  been  engraved  by  V. 
Green,  J.  B.  Cathelin,  P.  Simon,  and  T.  Park.  The 
following  are  preserved : 

Augsburg.  Gallery.    Several  portraits  and  allegories. 

Genoa.  Durazzo  Pal.  The  Oath  of  Hamlet's  Mother. 
Paris.  Louvre.     Allegorical    design  —  Modesty 

offers   the   Artist's  Painting 
to  the  Academy. 
Eome.       Academy  of  St.  1  vr„i,„ 
Luke.         j  "■''°^- 
Venice.  S.  JHoi'se.    The  Brazen  Serpent. 

PELLEGRINI,  Domenico,  a  jiainter,  was  born 
at  Venice  about  1768.  He  studied  chiefly  at  Rome, 
and  his  first  great  works  were  the  '  Death  of  Mes- 
salina,'  and  'The  Marriage  at  Cana.'  In  1792  he 
came  to  England,  where  he  gained  a  considerable 
reputation  as  a  portrait  painter.  He  returned  to 
his  own  country  and  painted  several  portraits  in 
Rome,  Venice,  and  Naples.  Schiavonetti  engraved 
after  him. 

PELLEGRINI,  Felice,  was  born  at  Perugia  in 
1567,  and  was  a  scholar  of  Federigo  Baroccio.  He 
painted  historical  subjects,  and  became  an  artist  of 
sufficient  celebrity  to  be  invited  to  Rome  by  Pope 
Clement  VIII.,  who  employed  him  in  the  Vatican. 
After  having  exercised  his  talents  at  Rome  with 
some  success,  he  returned  to  Perugia,  where  he 
died  in  1630. 

PELLEGRINI,  Francssco,  was,  according  to 
Barotti,  a  native  of  Ferrara.  He  was  a  scholar  of 
Giovanni  Battista  Cozza,  and  flourished  about  the 
year  1740.  There  are  many  of  his  works  in  the 
churches  at  Ferrara.  In  the  cathedral  is  a  '  St. 
Bernard  ; '  and  in  San  Paolo  a  '  Last  Supper.' 

PELLEGRINI,  Pellegrino,  an  Italian  historical 
painter,  was  employed  at  the  Escorial  at  Madrid, 
and  was  appointed  painter  to  the  Court  of  Spain. 
He  died  about  1634. 

PELLEGRINI,  Vincenzio,  the  brother  of  Felice 
Pellegrini,  was  born  at  Perugia  in  1575,  and  was 
also  educated  in  the  school  of  Baroccio.  He  painted 
several  pictures  for  Perugia,  in  the  churches  of 
Sant'  Antonio,  in  the  Chiesa  Nuova,  and  in  other 
places.  He  was  called  '  II  Pittor  Bello '  for  the 
beauty  of  his  person.     He  died  in  1612. 


PELLEGRINO,  Fra  Ignazio.     See  Danti. 

PELLEGRINO  da  BOLOGNA,  and  Domenico. 
See  TiBALDl. 

PELLEGRINO  da  MODENA  (or  Munari).  See 

tino  di  Battista. 

PELLENC,  Jean  Charles  Lodis  L^on,  French 
painter  ;  born  February  28,  1819,  at  Nimes  (Gard); 
highly  successful  as  a  landscape  painter  in  water- 
colour  ;  contributed  regularly  to  the  Salons  since 
1848,  his  subjects  being  chiefly  chosen  from  the 
scenery  of  Southern  France  or  in  the  Seine-et- 
Marne  and  Cote  d'Or  departments,  as,  for  instance, 
'  Environs  d'Epernon '  (1848),  'Groupe  de  Chenes 
a  Marlotte'  (1869),  'L'Autonme  k  Reclose'  (1881), 
&c.     He  died  in  December  1894. 

PELLET,  David,  was  a  French  engraver,  whose 
name  is  affixed  to  a  plate  representing  Louis  XIII. 
when  young,  on  horseback,  with  the  portraits  of 
Henry  IV.  and  Maria  de'  Medici  in  small  ovals  at 
the  top. 

PELLETIER,  Jean,  a  French  engraver,  was 
born  in  Paris  about  the  year  1736.  We  have 
several  plates  by  him  of  various  subjects,  among 
them  the  following : 

The  'Watering-place  ;  after  Berchem, 

Kuins  and  Figures ;  after  the  same. 

The  Fish-Market ;  after  Pierre. 

The  Green-Market ;  after  the  same. 

Diana  reposing  ;  after  Boucher. 

The  Eape  of  Kuropa ;  after  the  same. 

Two  Pastoral  subjects  ;  after  the  same. 

The  Union  of  Design  aucl  Painting;  after  Katoire. 

Young  Bacchus  ;  after  C.  van  Loo. 

The  Travellers ;  after  Wouwerman. 

Ladies  going  to  the  Chase ;  after  the  same. 

The  Tipplers ;  after  Ostade. 

Nagler  mentions  about  twenty  more,  after  Claude, 
A.  Van  der  Velde,  Teniers,  Bega,  P.  Millet,  Metsu, 
and  others.  Pelletier's  wife  also  engraved  two 
plates  after  A.  Ostade,  and  one  after  Wouwerman. 
There  is  no  account  of  the  death  of  either. 

PELLI,  Marco,  an  engraver,  was  born  at  Venice 
about  1696.  His  principal  engravings  are  heads 
of  saints  ;  a  few  portraits  ;  a  '  Charge  of  Cavaliy,' 
after  Borgognone  ;  and  a  '  Landscape,'  after  D.  B. 
Zilotti,  signed  M.  Pelli  exc.  No  particulars  of 
his  life  have  been  preserved. 

PELLICIAIO.     See  Del  Pelliciaio. 

PELLICOT,  Louis  Alexis  de,  a  French  painter, 
and  native  of  Digne.  He  flourished  in  1787.  A 
'  Cromwell  at  Windsor  '  and  a  set  of  views  of  old 
French  chateaux  were  among  his  most  important 

PELLIER,  Nicolas  Francois,  a  native  of 
Besan9on,  was  born  in  1782,  and  has  left  a  few 
small  landscapes  engraved  with  the  point  from  his 
own  designs.     He  died  in  1804. 

PELLIER,  Pierre  Edm^  Louis,  a  French  por- 
trait and  historical  painter,  who  flourished  about 
1815.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Regnault.  In  the 
Museum  at  Caen  is  a  '  Telemachus '  by  him. 

PELLINI,  Andrea,  a  native  of  Cremona,  who 
flourished  about  1595.  He  painted  historical  pic- 
tures, and  resided  chiefly  at  Milan. 

PELLINI,  Marc  Antonio,  an  historical  painter, 
was  born  at  Pavia  in  1659.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Th. 
Gatti,  and  studied  at  Venice  and  Bologna.  He 
died  in  1760. 

PELOSI,  Francesco,  an  historical  painter,  who 
flourished    at   Venice  in   the   15th    century.     At 


Bologna  are   by  this  artist  a  'St.  Julian,'  a  'St. 
Jamee,'  a  '  Virgin  and  Child,'  and  a  '  Dead  Christ' 

PELOUSE,  L^ON  Germain,  French  painter ; 
born  at  Pierrelaye  (Seine-et-Oise)  in  1838  ;  began 
life  as  a  commercial  traveller,  but  in  spite  of  the 
opposition  of  his  parents  he  determined  to  become 
an  artist.  His  whole  career  is  an  example  of 
indomitable  energy.  He  made  his  debtit  in  1865 
with  a  picture  that,  having  no  studio  of  his  own, 
he  was  obliged  to  paint  in  barracks,  the  colonel 
permitting  this.  Success  came  slowly  ;  and  it  was 
not  till  1873  that  he  received  a  medal  of  the  second 
class.  In  1878  he  obtained  a  first-class  medal  and 
the  Legion  of  Honour.  At  the  Universal  Ex- 
hibition of  1889  he  received  a  gold  medal.  The 
French  School  possessed  in  him  one  of  its  most 
brilliant  and  prolitic  landscape  artists.  His  charm- 
ing '  Coin  de  Cernay  en  Janvier '  is  in  the  Luxem- 
bourg ;  other  well-known  pictures  are  his 'Environs 
de  Prdcy,'  '  Souvenir  de  Cernay,'  '  Coupe  de  Bois  k 
Senlisse,'  and  'Matin  en  Bretagne,'  which  are  to 
be  seen  in  private  and  public  collections.  His 
preference  was  for  broad  and  simple  motives, 
which  he  delighted  to  express  in  low  keys  of 
colour  perfectly  suited  to  the  scenery  he  loved. 
He  died  at  Pierrelaye,  July  31,  1891. 

PELTRO,  John,  engraver,  was  bom  in  1760.  In 
1779  he  exhibited  some  engravings  after  Taverner 
and  others,  but  his  chief  work  was  engraving  after 
Repton  the  miniature  views  of  gentlemen's  seats 
for  the  '  Polite  Repository.'  He  died  at  Hendon 
in  1808. 

PEMBROKE.  Thomas,  an  English  historical 
painter,  born  in  1702.  He  was  a  pupil  and  follower 
of  the  younger  Laroon,  and  was  patronized  by  the 
Earl  of  Bath.  His  best  known  work  is  a  '  Hagar 
and  Ishmael,'  which  was  mezzotinted  by  J.  R. 
Smith  and  published  by  Boydell.     He  died  in  1730. 

PEN,  HiSPEL,  (or  Penn).  Strutt  has  fallen  into 
error  with  respect  to  a  supposed  artist  of  this 
name  ;  it  is  now  satisfactorily  ascertained,  that  the 
prints  assigned  to  him  ought  to  be  included  in  the 
works  of  Beham. 

PEN,  Jacob,  was  a  Dutch  painter,  mentioned  by 
Balkema  as  being  particularly  employed  by  Charles 
II.  He  says  that  he  composed  with  intelligence, 
and  added  beautiful  colour  to  correct  drawing  ;  but 
he  says  nothing  of  his  subjects,  and  adds,  "All  his 
pictures  are  in  England."     Pen  died  in  1678. 

PENA.     See  Diaz  de  la  Pena. 

PENAl.     See  La  Penai. 

PENALOSA,  Juan  de,  an  historical  painter  of 
the  school  of  Seville,  was  born  at  Baeza  in  1681. 
He  was  one  of  the  best  scholars  of  Pablo  de  Ces- 
pedes,  whose  works  he  assiduously  imitated,  as  is 
evinced  in  the  magnificent  picture  in  the  cathedral 
of  Cordova,  representing  St.  Barbe.  He  also 
painted  a  '  St.  Jago '  for  the  convent  of  Arizafa  ; 
several  pictures  for  the  Jlinimes,  and  many  others 
for  private  collections  in  Cordova,  where  he  died 
in  1636. 

PENCHARD,  J.,  was  a  Dutch  engraver,  who 
resided  at  Ley  den  about  the  year  1678.  His  plates 
are  chiefly  confined  to  frontispieces,  and  other  book 
ornaments  ;  but  he  engraved  the  anatomical  plates 
for  the  works  of  Reg.  de  Graaf,  with  the  portrait 
of  the  author,  published  at  Leyden  in  1678. 

PENCZ,  Georg,  a  native  of  Nuremberg,  was 
born  at  or  before  the  beginning  of  the  16th  centmv. 
He  was  admitted  into  the  Guild  of  Painters  in 
1523,  after  he  had  been,  if  not  under  the  instruc- 
tion, at  least  under  the  influence,  of  Albrecht  Durer 

He  was  associated  with  the  Behams,  and  with 
them  in  1524  underwent  the  sentence  of  banish- 
ment for  heresy.  His  sentence,  however,  seems 
to  have  been  allowed  to  drop,  as  we  find  frequent 
notices  of  his  presence  in  Nuremberg,  though  he 
was  deprived  of  his  citizen-right,  and  in  1525  he 
was  permitted  to  settle  in  Windeheim,  a  place 
within  the  city's  jurisdiction.  About  1532  he 
probably  returned  to  Nuremberg  altogether.  Be- 
fore his  trial  we  find  him  engaged  on  the  work  of' 
restoring  pictures,  but  he  was  afterwards  appointed 
painter  to  the  Rath.  There  is  no  proof  that  he 
paid  much  attention  to  engraving  till  15.35,  the  first 
date  on  any  of  his  plates.  He  seems  to  have 
visited  Italy  on  several  occasions,  and  the  dates  of 
those  visits  have  unusual  importance  from  the  fact 
that  Passavant  confidently  ascribes  to  him  one  of 
the  finest  of  the  plates,  which  the  world  has  been 
in  the  habit  of  giving  to  Marc-Antonio.  In  the 
fourth  volume  of  the  '  Peintre-Graveur,'  Passavant 
says :  "  Pencz  left  his  home  to  frequent  the  school 
of  Marc-Antonio.  This  is  put  beyond  a  doubt  by 
the  style  of  his  words  at  the  time.  The  influence 
of  the  Italian  school  is  clearly  present.  .  .  .  Above 
all  is  it  visible  in  the  '  Massacre  of  the  Innocents 
(au  Chicot),  Bartsch,  18,'  hitherto  considered  the 
original  plate  by  Raimoiidi  himself.''  Passavant 
goes  on  to  say  that  this  Massacre  au  Chicot  is  finer 
and  firmer  in  drawing  than  the  one  by  Marc-An- 
tonio, but  rather  less  graceful  and  life-like.  To 
quote  his  works  ;  "  On  carefully  comparing  these 
two  masterpieces  of  engraving  on  copper,  No.  18 
appears  neater  and  firmer  in  drawing,  but  difiEers 
not  only  in  the  burin  line,  which  is  slightly  thinner 
and  stiffer  than  that  of  so  consunmiate  an  artist  as 
Marc-Antonio,  but  the  expression  of  the  heads  has 
less  life,  and  the  hatchings  sometimes  have  that 
horizontal  direction  which  is  never  found  among 
the  Italian  engravers.  No.  20  (Bartsch),  which 
undoubtedly  belongs  to  Marc- Antonio,  is  of  freer 
line,  and  fuller  outline,  and  of  greater  vivacity  in 
the  heads.  Everything  considered,  we  are  fully 
convinced  that  the  print,  No.  18,  '  Au  Chicot,'  was 
executed  by  George  Pencz  after  the  original  draw- 
ing of  Raphael"  (vol.  iv.  p.  101).  To  all  this 
the  champions  of  Raimondi  oppose  an  alibi,  assert- 
ing that  Pencz  did  not  practise  engraving  until 
after  the  deaths  both  of  Raphael  and  Raimondi. 
It  is  difficult  to  see  how  this  can  be  conclusive, 
and  there  certainly  is  much  in  common  between 
the  work  in  the  disputed  plate  and  tliat  in  the 
'  Triumphs  of  Petrarch,'  which  are  without  doubt 
by  Pencz.  In  1539  Pencz  was  certainly  in  Rome, 
and  at  this  time  executed  a  large  print  after  Giulio 
Romano,  called  '  The  Taking  of  Carthage,'  and  to 
this  period  is  also  assigned  by  Passavant,  'The 
Prisoners,'  a  print  generally  ascribed  to  Ghisi. 
Pencz  executed  several  plates  in  miniature  from 
the  Old  and  New  Testaments ;  also  many  scenes 
from  ancient  history  and  mythology.  In  1544  he 
was  commissioned  to  paint  a  '  S.  Jerome  '  at  Nurem- 
berg, where  he  was  also  successful  in  portrait  paint- 
ing. He  died  at  Breslau  in  1650.  Most  of  the 
pictures  ascribed  to  Pencz  are  merely  copies  from 
his  plates,  but  the  following  may  be  considered 
authentic  : 

Berlin.  Museum.    Portrait  of  the  painter  Erhard 

.Scbwetzer    {iiyned     inth     a 
monoijram  and  dated  1544). 
Portrait  of   Schwetzer's  wife. 

Portrait  of  a  Young  Man.  1534. 


Carlsruhe.        Museum.    Portrait  of  a  Mathematician. 
Dresden.  Gallery.    Three     fragments     from     an 

'Adoration    of     the     Magi,' 
signed  G.  P.  in  a  monotjrain. 
„  „  Two  Male  Portraits  (?).  ' 

Glasgow.  Gallery.     Female  Portrait  (^formerly  as- 

cribed to  Holbein^  whose  name 
appears  upon  it). 
Gotha.  Gallery.     A  Portrait. 

Hampton  Court.  Portrait  of  an  Italian  Gentle- 

Vienna.  Belvedere.     A  Portrait. 

Copies  of  Holbein's  Era,smus,  at  Windsor,  Brunswick, 
and  in  the  Bruderhaus  at  Nuremberg. 

His  engravings  of  Bible  subjects  are  notable  for 
their  secular  spirit,  and  his  work  as  a  whole  for  its 
combination  of  Italian  refinement  in  execution  with 
northern  thoroughness.     The  following  list  includes 
all  his  more  important  plates  : 
The  six  triumphs  of  Petrarch. 
The  Massacre  of  the  Innocents  lau  Chicot). 
The  taking  of  Carthage  (signed  Georgino  Penc:  pictor, 
Narnberg,    Faciehat,     Anno     MDXXXIX) ;     after 
Giulio  Romano. 
The  Prisoners.     (Generally  ascribed  to  G.  Ghisi.) 
Scenes  from  the  Old  Testament. 

„  „      New  „ 

Thomiris,  Medea,  Paris,  and  Procris  (four  plates). 
Triton  carrying  otf  Amymone. 

The  Legend  of  Virgil  and  the  Scornful  Lady  {2  plates). 
Death  of  Sophonisba. 
The  Conversion  of  St.  Paul. 
Portrait  of  Duke  Frederick  of  Saxony. 
(Penc:  is  the  only  one  of '  The  Little  Masters  '  who  has 
left  no  Madonnas.) 

See  Bartsch,  '  Les  Peintres  Graveurs,'  vol.  viii.  p. 
319, 1803 ;  '  The  Little  Masters,'  W.  B.  Scott,  1880 ; 
and  J.  D.  Passavant, '  Le  Peintre  Graveur,'  vol.  iv. 

PENET,  Louis  FKASgois,  a  French  painter  and 
engraver,  born  at  Thiennes  (Nord)  in  1834  ;  was  a 
pupil  of  Kusten  ;  painted  portraits,  genre  pictures, 
and  still-life,  doing  a  good  deal  of  work  in  email, 
notably  a  portrait  of  Sarah  Bernhardt  as  Dona 
Sol.  He  obtained  a  third-class  medal  in  1886. 
He  died  in  Paris,  March  2,  1901. 

PENGUILLY  L'HARIDON,  Octave,  French 
painter  and  engraver;  born  April  4,  1811,  in 
Paris  ;  became  a  pupil  of  Charlet  ;  served  as  an 
officer  of  artillery ;  a  prolific  illustrator,  notably 
of  Stranger's  works  and  of  Scarron's  '  Roman 
Comique.'  Among  his  pictures  are  '  Vieux  Trouba- 
dour,' '  La  Mort  de  Judas,'  &c.  In  1847  he 
obtained  a  third-class  medal,  a  second-class 
medal  in  1851,  and  the  Legion  of  Honour  in  the 
same  year.     He  died  November  3,  1872. 

PENICAUD.  This  was  the  name  of  a  family  of 
artists  of  the  15th  and  16th  centuries.  It  com- 
prised : 

LEONARD  or  Nardon  PjJnicaud,  an  enameller  of 
Limoges  (1495—1513). 

Jean  Penicaud,  the  elder,  also  an  enameller  of 
Limoges  (beginning  of  the  16th  century). 

Jean  Penicadd,  the  younger,  a  painter  (1531-47), 
has  left  a  portrait  of  Luther  and  several  other 
works  in  Paris,  and  in  private  collections. 

Jean  Penicadd,  the  youngest,  called  '  The  Glory 
of  Limoges,'  was  a  follower  of  Parmigiano  in  style. 
The  Louvre  has  a  fine  collection  of  his  enamels. 

Pierre  Penicaud,  probably  a  brother  of  the  last 
(born  1515),  is  the  painter  of  some  draped  figures 
in  the  Gatteaux  Collection,  and  of  a  mythological 
subject  on  porcelain  at  Berlin.  For  a  more  detailed 
account  of  the  Penicauds  see  Laborde,  '  Notice  des 
Emaux  du  Louvre.' 

PENLEY,  Aaron  Edwin,  a  water-colour  painter, 

born  in  1806,  first  appears  in  1835  as  an  exhibitor 
at  the  Royal  Academy,  to  which  he  continued  to 
contribute  occasionally  till  1857.  In  1838  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  Institute  of  Painters  in 
Water-colours,  but  withdrew  in  1856  on  the 
ground  that  justice  was  not  done  to  his  works 
when  sent  for  exhibition.  In  1859  he  was,  at  his 
owTi  solicitation,  re-elected  an  Associate.  From 
1851  till  its  dissolution  he  was  Professor  of  Drawing 
at  the  Addiscorabe  East  India  College,  and  he  held 
a  similar  post  at  Woolwich  till  his  death.  He  was 
water-colour  painter  to  William  IV.  and  Queen 
Adelaide.  He  was  the  author  of  '  Elements  of 
Perspective,'  '  The  English  School  of  Painting  in 
Water-colours,'  and  '  Sketching  from  Nature  in 
Water-colours.'  He  died  at  Lewisham  in  1870. 
PENNA,  Delt.a.  See  Ndzzi. 
PENNACCHI,  Girolamo  di  Pier-Maria,  (called 
Girolamo  da  Treviso,)  was  the  son  of  Pietro  Maria 
Pennacchi,  and  born  in  1497  at  Treviso,  in  which 
city  a  house  known  as  that  of  Pier  Maria  Pennacchi 
still  exists,  its  facade  covered  with  a  fresco  by 
Girolamo  of  the  'Judgment  of  Solomon,'  together 
with  medallions,  playing  children,  and  similar 
designs.  In  early  life  Girolamo  went  to  Venice, 
and  from  thence  to  Genoa,  but  nothing  authentic 
now  remains  of  his  labours  in  either  city.  In  1532 
he  was  employed  by  Cardinal  Gloss  to  paint  several 
frescoes  in  the  Castello  at  Trent ;  remains  of  these 
still  exist.  In  1533  Sabba  da  Castiglione  employed 
him  to  paint  at  the  church  of  the  Commenda  of 
Faenza  a  votive  fresco  of  the  '  Virgin  and  Child,  with 
Saints,'  and  a  kneeling  portrait  of  himself,  that  still 
remains  over  the  high  altar.  At  about  this  period 
in  his  life  he  paid  a  visit  to  Bologna,  where  several 
of  the  churches  possess  frescoes  and  paintings  by 
liim.  Between  the  years  1535  and  1538  he  returned 
to  Venice,  and  became  intimate  with  Titian,  San- 
sovino,  and  Aretino.  During  this  visit  he  painted 
many  frescoes  in  different  palaces  of  the  nobility  ; 
those  executed  by  him  in  the  Palazzo  Andrea  Odone 
still  remain.  In  1542  he  came  to  England,  and  be- 
came architect  and  engineer  to  Henry  VIII.,  and  was 
employed  by  that  monarch  at  the  siege  of  Boulogne, 
where  he  was  killed  by  a  cannon-ball  in  1544.  The 
mode  of  his  death  is  described  in  a  letter  from 
Aretino  to  Sansovino,  dated  in  July  1545.  Works  : 
London.  Nat.  Gal.  Virgin  and  Child.with  SS.  Joseph, 
James,  and  Paul,  and  patron. 
(The  best  example  extant.  It 
came  originally  from  the  BoC' 
caferri  Chapel  in  San  Do- 
vienico,  Bologna.) 
Eome.  Colonna  Pal.  Portrait  of  a  Man  holding  a  medal. 
Treviso.  Onigo  Coll.  Virgin  and  Child,  with  St.  Joseph. 
„  „  Two  bust  portraits  of  Men. 

PENNACCHI,  PiETRO  Maria,  was  the  son  of 
Giovanni  di  Daniele  Pennacchi,  and  bom  in  1464. 
He  probably  spent  his  early  j-ears  in  Treviso,  and 
went  to  Venice  in  after-life.  In  the  church  of  San 
Francesco  delhi  Vigna,  Venice,  there  is  an  '  Annunci- 
ation '  by  him  ;  and  Santa  Maria  della  Salute,  Santa 
Maria  della  Misericordia,  and  La  Madonna  de' 
Miracoli  have  each  ceilings  panelled  in  relief  with 
sacred  subjects  in  the  panels,  which  are  ascribed  to 
this  artist.  On  the  front  of  a  house  in  the  Via 
Ognissanti,  Treviso,  are  various  sacred  and  profane 
frescoes,  said  to  have  been  painted  by  Pietro  in 
1528,  in  which  year  he  died.  The  following  works 
by  him  may  also  be  mentioned  : 
Berlm.  Museum.    Christ  in  the  Tomb,  between  two 

Treviso.        Cathedral.    The  Assumption  of  the  Virgin. 


PENNE,  Charles  Olivier  de,  French  painter  ; 
born  in  Paris,  January  11,  1831  ;  was  a  pupil  of 
Leon  Cogniet  and  Charles  Jacque ;  in  1857  he 
obtained  the  Second  Grand  Prix  de  Kome  with  his 
picture  entitled  '  Jesus  et  la  Samaritaine,'  though 
his  debut  at  the  Salon  was  in  1855  with  '  Dans 
deux  mille  ans,'  inspired  by  Victor  Hugo's  'Arc 
de  Triomphe.'  He  excelled  as  a  painter  of  animals 
and  of  hunting  scenes,  such  as  '  Retour  de  la 
Cliasse,'  'Chiens  Bleus  de  Gascogne,'  'Sangliers 
au  Fernie,'  '  Pendant  la  Chasse,'  &c.  He  painted 
a  good  deal  in  water-colour,  and  exhibited  such 
work  at  regular  intervals.  He  gained  a  third-class 
medal  in  1875,  a  second-class  one  in  1883,  and  a 
silver  medal  at  the  Exhibition  of  1889.  He  died 
at  Marlotte,  April  18,  1897. 

PENNE,  Jan  van,  a  Dutch  still-life  painter,  was 
settled  at  Antwerp  about  1680.  He  was  born  about 
1652,  and  died  after  1700.  He  was  the  teacher  of 
J.  J.  Horeraans  the  elder.  Perhaps  identical  with 
J.  van  Pee. 

PENNEMAKERS,  the  Recollet,  was,  according 
to  Balkeuia,  a  scholar  of  Rubens.  In  the  Museum 
at  Antwerp  there  is  an  '  Ascension  of  Christ '  at- 
tributed to  him. 

PENNENSUS,  F.,  who  was  probably  a  painter, 
and  a  native  of  Italy,  has  left  a  few  slight  etchings, 
the  following  among  them  : 

The  Holy  Family,  with  St,  Catharine,  and  an  Angel  in 
the  air  :  after  Parmigiano. 

The  Marriage  of  St.  Catharine  ;  /rom  his  own  design. 

PENNEVILLE,  Jan,  a  Flemish  historical  painter, 
was  a  native  of  Bruges.  He  was  Master  of  the 
Corporation  of  St.  Luke  in  1639,  and  died  in  1681. 

PENNEY,  N.,  a  French  engraver,  has  left  some 
plates  of  devout  subjects,  executed  with  the  graver. 
Among  others  is  'The  Virgin  appearing  to  St. 
Bartholomew,'  which  is  apparently  from  his  own 
design,  as  he  adds/ea<  to  his  name. 

PENNI,  Bartolommeo,  was  an  Italian  portrait 
and  historical  painter  of  the  16th  century.  He 
was  engaged  in  England  by  Henry  VIII.  at  the 
same  time  as  Antonio  Toto. 

PENNI,  Gianfrancesco,  called  II  Fattore,  was 
a  painter  of  Florence,  born  about  1488.  He  went 
to  Rome  when  he  was  very  young,  and  was  re- 
ceived into  the  school  of  Raphael,  of  whom  he 
became  a  favourite  disciple  ;  and  being  entrusted 
by  that  artist  with  the  management  of  his  domestic 
affairs,  he  acquired  the  appellation  of '  II  Fattore.' 
Raphael  employed  him  in  many  of  his  most  im- 
portant works,  particularly  in  painting  upon  the 
cartoons  for  Leo  X.,  and  in  the  Loggie  of  the  Vati- 
can. Taja  informs  us  that  the  histories  of  Abra- 
ham and  Isaac  were  executed  by  Penni.  In  these 
important  undertakings,  he  acquitted  himself  so 
much  to  the  satisfaction  of  Raphael,  that  he  was 
appointed  joint  executor  with  Giulio  Romano.  He 
was  employed  by  Clement  VII.,  in  conjunction 
with  Giulio,  to  finish  the  frescoes  of  the  '  History 
of  Constantine,'  which  had  been  begun  in  the 
Saloon  now  called  after  them.  '  Constantino's 
Vision  of  the  Cross,'  and  his  '  Battle  with  Maxen- 
tius,'  were  painted  by  Giulio  ;  his  '  Baptism  by  St. 
Silvester,'  and  his  '  Donation  of  Rome  to  that 
pontiff,'  by  Penni ;  so  in  '  The  Assumption  of  the 
Virgin,'  at  Monte  Luce,  Perugia,  Penni  painted 
the  lower  half.  He  had  also  a  principal  share 
in  the  '  History  of  Cupid  and  Psyche,'  in  the 
Famesina.  After  this  he  fell  into  disagreement 
vnth  Giulio,  and  made  a  tour  through  Lombardy, 
settling   afterwards   at    Rome.     The   marriage   of 

his  sister  with  Perino  del  Vaga  led  him  to  work- 
ing in  conjunction  with  this  artist  also.  Of  his 
own  compositions,  those  executed  in  fresco  have 
now  almost  entirely  perished ;  and  he  painted 
so  few  pictures  in  oil,  that  they  are  rarely  to  be 
met  with.  He  particularly  excelled  in  landscapes, 
and  was  well  acquainted  with  the  beauties  of 
architecture.  In  1525  he  was  in\-ited  to  Naples 
by  the  Marquis  del  Vasto,  and  took  with  him  an 
admirable  copy  he  had  made  of  the  '  Transfigura- 
tion,' by  Raphael,  which  he  sold  to  that  nobleman, 
for  whom  he  executed  some  considerable  works. 
This  copy  is  now  in  the  Sciarra  Colonna  Palace, 
at  Rome.  He  died  in  1528.  Pictures  by  him  are  in 
the  Vatican,  the  Museum  of  Naples,  and  the  galleries 
of  Dresden  and  Stuttgart.  According  to  some 
authorities  the  picture  in  the  Bridgewater  Gallery, 
known  as  '  The  Madonna  del  Passeggio,'  is  painted 
by  him. 

PENNI,  LncA,  called  Romano,  the  brother  of 
Gianfrancesco  Penni,  was  born  about  the  year 
1500.  He  is  said  to  have  frequented,  for  a  short 
time,  the  studio  of  Raphael  ;  and  after  the  death  of 
that'  master  to  have  attached  himself  to  Perino  del 
Vaga.  After  painting  some  pictures  for  the  churches 
at  Lucca  and  Genoa,  he  visited  England,  in  the  reign 
of  Henry  VIII.,  by  whom  he  was  for  some  time 
employed,  and  afterwards  went  to  France,  where 
he  painted  at  Fontainebleau,  in  conjunction  with 
II  Rosso.  On  his  return  to  Italy  he  applied  himself 
to  engraving,  and  executed  several  plates,  both 
with  the  point  and  the  graver.  Among  his  designs 
are  '  Diana  borne  on  the  shoulders  of  Orion '  (en- 
graved by  Giorgio  Ghisi)  ;  '  Apollo  with  the  Muses 
upon  Parnassus  '  (engraved  by  G.  Mantovano)  ;  and 
a  '  Scourging  of  Christ '  (engraved  by  H.  Wierix). 
His  prints  are  chiefly  from  the  works  of  11  Rosso 
and  Primaticcio  ;  the  following  are  the  best : 

The  Death  of  Lucretia. 

Two  Satyrs  presenting  Wine  to  Bacchus  ;  after  II  Rosso. 

Leda  drawing  Arrows  from  Cupid's  Quiver ;  after  the 

Susanna  and  the  Elders  ;  after  the  same. 
The  Sacrifice  of  Isaac  ;  after  Primaticcio. 
The  Marriage  of  St.  Catharine  ;  after  the  same. 
Penelope  at  work,  surrounded  by  her  Women  ;  after 
the  same. 

PENNING,  Nicolaas  Lodewijk,  born  at  the 
Hague  in  1764,  was  a  schoLar  of  Dirk  van  der  Aa, 
and  painted  landscapes,  interiors  of  stables,  and 
marine  subjects.  He  died  at  the  Hague  in  1818. 
His  drawings  are  held  in  some  esteem. 

PENNINGTON,  John,  a  landscape  painter,  of 
whose  personal  history  little  is  known,  was  an 
exhibitor  at  the  Liverpool  Academy  in  1811  ;  he 
was  then  resident  at  Stockport.  In  the  following 
year  he  had  removed  to  Liverpool,  which  may 
liave  been  his  native  place,  the  family  of  Penning- 
ton being  one  well  known  in  the  town,  where  an 
earlier  John  Pennington  was  a  noted  potter. 
It  is  stated  by  one  writer  that  this  was  his  father. 
Pennington's  exhibits  in  1812  show  him  to  have 
visited  Wales,  Galloway,  and  Birmingham  in 
quest  of  themes  ;  they  included  '  A  Winter  piece," 
a  class  of  subjects  for  which  he  was  noted.  In  the 
two  following  years  he  did  not  exhibit,  and  there 
were  no  further  Exhibitions  until  1822.  Penning- 
ton was  then  a  member  of  "  the  Academy  of  the 
Liverpool  Royal  Institution,"  and  showed  four 
pictures,  the  largest,  a  'View  on  the  Banks  of 
the  Canal,  near  Bootle,'  being  priced  £21.  He 
was  then  in  Ranelagh  Street,  but  before  the  next 



Exhibition  (1824)  had  removed  to  Everton  Terrace. 
He  continued  to  reside  there  and  to  be  a  member 
of  the  Academy  until  1840,  after  which  his  name 
disappeared  from  the  catalogues.  In  the  mean- 
time he  was  a  regular  exhibitor,  his  total  con- 
tributions numbering'  nearly  one  hundred.  His 
subjects  were  chiefly  local,  but  sometimes  he 
had  scenes  from  North  Wales,  the  Lake  District, 
Derbyshire,  and  Cheshire.  Occasionally  he  at- 
tempted such  genre  subjects  as  '  Peasants  Re- 
posing,' '  The  Fisherman's  Family,'  and  '  The 
Fish  Herds.'  He  used  figures  freely  and  skilfully 
in  his  landscapes.  He  does  not  seem  to  have 
attempted  any  high  flights,  or  to  liave  advanced 
greatly  in  reputation.  Towards  the  latter  part  of 
his  life  the  exhibition  prices  of  his  pictures  were 
little  enhanced.  In  1835  'View  near  Black  Combe, 
Cumberland,'  was  22  guineas;  in  1836  'View 
near  Hale'  was  25  guineas;  in  1839  'Near  Speke, 
Winter,'  was  30  guineas ;  and  in  1840  '  View 
near  Northwich,'  his  last  exhibit,  was  20  guineas. 
A  newspaper  critic  in  1828  observed  that  "  Mr. 
Pennington's  prices  are  always  moderate,  whicli 
shows  that  he  is  modest  and  void  of  pretence  to 
a  high  ranlc  in  his  profession."  He  was  a  careful 
craftsman,  drew  well,  and  had  a  tolerable  if  some- 
what timid  colour  sense,  but  lacked  perception  of 
atmospheric  values.  In  water-colour  he  seems 
to  have  been  an  experimenter.  Another  of  his 
critics  writes:  "He  puts  a  queer  oily  varnish  or 
something  we  cannot  better  describe  over  his 
drawings,  which  is  extremely  offensive  to  the  eye. 
If  freed  from  that  his  scenes  would  be  good." 
Pennington  was  apparently  content  with  his  local 
reputation,  for  he  never  exhibited  in  London.  He 
was  a  bachelor.  E.  R.  D. 

PENNY,  Edward,  was  born  at  Knutsford,  in 
Cheshire,  in  1714,  and  having,  at  an  early  period 
of  his  life,  discovered  an  inclination  to  painting,  he 
was  sent  to  London,  where  he  was  placed  under 
the  tuition  of  Hudson,  who  was  at  that  time  emi- 
nent. He  afterwards  went  to  Rome,  where  he 
studied  some  time  under  Marco  Benefial.  On  his 
return  to  England,  some  time  before  1748,  Penny 
became  a  member  of  the  Incorporated  Society 
of  Artists  of  Great  Britain,  of  which  he  was  for 
some  time  vice-president.  At  the  foundation  of 
the  Royal  Academy  he  was  one  of  the  original 
members,  and  was  appointed  their  first  Professor 
of  Painting.  He  continued  in  that  situation,  and 
read  an  annual  course  of  lectures,  which  were  well 
received,  until  the  year  1783,  when,  in  consequence 
of  declining  health,  he  was  obliged  to  resign  the 
professorship,  and  was  succeeded  by  Barry.  About 
this  period  he  went  to  reside  at  Chiswick,  and 
having  married  a  lady  of  property,  lived  in  quiet 
retirement  until  his  death,  which  happened  in  1791. 
Penny  was  principally  employed  in  painting 
small  portraits  in  oil,  which  were  very  generally 
admired.  He  also  painted  sentimental  and  historical 
subjects,  many  of  which  were  publicly  exhibited. 
Among  others,  were  the  '  Death  of  General  Wolfe,' 
from  which  a  mezzotint  print  was  published  by 
Sayer,  and  met  with  a  very  extensive  sale ;  the 
portrait  of  the  'Marquis  of  Granby  relieving  a 
sick  Soldier,"  from  which  there  is  a  print;  '  Virtue 
rewarded,'  and  '  Profligacy  punished,'  two  pictures 
which  are  also  engraved.  In  1782  he  exhibited 
for  the  last  time.  The  pictures  then  shown  included 
'The  Benevolent  Physician,'  'The  Rapacious 
Quack,'  and  'The  Distraint  of  the  Widow's  Cow.' 
PENOZZI,  B.,  is  mentioned  by  Papillon  as  an 

engraver  on  wood,  but  he  has  not  specified  any  of 
his  prints. 

PENS.     See  Pencz. 

PENSABENE,  Era  Marco,  and  Fra  JIarco 
Maraveia,  his  assistant,  both  of  the  order  of  the 
Dominicans  at  Venice,  painted  at  Treviso  in  1520 
and  1521.  The  former  was  born  at  Venice  about 
1486,  and  entered  his  religious  order  in  1502.  Lanzi, 
enumerating  the  scholars,  followers,  and  imitators 
of  Giovanni  Bellini,  mentions  the  altar-piece  in 
the  Dominican  church  at  Treviso,  painted  by 
Marco  Pensabene  and  his  assistant,  in  which  the 
cupola,  the  columns,  and  the  perspective,  with  the 
throne  of  the  Virgin  seated  with  the  infant  Jesus, 
and  surrounded  by  saints  standing,  the  steps  orna- 
mented with  an  angel  playing  on  the  guitar,  are 
all  modelled  on  similar  things  by  Bellini.  Crowe 
and  Cavalcaselle  conjecture  that  this  altar-piece 
may  have  been  finished  by  Savoldo.  In  1520 
Pensabene  began  a  painting  of  'The  Madonna 
with  Saints,'  for  San  Niccol6,  in  Treviso,  but  for 
some  unknown  reason  fled  secretly  .from  his  con- 
vent in  1621,  before  it  was  completed.  It  still, 
however,  evinces  such  merit  that  it  has  been 
ascribed  to  Titian,  Giorgione,  and  Sebastiano  del 
Piombo.  In  1524  Pensabene  was  again  a  Dominican 
friar  in  Venice,  where  he  died  in  1529.  Two  por- 
traits by  him  are  in  the  monastery  at  Treviso,  and 
a  '  Madonna  with  Saints '  in  possession  of  the  Conte 
Lochis  Carrara. 

PENSEB,  Charles  Francois  Joseph,  French 
painter  and  lithographer;  born  August  10,  1799, 
at  Epinal  (Vosges).  His  drawings  and  paintings 
of  French  and  Swiss  scenery  gained  him  consider- 
able reputation  in  Orleans,  where  he  chose  to 
establish  himself     Here  he  died,  July  11,  1871. 

PENSIERI,  Battista.     See  Parmensis. 

PENTHER,  Daniel,  Russian  painter  ;  born  at 
Lemberg  in  1837  ;  studied  at  the  Vienna  Academy  ; 
also  at  Munich,  Paris  and  Rome.  In  1873  he  was 
appointed  Court  painter  to  the  Grand  Duke  Michael 
at  Tiflis.  He  studied  for  a  while  with  Lenbach. 
He  died  at  Vienna,  February  11,  1887. 

PENZEL,  Johann  Georg,  a  painter  and  en- 
graver, was  born  at  Hersbruck,  near  Nuremberg, 
in  1764,  according  to  Brulliot  (Zani  and  Nagler 
say  in  1754),  and  died  at  Leipsio  in  1809.  He 
commenced  with  Schellenberg  at  Winterthur,  and 
afterwards  studied  at  Dresden,  where  he  entirely 
devoted  himself  to  engraving.  He  worked  much 
for  the  publishers  there,  and  engraved  many  of 
Chodowiecki's  designs. 

PEPIJN,  Martin,  (Pepin,  or  Pepyn,)  was  born 
at  Antwerp  in  1575.  It  is  not  known  under  whom  he 
studied,  but  he  went  when  young  to  Italy,  where 
he  remained  several  years.  Such  was  the  reputation 
he  acquired  at  Rome,  that  when  Rubens,  who 
was  then  in  the  zenith  of  his  fame  at  Antwerp, 
heard  of  Pepijn's  intention  to  return  to  his  native 
country,  it  occasioned  him  some  uneasiness.  Pepijn 
became  a  member  of  the  Guild  at  Antwerp  about 
1600,  and  died  in  1642  or  1643.  In  the  church 
of  the  hospital  at  Antwerp  there  are  two  ad- 
mirable works  by  him  ;  they  are  both  triptychs. 
In  the  centre  picture  of  one  he  has  represented 
the  Baptism  of  St.  Augustine ;  on  one  of  the 
wings,  that  Saint  giving  alms  to  the  poor  ;  on 
the  other,  St.  Augustine  curing  the  Sick.  The 
centre  picture  of  the  other  triptych  rejjresents 
St.  Elisabeth  giving  charity  to  a  group  of  miserable 
objects,  who  are  struggling  to  approach  her.  On 
one  of  the  wings  is  the  death  of  that  Saint,  and  on 


the  other  her  Ascension  to  heaven,  with  a  choir  of 
angels.  The  Museum  of  the  same  city  possesses  a 
'  Preaching  of  St.  Luke,'  and  '  The  Passage  of  the 
Red  Sea'  (1626),  by  him;  the  Cathedral  a  'St. 
Norbert,'  and  the  Arenberg  Gallery  at  Brussels  a 
'  Female  Head.'  Most  of  the  works  of  Pepijn 
are,  however,  in  Italy.  His  daughter,  Katharina 
Pepijn,  also  a  painter,  was  born  in  1619,  and  be- 
came a  member  of  the  Guild  in  1653. 

P^QUEGNOT,  Adguste,  French  painter  and 
engraver;  born  Oct.  5,  1819,  at  Versailles  ;  became 
a  pupil  of  the  elder  Cioeri ;  painted  landscapes 
and  completed  several  remarkable  engravings. 
He  died  in  Paris  in  1878. 

PfiQDIGNOT,  an  obscure  French  landscape 
painter  of  the  18th  century.  He  is  chiefly  re- 
membered as  the  friend  of  Girodet  Trioson,  with 
whom  he  travelled. 

PERAC.     See  Dup^rac. 

PfiRAIRE,  Paul  EjiMANnEL,  French  landscape 
painter  ;  born  in  1830  at  Bordeaux  ;  a  pupil  of 
Isabey  and  of  Luminals ;  since  1866  exhibited 
regularly  at  the  Salons,  his  subjects  being  mainly 
suggested  by  the  scenery  of  the  environs  of  Paris. 
His  picture,  '  Le  Marais,  environs  de  Corbeil ' 
(1890),  was  bought  by  the  State,  as  also  his  large 
canvas  exhibited  at  the  Salon  in  1892,  entitled 
'  Un  coup  de  vent ;  bles  versus.'  Other  pictures 
by  him  are:  'tie  de  Croissy  k  Bougival '  (1866), 
'La  Saison  Dor^e,  bords  de  la  Seine  '  (1882),  and 
'Couch^e  du  Soleil,  Ballancourt '  (1886).  In  1880 
he  received  a  medal  of  the  third  class,  and  an 
honourable  mention  at  the  Universal  Exhibition 
of  1889.     He  died  in  Paris,  January  21,  1893. 

PERANDA.     See  Santo  Peranda. 

PERGELLES  (or  Percellis).     See  Parcelles. 

PERCY,  Sidney  Richard,  was  a  son  of 
Edward  WilKams  the  landscape  artist,  who  as- 
sumed the  name  of  Percy.  He  was  born  about 
1821,  and  died  at  Sutton  in  Surrey  in  1886.  He 
was  a  clever  landscape  painter,  and  the  founder  of 
the  so-called  School  of  Barnes.  He  constantly 
exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  and  various  other 
Picture  Exhibitions,  and  was  a  prolific  painter, 
contributing  over  300  pictures  to  various  Exhibi- 

PERDANUS,  Abraham,  a  Dutch  painter  of  still- 
life,  born  at  Haarlem  in  1673.  He  was  a  pupil  of 
Brakenburg,  and  died  at  Maarsen  in  1744. 

PERE,  Ant.  van  de.     See  Vandepeee. 

PEREA, .     A  Spanish  painter  mentioned  by 

Eepinosadelos  Monterosamongthe  artists  employed 
at  Seville  in  the  decoration  of  the  funeral  monument 
of  Philip  IL     Perhaps  identical  with  Pereira  (^q.  v.). 

PEREA,  Blas  de,  was  a  Portuguese  painter,  who 
settled  in  Castile  about  1550.  He  was  a  friend  of 
the  painter  Francisco  de  Holanda. 

PEREDA,  Antonio,  (or  Peeea,)  a  Spanish  his- 
torical painter,  was  born  at  Valladolid  in  1599. 
He  was  a  scholar  of  Pedro  de  las  Cuevas,  and  gave 
early  proofs  of  his  ability  in  art.  After  making 
considerable  progress  in  the  school  of  Cuevas  he 
was  placed  by  his  patron,  Don  Francisco  de  Texada, 
with  Juan  Bautista  Crescenzi,  Marquis  de  la  Torre, 
who  had  been  a  pupil  of  Pomerancio.  At  the  age 
of  eighteen  he  produced  and  exhibited  to  the  public 
a  picture  of  the  '  Immaculate  Conception,'  in  which 
the  Virgin  appeared  on  a  throne  of  clouds  supported 
by  angels.  'The  reputation  he  acquired  by  this  per- 
formance induced  the  'Conde-Duque,'  Olivarez,  who 
was  then  occupied  in  filling  the  palace  of  the  Buen 
Retiro  with  the  works  of  the  best  Spanish  painters, 

to  place  Pereda  among  those  of  the  highest  rank. 
He  performed  his  part  to  the  satisfaction  of  his 
patron,  and  was  munificently  rewarded.  Pereda's 
works  were  much  in  request,  and  he  exercised  his 
talent  on  a  great  variety  of  subjects.  History, 
social  scenes,  still-life,  vases,  tapestry,  musical 
instruments  ;  all  were  within  the  compass  of  his 
versatile  brush.  He  died  at  Madrid  in  1669.  His 
works  were  formerly  to  be  found  in  all  the  palaces 
and  churches  of  Madrid,  Toledo,  Aloala,  Ouenca, 
Valladolid,  and  in  many  private  collections.  At 
present  there  are  two  in  the  Madrid  Gallery,  one  of 
which  is  a  'St.  Jerome  meditating  on  the  last 
Judgment ; '  in  the  church  of  San  Toraas  is  a  '  St. 
Domingo  and  God  the  Father'  (1640),  and  in  the 
Academy  of  San  Fernando  '  The  Dream  of  Life  ; ' 
in  Marshal  Soult's  collection  there  was  a  'Christ 
asleep  on  the  Cross,'  with  flowers  and  skulls  about 
Him;  in  the  Esterhazy  Gallery,  at  Pesth,  there 
is  a  'St.  Anthony  and  the  Infant  Christ'  (the 
same  subject  is  among  the  Suermondt  pictures  at 
Berlin)  ;  a  still-life  subject  (1621)  is  at  St.  Peters- 
burg ;  and  three  or  four  in  the  Gallery  at  Munich. 
Formerly  it  was  considered  that  no  Spanish  col- 
lection was  complete  without  an  example  of 

PEREDA  Y  DUARTE,  Tomas  de,  a  Spanish 
artist,  who  became  a  member  of  the  Academy  of 
San  Fernando  in  1757.     He  died  in  1770. 

PEREGRINI  da  CESENA,  an  Italian  engraver 
of  the  15th  century.  Duchesne  enumerates  sixty- 
six  plates  by  his  hand,  which  he  calls  nielli.  More 
recent  critics,  however,  see  in  these  not  proofs  of 
goldsmith's  work,  but  impressions  from  plates  ex- 
pressly engraved  for  printing.  The  facts  in  favour 
of  this  view  are,  in  the  first  place,  the  number  of 
these  so-called  nielli,  and,  secondly,  the  occurrence 
of  the  artist's  signature  upon  the  prints  with  the 
letters  the  right  way.  Peregrini's  most  important 
plate  is  a  '  Resurrection,'  which  is  signed  De  Opus 
Peregrini  Ce'.  The  rest  of  the  plates  ascribed  to 
him  are  signed  either  P  or  O.P.D.C. 

PEREIRA,  Vasco,  (Peretra,  or  Preira),  was  a 
Portuguese  painter,  who  resided  at  Seville,  in  great 
credit,  at  the  end  of  the  16th  century.  He  wa* 
employed  in  1594  to  repair  the  fine  fresco  of  '  Christ 
of  the  Criminals,'  painted  only  thirty  years  pre- 
viously \>y  Luis  de  Vargas.  He  was  one  of  the 
artists  employed  in  the  cathedral  of  Seville  in 
1598,  to  prej^are  the  magnificent  decorations  for 
the  funeral  service  of  Philip  11.  He  painted  the 
'  Decollation  of  St.  Paul '  for  the  convent  of  that 
order,  in  competition  with  Mohedano  and  Vazquez. 
He  executed  many  other  works  which  have  ceased 
to  exist  in  Spain,  though  some  are  to  be  found  in 
Portugal.  He  was  reckoned  a  skilful  draughtsman. 
but  dry  and  hard  as  a  colourist,  as  maybe  noted  in 
the  '  Four  Doctors  of  the  Church '  painted  by  hiui 
for  the  library  of  the  Carthusians  of  Santa  Maria  de 
las  Cuevas,  and  an  'Annunciation  '  in  the  college  of 
San  Hermenegildo.  He  died  at  the  commencement 
of  the  17th  century.  The  Dresden  Gallery  possesses 
a  '  St.  Onofrius '  by  him.  In  the  case  of  the  '  Cruci- 
fixion '  in  the  Misericordia  of  Oporto,  it  is  undecided 
whether  it  was  the  work  of  Pereira,  or  of  Vasco 
Fernandez.  The  Museum  of  Seville  possesses  a 
'Nativity'  dated  1.579. 

PERELLE,  Gabrikl,  an  eminent  French  de- 
signer and  engraver,  was  born  at  Vernon-sur-Seine 
at  the  beginning  of  the  17th  century,  and  died  in 
Paris  in  1675.  He  was  instructed  by  Daniel  Rahel, 
whom  he  soon  surpassed.     He  excelled  in  drawing 



and  engraving  landscapes  and  views,  of  which  he 
left  a  prodigious  number.  He  usually  enriched 
them  with  ruins  and  other  objects,  which  give  an 
agreeable  variety  to  his  scenery.  Although  by  far 
the  greater  part  of  his  plates  are  from  his  own  com- 
positions, he  also  engraved  from  the  designs  of 
several  other  masters,  particularly  Paul  Bril,  Gas- 
par  Poussin,  Asselyn,  and  above  all,  Silvestre. 
His  best  works  are  comprised  in  the  two  collections, 
'  Ddlices  de  Paris,'  and  '  Delices  de  Versailles.'  He 
was  assisted  in  his  numerous  works  by  his  sons, 
Nicolas  and  Adam  Perelle,  who,  after  his  death, 
engraved  a  great  number  of  plates  of  architectural 
views,  landscapes,  &c.,  which  are  inferior  to  those 
of  their  fatlier.  Nicolas  is  stated  to  have  engraved 
'The  Four  Seasons,' and  'The  Four  Elements,'  and 
to  have  died  at  Orleans ;  Adam,  to  have  been  born 
in  1638,  and  died  in  Paris  in  1695.  The  Perelles 
worked  both  with  the  point  and  the  graver.  Their 
works  from  their  own  designs  are  multifarious,  and 
frequently  to  be  met  with.  The  following  are  the 
principal  plates  they  engraved  after  other  artists : 

A  set  of  four  Views,  the  Church  of  St.  Michel  at  Dijon, 
the  Palace  in  that  City,  the  Bridge  of  Grenoble,  and 
the  Porte  Royale  at  Marseilles  ;  after  Silvestre. 

Four  Views  in  Paris,  the  Arsenal  du  Mail,  the  Pontneuf , 
the  Louvre,  the  Mail,  and  surrounding  country  ;  after 
the  savie. 

A  set  of  foiu:  Views,  the  Baths  of  Bourbon  d'Archam- 
baud,  the  Castle  of  Bourbon  Lancy,  with  the  Baths 
of  Julius  Ccesar;  and  the  great  Chartreuse  near  Gre- 
noble ;  after  the  same. 

Six  Views  of  the  Jardin  de  Euel ;  after  Israel  Silvestre. 

Two  Mountainous  Landscapes,  with  biblical  subjects ; 
after  P.  Bril. 

Six  Views  in  Rome  and  its  Environs  ;  after  J.  Asselt/n. 

A  View  of  Ruins,  with  the  Adoration  of  the  Magi ; 
after  Poeleinherij. 

PEREPJETTE, ,  executed  a  coarse  etching 

after  Paolo  Veronese,  representing  the  Holy  Family 
accompanied  by  two  angels. 

PERET.     See  Perret. 

PEREYRA.     See  Pereiea. 

PEREZ,  Andres,  a  Spanish  historical  and  flower 
painter,  was  born  at  Seville  in  1660  ;  and  was 
instructed  by  his  father,  Francisco  Perez  de  Pineda 
one  of  the  members  of  the  Society  of  Professors 
who  established  the  Academy  in  that  city,  and 
who  was  himself  a  scholar  of  Murillo.  In  the 
sanctuary  of  Santa  Lucia,  at  Seville,  there  were 
three  Scriptural  subjects  relating  to  the  holy  sacra- 
ment, signed  Andres  Perez,  1707  ;  and  in  the 
pacristy  of  the  Capuchins  of  the  same  city  another 
with  the  date  1713,  representing  the  '  Last  Judg- 
ment,' taken  in  part  from  that  of  Michelangelo. 
Perez  was,  however,  most  successful  in  painting 
flowers  and  other  objects  after  nature.  His  his- 
torical works  show  a  great  falling  off  from  the 
good  rules  Murillo  had  endeavoured  to  establish. 
Andres  Perez  died  in  1727. 

PEREZ,  Antonio,  a  Spanish  historical  painter, 
bom  in  a  village  of  Andalusia.  In  1548  he  was 
employed  to  paint  chosen  subjects  for  the  old 
sanctuary  of  Seville  cathedral.  In  1550  he  finished 
tiiree  pictures  for  the  church  of  Nuestra  Seiiora ; 
in  1553  he  painted  the  altar  of  San  Ibo,  and  in  1555 
restored  that  of  the  church  of  San  Francisco.  He 
died  about  1580.  His  son  Antonio  worked  with  him. 

PEREZ,  Antonio  and  Nicolas,  painters,  were 
two  brothers  living  at  Seville  from  1654  to  1668, 
who  devoted  considerable  time  and  money  to  the 
foundation  of  the  Academy  in  that  city, 

PEREZ,  Bartolome,  was  a  Spanish  painter,  born 
at  Madrid  in  1634,  and  appointed  painter  to  the 

king  in  1689.  He  was  the  scholar  and  son-in-law 
of  the  flower-painter  Arellano,  whom  he  excelled 
as  a  draughtsman,  and  sometimes  assisted  by  paint- 
ing the  figures  in  his  works.  He  was  particularly 
successful  in  rendering  curtains  and  drapery,  on 
which  he  was  much  employed  for  the  theatre  at 
Buen  Retiro.  His  flower-pieces  too  were  much 
esteemed.  He  died  in  1693  from  a  fall  from  some 
scattblding  whilst  painting  a  ceiling  in  the  palace 
of  the  Duke  of  jlonteleon.  He  painted  a  '  St 
Rosa  of  Lima,'  a  '  Virgin  praying  to  the  Child,' 
and  many  flower  paintings,  of  which  there  are 
four  good  examples  in  the  Madrid  Museum. 

PEUEZ,  Florian  JnAN,  a  Spanish  nobleman,  and 
amateur  painter  of  genre  subjects,  was  bom  in 
tlie  neighbourhood  of  Madrid  in  the  first  half  of 
the  16th  century.  He  was  a  knight  of  a  religious 
oi'der ;  in  1566  was  appointed  valet  to  Phihp  II. 
He  died  at  the  commencement  of  the  17th  century. 

PEREZ,  JoAQniN,  a  Spanish  historical  painter, 
was  born  at  Alooy.  In  1773  he  gained  the  prize 
from  the  Academy  of  San  Carlos  at  Valencia.  He 
died  in  1779. 

PIllUEZ,  Matteo.     See  Alesio. 

PfiREZ  DE  LA  VILLA  AMIL,  Geronimo,  a 
Spanish  painter,  born  at  Madrid  about  1810.  He 
studied  at  the  Madrid  Academy,  and  painted  land- 
scape, genre,  and  notably  architectural  interiors 
with  figures.  His  best  known  picture  is  an  'Interior 
of  Seville  Cathedral  on  Corpus  Cliristi  Day.'  He 
published  a  work  on  Spanish  Architecture,  illus- 
trated by  lithographs.    He  died  at  Madrid  in  1853. 

PEREZ  DE  PINEDA,  Francisco,  was  a  pupil 
of  Murillo.  His  son,  who  bore  the  same  name, 
went  at  his  father's  death  to  the  school  of  Luca  de 
Vald^s,  and  died  at  Seville  in  1732.  Bermudez 
says  that  his  pictures  were  as  bad  as  the  doggerel 
verse  in  which  he  wrote  the  life  of  Fernando  de 

PERFETTI,  Antonio,  an  engraver,  was  born  at 
Florence  in  179i  and  from  1818  onwards  was  a  pupil 
of  Rafael  Morghen.  In  1828  he  obtained  the  prize 
at  the  Florence  Academy  with  his  '  Sibyl  of  Cumae,' 
after  Guercino,  but  obtained  wider  renown  through 
his  '  Presentation  in  the  Temple,'  after  Fra  Barto- 
lommeo.  He  and  his  pupils  completed  the  engraved 
collection  of  the  Gallery  of  Florence.  He  died  in 
that  city  in  1872.     Other  plates  by  him  are : 

The  Madonnas  '  della  Sedia '  and  '  del  Grauduca ' ;  after 

Birth  of  the  Virgin  ;  after  A,idrea  del  Sarto. 
Portrait  of  D.ante  ;  after  Giotto. 

PERGER,  Anton  von,  German  painter ;  born 
December  20,  1809,  at  Vienna  ;  was  first  taught 
by  his  father  and  afterwards  at  the  Vienna  Academy. 
He  then  travelled  in  Italy,  becoming  Professor  at 
the  Vienna  Academy  in  1845.  He  painted  land- 
scapes and  genre  scenes.  He  had  also  considerable 
literary  talent.  He  died  at  Vienna,  April  14, 

PERGER,  SiGMUND  Ferdinand  von,  historical 
painter  and  engraver,  was  born  at  Vienna  in  1778, 
and  studied  at  the  Academy  there.  In  1816  he  be- 
came Court  painter,  and  in  1825  assistant  custodian 
of  the  Belvedere  Gallery.  He  died  in  the  same 
city  in  1841.  As  a  painter  on  porcelain  he  showed 
himself  especially  skilful,  working  eleven  years  at 
the  Imperial  factory.  Among  his  works  we  may 
name : 

Horse-race  at  Kopcsan  {afterteards  enyraved  hy  himself). 

The  Herald  bringing  the  News  of  the  Victory  of  Mara- 
thon to  Athens. 


The  Hape  of  Ganymede. 

Eomulus  and  Kemus  with  the  She-wolf.    (Etching.) 

PERICCIOLI,  Gmno,  (or  Periccivoli,)  designer 
and  etcher,  was  born  at  Siena  about  1600,  and  after 
receiving  some  instruction  from  bis  uncle  Fran- 
ceBOO,  an  ecclesiastic  and  caUigraphist,  completed 
his  studies  in  Rome  and  Venice.  He  subsequently 
visited  Constantinople,  Egypt,  Malta,  Sicily,  and 
Spain,  where  Philip  III.  appointed  him  drawing- 
master  to  tlie  prince,  his  son.  He  next  went  to 
Holland,  and  was  similarly  employed  on  behalf  of 
the  Princess  Louise ;  then  to  England,  where  he 
painted  Charles  I. ;  and  finally  returned  to  his  own 
country,  where  he  entered  the  service  of  the  Grand 
Duke  of  Tuscany.  He  died  after  1660.  He  pro- 
duced numerous  pen-and-ink  drawings,  several  of 
which  he  etched.  Two  plates  by  him  after  Vanni 
represent  a  '  King  writing,'  and  a  '  Warrior  on 

PERIER,  FRANgois,  an  obscure  French  painter 
and  engraver,  who  died  about  1655.  He  was  a 
native  of  Saint- Jean-de-Laure.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  maitrise. 

PBRIGAL,  Arthur  (Senior),  an  English  his- 
torical and  portrait  painter  who  gained  the  Royal 
Academy  Gold  Medal  in  1811  for  liis  'Themistocles 
taking  refuge  with  Admetus.'  In  early  life  Mr. 
Perigal  in  the  Admiralty,  where  several  of 
his  relatives  have  held  appointments  at  various 
times,  but  he  resigned  his  post  in  order  to  devote 
himself  to  Art.  A  fine  example  of  his  work  is  a 
large  canvas  representing  a  scene  from  '  The 
Talisman,'  where  Queen  Berengaria  and  Edith 
Plantagenet  intercede  with  King  Richard  for  the 
life  of  the  Knight  of  the  Leopard.  This  picture  is 
now  in  the  possession  of  his  daughter-in-law- 
Mrs.  Perigal,  of  7  Oxford  Terrace,  Edinburgh. 
Other  examples  of  his  work  are — '  Lo,  at  the 
Couch  where  Infant  Beauty  Sleeps,'  and  'The 
Finding  of  Moses.'  He  also  painted  many  portraits, 
including  a  very  fine  one  of  his  son- — Arthur 
Perigal,  R.S.A. — now  in  7  Oxford  Terrace,  Edin- 
burgh. Mr.  Perigal  lived  in  London,  Northampton, 
and  Manchester,  and  finally  settled  at  Edinburgh, 
where  he  died  in  1847.  A.  O'R. 

PERIGAL,  Arthdr,  R.S.A. ,  son  of  the  above, 
was  born  in  London  in  1816.  He  was  a  landscape 
painter  of  considerable  repute,  his  forte  being 
Highland  scenery,  but  he  also  painted  many  Italian 
and  Norwegian  scenes.  He  spent  many  winters  in 
Italy.  A  fine  specimen  of  his  work  in  that  country 
is  a  large  oil-painting,  '  The  Grand  Canal,  Venice,' 
which  can  hold  its  own  among  the  many  repre- 
sentations of  that  famous  waterway,  and  which 
elicited  the  warm  praise  of  his  friend,  T.  Faed,  R.A. 
This  fine  picture  is  now  in  the  possession  of  his 
widow  at  7  Oxford  Terrace,  Edinburgh.  Another 
large  picture,  'Pompeii  with  Vesuvius  in  Eruption,' 
was  painted  on  the  spot  during  the  eruption 
of  1872.  This  is  now  the  property  of  his  son-in- 
law,  Lt.-Col.  J.  O'Reilly,  A.M.S.,  Belhaven,  Guild- 
ford. Mr.  Perigal  painted  an  immense  number 
of  pictures  of  Highland  scenery,  a  great  many  of 
which  are  to  be  found  in  private  collections  in 
Scotland.  The  large  oil-painting,  'The  Borderland,' 
— now  in  the  possession  of  his  widow — was  speci- 
ally asked  for,  and  hung  in  a  conspicuous  position 
in  the  Glasgow  Exhibition  of  1889.  A  fine  oil- 
painting,  'Glen  Nevis,'  occupied  a  prominent 
position  in  the  Glasgo%v  Exhibition  of  1901,  and 
attracted  much  attention.  It  was  lent  by  its 
owner,  L.  Piatt,  Esq.,  Stirling.     The  fine  picture. 

'  Romsdal'  (Norway),  was  bought  for  a  large  sum 
by  the  Academy  of  Fine  Arts.  Some  others  of 
Mr.  Perigal's  many  works  are : 

Molde  (Norway). 

Early  Summer  in  Lowlands.     (Bought  by  Academy  of 

Fine  Arts.) 
Loch  Lee— Glen  Esk.    (In  the  Collection  of  the  Earl  of 

Spittal  Sands  and  Rocks.    (Exhilited  in  Royal  Academy 

and  botujht  by  Mr.  Samuel  Morley,  31. F.) 
Dunrobin  Castle. 
On  the  Jed. 
An  Evening  in  Skye. 
Loch  Tromlie. 
Moor  near  Kinlochewe,  Rosshire.     (Scottish  National 

The  Matterhorn  by  Moonlight. 
Loch  Corruisk  (Isle  of  Skye). 

The  two  last-named  pictures  are  now  in  the 
possession  of  his  son.  Dr.  Perigal,  New  Barnet. 

In  the  house  where  Mr.  Perigal  lived  and 
worked  (No.  7  Oxford  Terrace,  Edinburgli)  there 
are  a  great  number  of  his  paintings  in  oils  and 
water-colours,  and  many  hundreds  of  his  works 
were  dispersed  by  sale  after  his  death.  Mr.  Perigal 
was  a  regular  exhibitor  in  the  Scottish  National 
Academy,  Edinburgh,  and  an  occasional  contributor 
to  the  Royal  Academy  and  the  British  Institution 
from  1861  to  1876.  He  was  elected  an  Associate 
of  the  Royal  Scottish  Academy  in  1841,  an 
Academician  in  1868,  and  Treasurer  in  1880.  At 
a  later  period  many  people  hoped  and  expected 
that  he  would  have  been  elected  President.  Mr. 
I'erigal  died  somewhat  suddenly  in  1884,  and  is 
buried  in  the  Dean  Cemetery,  Edinburgh.      A,  O'K, 

PERIGNON,  Alexis  Joseph,  a  Frencli  portrait 
and  genre  painter,  born  in  Paris  in  1806.  He  was 
the  son  of  A.  N.  Perignon,  under  whom,  and  Gros, 
he  studied.  His  works  were  awarded  medals  in 
18.86,  1838,  and  1844,  and  he  obtained  the  Legion 
of  Honour  in  1850,  becoming  an  officer  of  the  order 
in  1870.  His  latter  years  were  spent  at  Dijon  as 
Director  of  the  Academy  there.  He  died  in  1882. 
Amongst  his  works  are  : 


Museum.    Portrait  of  Admiral  Leray. 
Jluseum.     St.  Cecilia. 

PERIGNON,  Alexis  Nicolas,  the  elder,  a  French 
painter  and  engraver,  also  an  architect  and  notary, 
was  born  at  Nancy  in  1725.  He  travelled  in  Italy 
and  Switzerland,  and  died  in  Paris  in  1782.  He 
painted  landscapes  in  oil,  and  flowers  in  gouache  ; 
and  has  etched  43  plates  from  his  own  landscapes. 

PERIGNON,  Alexis  Nicolas,  the  younger,  a 
French  painter  of  portraits,  genre,  and  historical 
subjects,  was  born  in  Paris  in  1785.  He  was  a 
pupil  of  Girodet,  and  exhibited  at  the  Salon  from 
1814  to  1850,  obtaining  a  second  class  medal  in 
1824.  He  died  in  1864.  At  Versailles  there  are 
by  him  : 

Davoust  in  1792. 

The  Duke  of  Orleans  and  the  Duke  of  Chartres. 

Perignon's  daughter,  Caroline  Louise  Emma, 
Mme.  Debay,  also  won  some  repute  as  a  painter. 

PfiRIN,  Alphonse  Henri,  French  painter,  born 
in  Paris,  March  12,1798;  became  a  pupil  of  Guerin 
at  the  Ecole  des  Beaux  Arts.  In  1827  he  went  to 
Rome  and  made  the  acquaintance  of  Orsel.  De- 
corations by  him  are  in  Notre  Dame,  Paris  ;  he 
also  painted  portraits,  landscapes  and  genre  scenes. 
His  engraving  of  Madame  Becamier  is   also  re- 



markable.  In  1827  lie  obtained  a  second-class 
medal,  and  the  Legion  of  Honour  in  1854.  He 
died  in  Paris  in  January  1875. 

PERIN-SALBREUX,  Li:^  Louis,  a  French  minia- 
ture painter,  born  at  Kheims  in  1753.  He  came  to 
Paris  at  the  age  of  twenty-five,  and  took  lessons 
from  an  Italian  painter  called  Sicardi.  On  the 
outbreak  of  the  Revolution  he  retired  to  Rheims, 
where  he  died  in  1817. 

PERINI,  Giuseppe  Sforza,  an  Italian  engraver, 
was  born  at  Rome  about  the  year  1748,  and  was  stili 
living  in  1795.  He  executed  some  of  the  plates 
for  the  '  Seuola  Italiana '  of  Gavin  Hamilton,  and 
engraved  some  of  the  statues  in  the  Clementine 
Gallery.  The  following,  among  others,  are  by 
him  : 

The  Frontispiece  to  the  'Seuola  Italiaua,'  with  two  figures 

by  Miche/ai)(/e/o- 
Jupiter  and  Autiope  ;  after  Jacopo  Palma 
Charity  ;  after  Bartolommeo  Sckedone. 
Christ  beariug  his  Cross;  after  Lanfranco. 

PERINI,  LoDOVico,  an  indifferent  Italian  en- 
graver, has  left  some  prints  executed  with  the 
graver,  among  which  is  one  representing  two  men 
playing  at  cards,  and  a  woman  overlooking  them. 

PERINO  DEL  VAGA.     See  Buonaccorsi. 

PERIS,  Henri,  a  Flemish  landscape  painter. 
He  was  appointed  Dean  of  the  Corporation  of  St. 
Luke  at  Antwerp  in  1662.  In  the  church  of  the 
Augustins  at  Antwerp  are  two  landscapes  by  him. 
He  died  in  1670. 

PERISIN.     See  Perrissim. 

PERJECOUTER.     See  Serwouter. 

PERKINS,  Charles  C,  an  American  painter, 
draughtsman,  and  writer  on  art.  He  was  born  at 
Boston  in  1823.  He  studied  painting  under  Ary 
Scheffer,  and  etching  under  Bracquemond  and 
Lalanne,  but  most  of  his  life  was  devoted  to  the 
study  of  art  history  and  to  its  teaching.  In  1876 
he  was  appointed  honorary  director  of  the  Museum 
of  Fine  Arts  at  Boston.  In  1864  he  published 
'Tuscan  Sculptors,'  in  two  volumes;  in  1867, 
'Italian  Sculptors,'  in  one  volume,  and  in  1878, 
'Raphael  and  Michael  Angelo.'  The  plates  in 
these  books  were  etched  by  himself,  mostly  from 
his  own  designs.     He  died  in  1886. 

PERLA,  Francesco,  the  reputed  author  of  two 
frescoes  in  the  Cathedral  of  Mantua,  dating  from 
the  16th  century. 

PERNA,  PlETRO,  according  to  Strutt,  was  an 
engraver  on  wood,  to  whom  some  prints  marked 
P.  P.  are  usually  attributed.  He  lived  to  the  latter 
end  of  the  16th  century. 

PERNET,  ,  is  mentioned  by  Strutt  as  an 

engraver  who  lived  about  the  year  1620,  and 
executed  a  few  indifferent  portraits. 

PERNICHARO,  Pablo,  a  native  of  Zaragoza, 
studied  with  Hovasse  at  Madrid.  Philip  V.  granted 
him  a  pension  to  enable  him  to  study  in  Rome, 
where  he  was  elected  to  the  Academy  of  St.  Luke. 
On  his  return  he  became  painter-in-ordinary  to  the 
king,  and  Director  of  the  Academy  of  San  Fer- 
nando from  1753  till  his  death  in  1760.  He  furnished 
various  sacred  compositions  to  the  palace,  the 
Academy,  the  church  of  San  Isidro,  and  the 
hospital  of  Monserrate,  also  a  copy  of  Raphael's 
'  Assembly  of  the  Gods '  to  the  palace  of  San 

PERNOT,  Fran<;:ois  Alexandre  was  born  at 
Wassy  (Haute  Marne)  in  1793.  He  was  a  pupil 
of  Victor  Bertin  and  Hersent.  He  travelled  from 
1818  to  1828,  through  Switzerland,  the  Vosges,  the 


Rhine  Provinces,  Belgium,  England,  and  Scotland. 
He  worked  to  some  small  extent  as  a  sculptor 
also.  He  died  in  1865.  Among  his  pictures  we 
may  name : 

Eighty  sketches  of  old  Paris. 

A  series  of  picturesque  Views  in  Scotland. 

The  Trenches  of  Vincennes.     ( Versailles  Gallery.) 

Marius  in  Carthage. 

Tell's  Chapel. 

Ruins  of  the  Chateau  de  Pierrefonds. 

PEROFF,  Wassilij  Grigorjewitsch,  Russian 
painter;  born  December  1833 at  Tobolsk  (Siberia). 
He  was  the  natural  son  of  Baron  Kriidener,  and 
received  the  name  of  Peroff  for  his  abilitj'  in  writing 
(pero  signifying  pen).  He  studied  with  Stupin  at 
Arsamass,  and  with  Wassiliew  at  Moscow,  and  in 
Paris.  It  was  at  Moscow  that  he  settled,  where  he 
became  a  professor.  He  began  as  one  of  Russia's 
most  realistic  painters  by  his  canvas  '  Arrival  of 
the  Police  Officer,'  exhibited  in  1858,  which  gained 
him  the  silver  medal  of  the  Petersburg  Academy. 
This  was  followed  by  a  series  of  pictures  depicting 
tragic  events  in  domestic  life  in  some  remote  vil- 
lages of  the  Caucasus.  He  was  successful  in 
light  genre  subjects  too  ;  and  his  fertility  may  be 
imagined  when  we  know  that  he  signed  upwards 
of  200  oil-paintings.  His  health,  and,  in  fact,  his 
mental  powers,  at  last  gave  way,  which  put  a 
sudden  stop  to  his  career  as  an  artist.  He  died  at 
Moscow,  May  22,  1882. 

PEROLA,  Juan,  Francisco,  and  Est^fano, 
painters,  sculptors,  and  architects,  were  three 
brothers,  natives  of  Almagro,  in  La  Mancha,  who 
are  supposed  to  have  studied  in  the  school  of 
Becerra.  In  1586  they  were  employed  by  the 
Marquis  of  Santa  Cruz,  with  Cesare  Arbasia,  an 
Italian,  to  paint  in  fresco  the  staircase,  halls,  and 
court  of  his  palace  at  El  Viso.  In  the  adjacent 
conventual  church  of  the  Franciscans  were  some 
oil  pictures  and  various  marble  tombs  attributed  to 
the  Perolas;  they  also  assisted  Mohedano  in  paint- 
ing frescoes  for  Cordova  cathedral. 

PERON,  Dal.     See  Cdsighe. 

P^RON,  Louis  Alexandre,  a  French  historical 
painter,  was  born  in  Paris  in  1776.  He  was  a 
pupil  of  David,  and  among  his  works  are  '  The 
Capture  of  Toulon  '  and  '  The  Blurder  of  the  Inno- 

PERONI,  Giuseppe,  according  to  Abate  Affo, 
was  born  at  Parma  about  the  year  1700.  He  first 
studied  at  Bologna,  under  Felice  Torelli  and  Do- 
nate Creti,  and  afterwards  went  to  Rome,  where  he 
became  a  scholar  of  Agostino  Masucci.  He  was  a 
tolerably  correct  designer,  and,  in  his  best  perform- 
ances, imitates  the  style  of  Carlo  Maratti.  Such 
are  his  pictures  in  the  church  of  San  Satiro,  at 
Milan  ;  and  the  'Conception,'  at  the  Padri  dell' 
Oratorio,  at  Turin.  In  competition  with  Pompeo 
Batoni,  be  painted  in  fresco  for  the  church  of  Sant' 
Antonio  Abate,  '  The  Crucifixion,'  which  places  him 
among  the  most  respectable  artists  of  his  time. 
He  died  in  1776- 

PEROTTI,  PiETRO  Antonio,  portrait  painter, 
was  born  at  Verona  in  1712,  and  died  there  in 
1793.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Balestra,  and  painted 
pastel  portraits  at  Venice,  Rome,  and  London. 
He  married  Angelica  Legru  (born  1719,  died 
1776),  who  executed  works  of  a  similar  class. 

PEROU,  Antoine,  an  obscure  painter,  who  was 
appointed  concierge  to  the  Acad^mie  in  Paris,  in 
the  time  of  Louis  Testelin,  whose  pupil  he  had  been. 

PEROUX,  Joseph  Nicolaus,  was  born  at  Lud- 


wigsburg  in  1771,  and  after  studying  at  Stuttgart, 
became  the  first  teacher  of  Overbeck,  and  came  in 
1806  to  Frankfort,  where  he  died  in  1849.  He 
painted  portraits  in  oil  and  miniature,  an  allegor- 
ical Reformation  picture,  and  a  '  Christ  as  the 
Children's  Friend '  (now  in  the  City  Collection  at 

PEROXINO,  Giovanni,  a  painter  who  was  active 
at  Alba,  in  Piedmont,  in  the  year  1517.  He 
painted  an  altar-piece  for  the  conventual!,  in  that 

PERRACINI,  Giuseppe,  an  historical  painter, 
called  II  Mirandolese.  He  was  born  in  1672,  and 
died  in  1754.  His  talent  was  very  slight,  and  he 
should  not  be  confounded  with  Pietro  Paltronieri, 
who  was  also  called  II  Mirandolese. 

PE  RRANDEAU,  Charles,  French  painter ;  born 
1865  at  Sully-sur-Loire  (Loiret)  ;  was  a  pupil  of 
Cabanel  ;  made  his  d^but  at  the  Salon  in  1880 
with  '  Extase' ;  obtained  au  honourable  mention  in 
1881  for  '  Mort  de  J^sus  '  and  'La  Veuve  '  ;  also  a 
third-class  medal  in  1886  for  'MistJre';  and  a 
silver  medal  at  the  Universal  Exhibition  of  1889  ; 
painted  genre  pictures,  and  landscapes  melancholy 
in  feeling  and  masterly  iu  execution.  He  died 
June  20,  1903.  p.  p. 

PERRE,  Jan.    See  Van  der  Perre. 

PERREAL,  Jehan,  called  Jean  de  Paris,  was 
court  painter  to  Charles  VIII.,  Louis  XII.,  and 
Francis  I.,  from  1483  to  1528,  and  produced  numer- 
ous pictures  of  battles  and  sieges.  His  father, 
Claude  de  Perreal,  painter  and  poet,  in  whose 
honour  Clement  Marsh  wrote  some  verses,  was 
valet  to  Louis  XI.  in  1474.  Jean's  name  occurs  for 
the  first  time  in  1483,  as  that  of  a  valet-de-chambre 
to  Charlotte,  the  wife  of  Louis  XI.  He  followed 
the  French  army  into  Italy,  and  was  commissioned 
to  paint  some  of  its  feats.  Jean  was  employed  by 
the  municipality  of  Lyons  in  1489  and  1493  to 
organize  the  fetes  given  by  the  town  in  honour 
of  the  visit  of  Charles  VIII.  In  1496  he  was  the 
first  to  sign  the  act  of  incorporation  of  the  Lyons 
artists.  He  was  the  friend  and  protector  of  the 
poet,  Jean  Lemaire,  whom  he  presented  to  Anne  of 
Brittany.  After  Anne's  death  Perreal  was  charged 
to  paint  her  portrait,  which  he  did,  from  the  corpse. 
The  miniatures  in  a  manuscript  relating  to  the 
Queen's  obsequies  are  also  ascribed  to  him.  Per- 
real, who  was  en  engineer  and  architect  as  well  as 
a  painter,  died  in  1528  or  1529. 

PBRRET,  Marius,  French  painter;  born  at 
Moulins  (Allier) ;  studied  under  Cabanel ;  for  several 
years  exhibited  regularly  at  the  Salon ;  gained  an 
honourable  mention  at  the  Exhibition  of  1889  ;  at 
the  Salon  of  1890  won  the  Prix  Raizeoourt-Goyon  ; 
a  medal  in  1892  ;  and  a  second-class  medal  in 
1897.  His  later  work  dealt  entirely  with  scenes  of 
Indo-China,  to  which  he  gave  great  vivacity  and 
colour.  His  Algerian  picture,  '  Douar  d'Ouled 
Nayli,'  gained  a  silver  medal.  He  died  at  Java  in 
September  1900. 

PERRET,  PiETER,  (or  Pedro  Peret,)  an  en- 
giaver,  was  born  about  1550 :  it  is  uncertain 
whether  he  was  a  native  of  France  or  of  the  Low 
Countries.  He  studied  at  Rome  under  Cornells 
Cort,  and  was  engraver  to  the  Duke  of  Bavaria 
and  the  Elector  of  Cologne.  In  1589  he  settled  at 
Antwerp,  where  he  engraved  some  views  of  the 
monastery  of  San  Lorenzo  in  the  Escurial,  from 
drawings  by  Juan  de  Herrera,  which  gave  so 
much  satisfaction  to  Philip  II.  that  he  invited  him 
to  Spain,  and   appointed   him   his   engraver ;    an 

VOL.  IV.  H 

office  which  he  retained  under  Philip  III.  and  IV. 
He  was  called  to  Madrid  in  1595,  and  resided  there 
till  his  death  in  1637.  His  chief  performance  was 
a  set  of  portraits  of  the  Kings  of  Portugal,  pub- 
lished in  1603,  which  he  inscribed  Pedro  Ferret 
sculptor  Regis  fecit.  He  also  engraved  several 
plates  of  historical  subjects,  among  which  are: 

The  'Woman  takea  in  Adultery  ;  after  Brueyhel. 

The  Cha.stity  of  Joseph  ;  after  Speeckaert. 

Four  subjects  from  the  Life  of  Ignatius  Loyola,  with 
his  portrait. 

PERRIER,  Francois,  called  Le  Bourguiqnon, 
was  a  French  painter  and  engraver,  who  was  born 
either  at  Saint  Jean  de  Losne  or  at  Macon,  in  Bur- 
gundy, about  the  year  1584.  He  was  the  son  of  a 
goldsmith,  who  had  him  instructed  in  the  elements 
of  design  ;  but  as  he  opposed  his  desire  of  becoming 
a  painter,  the  young  Perrier  secretly  left  his  home, 
and,  without  the  means  of  subsistence,  associated 
himself  with  a  blind  mendicant,  who  was  on  his 
way  to  Italy,  and  by  this  means  arrived  at  Rome. 
He  accidentally  became  acquainted  with  Lanfranco, 
who  encouraged  him  in  his  pursuit,  and  admitted 
him  into  his  school.  After  a  residence  of  several 
years  at  Rome,  he  returned  in  1630  to  France,  and 
passed  some  time  at  Lyons,  where  he  painted  a 
set  of  pictures  for  the  cloister  of  the  Carthusians. 
He  then  visited  Paris,  where  Simon  Vouet,  who 
was  then  in  possession  of  every  commission  of 
importance,  employed  him  in  painting  the  chapel 
of  the  chateau  of  Chilly,  from  his  design.  Finding 
little  employment  in  Paris,  he  returned  to  Rome  in 
1635,  where  he  applied  himself  to  engraving  the 
principal  antique  statues  and  bas-reliefs,  and  exe- 
cuted several  plates  after  the  Italian  masters,  as 
well  as  from  his  own  designs.  After  the  death  of 
Simon  Vouet,  he  returned  to  Paris  in  1645,  when 
he  was  employed  to  paint  the  gallery  of  the  Hotel 
de  la  Vrilliere,  and  was  one  of  the  twelve  professors 
who  in  1648  founded  the  Academy.  He  died  in 
Paris  in  1650.  Some  of  his  best  paintings  are  the 
frescoes  in  the  above  hotel,  and  his  pictures  of 
'  Apollo  in  the  Chariot  of  the  Sun,'  '  The  Tempta- 
tion of  St.  Anthony,'  and  '  Acis  and  Galatea  ' — this 
last  in  the  Louvre.  We  have  by  him  also  a  con- 
siderable number  of  etchings,  from  his  own  designs, 
and  after  other  masters.  He  sometimes  signed  his 
name  Paria.  The  following  are  his  principal 
plates : 

A  set  of  one  hundred  prints  from  antique  statues, 
publisheti  at  Rome. 

A  set  of  fifty,  from  ancient  bas-reliefs. 

Ten  plates  of  Angels  from  the  Farnesina ;  after  Raphael. 

Two  plates  of  the  Assembly  of  the  Gods,  and  the  Mar- 
riage of  Cupid  and  Psyche  ;  after  the  paintings  by 
Raphael,  in  the  Farnesina. 

The  Communion  of  St.  Jerome ;  after  Agost.  Carracci. 

The  Flight  into  Egypt ;  after  the  same. 

The  Nativity;  after  S.  Vouet. 

The  portrait  of  Simon  Vouet ;  F.  Perrier  fecit.     1632. 


The  Holy  Family,  with  St.  John  playing  with  a  Lamb. 

The  Crucifixion ;  inscribed  Franciscus  Perrier,  Bur- 
i/undius,  pinx.  et  scut. 

St.  Eoch  curing  the  Plague-stricken. 

The  Body  of  St.  Sebastian,  supported  by  two  Saints. 

Venus  and  the  Graces. 

Time  clipping  the  Wings  of  Love,  engraved  in  chiar- 

PERRIER,  Guillaume,  born  at  Macon  about 
1600,  was  the  nephew  and  scholar  of  Fran9oi8 
Perrier,  whose  style  he  followed.  Of  his  works  as 
a  painter  the  most  considerable  are  his  pictures  in 



the  sacristy  of  the  Minimes  at  Lyons,  where  he 
took  refuge,  having  killed  a  man  in  a  duel.  We 
have  by  this  artist  several  etchings,  executed  in 
the  style  of  his  uncle.  He  died  in  1655.  Among 
his  best  plates  we  may  name  : 

A  Holy  Family. 

Tlie  Death  of  the  Magdalene. 

Portrait  of  Lazarus  Meysonnier, 

An  allegorical  subject. 

PERRIN,  fiiiiLE,  French  painter,  bom  at  Rouen 
in  1810;  became  a  pupil  of  Delaroche  and  of 
Gros.  In  later  life  he  became  Director  of  the  Paris 
Academy  of  Music,  and  also  of  the  Paris  Opera 
Comique.  His  pictures  include 'Mallil§,tre  mourant' 
(in  the  Caen  Museum),  '  Mort  de  Saint  Meinrad,' 
and  '  Louis  XIV.  au  Chateau  de  Cr^cy.'  He  died 
September  15,  1884. 

PERRIN,  Jean,  was  an  obscure  engraver  on 
wood,  who,  conjointly  with  Jean  Munier,  executed 
a  set  of  cuts  for  a  work  entitled  '  La  Morosophie 
de  Guillaume  de  la  Perriere  Tolsain,  contenant  cent 
Emblemes,'  published  in  1553. 

PERRIN,  Jean  Charles  Nicaise,  a  French  his- 
torical painter,  was  born  in  Paris  in  1754.  He  was 
a  pupil  of  Doyen  and  Durameau.  In  1787  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  Academy  of  Painting. 
Among  his  works  are,  '  Venus  healing  the  Wound 
of  iEneas,'  '  The  Sacrifice  of  Cyanippus,'  and  an 
'  Assumption.'     He  died  in  1831. 

PERRIN,  Olivier  Stanislas,  a  French  painter, 
born  at  Rostrenen  in  1761.  He  first  studied  at  the 
Academy  of  Rennes,  but  afterwards,  through  the 
kindness  of  the  Duke  of  Charost,  he  entered  the 
studio  of  Doyen.  He  then  worked  with  the  en- 
graver Massard,  after  which  he  went  on  two  or 
three  campaigns.  He  then  obtained  a  Government 
post  at  Quimper,  and  painted  several  pictures  illus- 
trating Breton  life.     He  died  at  Quimper  in  1832. 

PERRIN,  Thomas,  a  miniaturist,  who  flourished 
at  Dijon  about  1400.  He  worked  for  the  Duke  of 

PERRISSIM,  JACQnES,  (Perisin,  or  Persinus,) 
was  an  old  French  engraver,  who  flourished  about 
the  year  1570.  In  conjunction  with  J.  Tortorel, 
he  designed  and  engraved,  partly  on  wood  and 
partly  on  copper,  a  set  of  twenty-four  large  prints, 
representing  subjects  from  the  Huguenot  war,  1559 
to  1570.  His  copper-plates  are  etched  in  a  coarse, 
incorrect  style ;  the  woodcuts  are  executed  with 
more  attention.  He  sometimes  signed  his  prints 
./.  Perrissim  fecit,  or  J.  Persinus  fecit,  and  some- 
times marked  them  with  the  monogram    U.   Zani 

thinks  that  he  was  a  German  by  birth,  an  opinion 
in  which  Nagler  seems  to  concur.  The  latter  says 
he  was  bom  in  1530,  and  quotes  the  work  referred 
to  as  being  published  in  1567  and  1674.     Brulliot 

has  given  his  monogram  thus  l|>  which  agrees  with 

Nagler,  who  calls  him  C-  Jakob.  When  he  en- 
graved conjointly  with  Tortorel  the  monogram  is 

See  also  Toktorel. 

PERRONEAU,  Jean  Baptiste,  a  French  en- 
graver, wac  bom  in  1731,  and  died  in  1796.  He 
was  instructed  by  L.  Cars.  He  engraved  also  after 
Boucher,  Van  Loo,  and  Bouehardon.  He  was  a 
painter  in  crayons,  and  was  for  a  short  time  in 
England,  where  he  exhibited  some  portraits  in  that 
niedium.  Among  other  prints,  he  has  left  two  of 
the  elements,  '  Air '  and  '  Earth,'  after  Natoire  ; 

the  companions,  '  Fire  '  and  '  Water,'  are  engraved 
by  P.  Aveline.  Perroneau  is  said  by  Siret  to  have 
died  at  Amsterdam  in  1783. 

PERROT,  Antoine  Marie,  a  French  landscape 
and  architectural  painter,  born  in  Paris  in  1787. 
He  was  a  pupil  of  Watelet  and  Michallon.  Among 
his  landscapes  are  views  of  Clisson  and  Messina. 

PERROT,  Catherine,  a  French  miniature,  flower, 
and  animal  painter,  who  flourished  in  the  17th 
century.  She  was  a  pupil  of  Nicolas  Robert,  and 
was  received  into  the  Academy  in  1682.  She 
pubhshed  some  works  on  painting  in  miniature. 
She  married  one  Claude  Horry,  a  notary. 

PERKOT,  Ferdinand  Victor,  a  French  painter, 
born  at  Paimboeuf  in  1808.  At  the  age  of  nineteen 
he  painted  for  the  small  church  of  Ploudaniel  an 
'  Assumption,'  which  attracted  a  great  deal  of  at- 
tention. He  then  went  to  Paris  to  study,  and  there 
executed  for  M.  Gudin  a  large  number  of  litho- 
graphs. He  painted  several  sea-pieces,  and  in 
1836  went  to  Italy,  where  he  produced  a  picture  of 
'  Susannah  and  the  Elders '  which  made  some  sens- 
ation. In  1840  he  went  to  St.  Petersburg,  and 
was  just  about  to  be  admitted  into  the  Academy, 
when,  yielding  to  the  severity  of  the  climate,  he 
died  in  1841. 

PERRY,  Francis,  an  English  engraver,  was  born 
at  Abingdon  in  Berkshire,  and  was  a  pupil  of  one 
of  the  Vanderbanks.  He  was  for  some  time  under 
Richardson,  but  made  little  progress  as  a  painter. 
He  afterwards  set  up  as  an  engraver,  and  for 
some  time  worked  for  the  magazines.  He  died  in 
London  in  1765.  His  best  plates  are  coins  and 
medals,  which  he  copied  with  neatness  and  pre- 
cision. He  also  engraved  some  portraits,  among 
which  we  have  the  following : 

Dr.  Ducarrel,  afl&xed  to  his  Anglo-Norman  Antiquities. 

Matthew  Hutton.. Bishop  of  Durham. 

Alexander  Pope,  Poet. 

He  also  etched  a  series  of  drawings,  by  himself, 
of  Lichfield  Cathedral. 

PERSECOUTER  (or  Persecuteur).  See  Ser- 

PERSEUS,  an  ancient  Greek  painter,  who  flour- 
ished more  than  three  hundred  years  before  Christ. 
He  was  a  disciple  of  Apelles,  and  though  greatly 
inferior  to  his  master,  he  may  be  presumed  to  have 
possessed  considerable  talents,  as  he  was  favoured 
with  the  particular  esteem  of  that  painter,  who 
addressed  a  treatise  on  art  to  him. 

PERSfiUS,  Edvard,  Swedish  painter  ;  born 
December  23, 1841,  at  Lund;  became  a  pupil  of  the 
local  Academy ;  studied  at  Dtisseldorf,  and  subse- 
quently under  Piloty  at  Munich.  Travelled  in  Italy 
in  1872,  and  then  returned  to  his  native  city  in 
1875;  painted  historical  subjects, such  as  'Katherine 
Mansdotter  and  Erich  XIV.,'  '  Judith,'  and  also 
portraits.     He  died  at  Stockholm,  October  8,  1890. 

PERSEVAL,  — ,  a  French  portrait  painter,  born 
at  Chamery  in  1745.  He  was  a  Professor  of  Draw- 
ing at  the  Royal  College  of  Pont-le-Voy.  In  the 
Museum  at  Rheims  there  is  an  old  woman's  portrait 
by  him.     He  died  in  1837. 

PERSIJN,  Renier  de,  (Perseyn,  Perztn,  &c.,) 
called  Narcissus,  was  a  painter  and  engraver,  bom 
at  Amsterdam  about  the  year  1600.  He  went  to 
Rome,  where,  in  conjunction  with  Cornells  Bloe- 
maert,  Theodor  Matham,  and  M.  Natalia,  he  en- 
graved the  statues  in  the  Palazzo  Giustiniani.  He 
married  the  daughter  of  the  glass-painter,  Theodor 
Crabeth,  who  brought  him  a  fortune  which  enabled 
him  to  drop  the  profession.     He  worked  with  the 



\_TIie  Luitvic 


burin  in   a  neat,  clear  style.     We  have  also  the 
following  plates  by  him : 

The  Portrait  of  Ariosto  ;  after  Titian. 
Baldassare,  Count  Castiglione  ;  after  Saphael. 
S.  Coster,  Physician  ;  after  Sandrart, 
Admiral  Meppel ;  after  Pierson. 
Old  Age ;  after  Rubens. 

PERSINUS.    See  Peerissim. 
PERSON,  NicOLADS,  a  German  engraver,  flour- 
ished about  the  year  1700.     He  executed  a  set  of 
indifEerent  prints  after  portraits  of  German  Arch- 
bishops ;  these  were  published  in  1696. 

PERSYN,  Jan,  a  Dutch  portrait  painter,  born  at 
The  Hague  in  1708.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Constantine 
Netscher.  He  afterwards  entered  the  Artillery, 
and  became  an  engineer  in  the  service  of  the  Dutch 

PERTUS,  Raphael,  a  Spanish  painter  of  history 
and  landscape,  who  flourished  at  Saragossa  about 
1680.  His  landscapes  were  graceful  in  composition 
and  pleasant  in  colour. 

PERUCCI,  Orazio,  an  Italian  historical  painter, 
born  at  Reggio  in  1548.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Lelio 
Orsi,  and  was  also  an  architect.  In  the  church  of 
S.  Giovanni  in  Reggio  there  is  a  picture  of  S. 
Albert  by  him.  He  died  in  1624.  His  son 
Francesco  was  also  an  artist. 

PERUGIA,  Bernardino  da,  was  a  painter  living 
in  Perugia  in  the  early  part  of  the  16th  century, 
who  has  been  often  confounded  with  Pinturicchio. 
He  established  himself  in  San  Severino  in  1509, 
and  in  1524  he  painted  an  altar-piece,  now  in  San 
Domenico  of  that  city,  representing  a  '  Virgin  and 
Child,  with  four  Saints.'  Several  paintings  ascribed 
to  him  are  to  be  seen  in  Perugia.  In  London, 
at  Dudley  House,  is  '  A  Virgin  holding  a  bird  by 
a  string,  with  the  Child  in  her  grasp.'  At  the 
Louvre,  a  '  Crucifixion,'  with  numerous  figures,  is 
generally  attributed  to  him. 

PERUGIA,  Mariano  da,  or  Mariano  di  der 
Edsterio  da,  an  obscure  scholar  of  Perugino,  to 
whom  Vasari  refers  as  the  author  of  a  picture  '  of 
slight  interest '  in  S.  Agostino,  at  Ancona.  Mariotti, 
however,  ascribes  to  him  a  better  work  in  S.  Do- 
menico, at  Perugia. 

PERUGINI,   a  landscape  painter  of  Milan,  to 
whose  pictures  figures  were  added  by  Alessandro 
PERUGINO,  Aloisi  (or  Ldigi).  See  Scaramdccia. 
PERUGINO,  Domenico,  an  obscure  painter,  who 
died  in  Home  about  1590,  aged  70  years.     He  is 
supposed  to  have  been  also  the  engraver  mentioned 
by  Vasari  as  the  author  of  certain  excellent  plates 
after  Roman  antiques  (see  vol.  v.  p.  431  [^MilanesiV) 
PERUGINO,  IL.     See  Santi,  Pietro. 
PERUGINO,  II  Cavaliehe.     See  Cerrini. 
PERUGINO,  Paolo.    See  Gismondi. 
PERUGINO,  Petruccio.     See  Montanini. 
PERUGINO,  Pietro.    See  Vanucci. 
PERUGINO,  PoLiDORO,  a  goldsmith,  who  was 
living  about  1550  at  Perugia,  and  who  may  have 
also  engraved.     It  has  been  suggested  that  he  may 
be  the  Perugino  alluded  to  by  Vasari  in  the  life  of 
Marc-Antonio  (vol.  v.  p.  431  [Mt/aii^si]). 

PERUZZI,  Baldassare,  in  spite  of  Vasari's 
elaborate  arguments  to  the  contrary,  was,  it  has 
been  incontestably  proved,  a  naiiK  of  Siena,  and 
"»M>t  in  any  way  related  to  the  noble  Florentine 
family  of  the  same  name.  His  father's  name  was 
not  Antonio,  but  Giovanni  di  Salvestro  di  Salva- 
dore,  a  weaver  from  Volterra,  who  settled  at  Siena, 

H  2 

where,  in  1481,  Baldassare  was  born.  He  appears 
to  have  been  originally  a  pupil  of  Giacomo 
Pacchiarotti,  but  came  also  markedly  under  the  in- 
fluence, first  of  Pinturicchio,  and  then  of  Sodoma : 
and,  although  other  influences  subsequently  inter- 
vened, his  work  to  the  end  abounds  in  traces  of 
the  manner  of  both  these  earlier  masters.  In  the 
field  of  architecture,  however,  his  individuality 
had  full  scope  for  development,  in  which  art  few 
before  or  since  have  excelled,  or  equalled  him.  No 
trace  can  now  be  found  of  tlie  chapel  at  Volterra 
decorated  by  liim,  of  which  Vasari  makes  mention, 
but  documentary  evidence  proves  that  in  1501  he 
was  employed  on  certain  paintings  for  the  chapel  of 
S.  Giovanni  in  the  Cathedral  at  Siena.  About  1503 
lie  left  his  home  for  the  Eternal  City,  and  among  his 
earliest  works  there  are  the  frescoes  in  the  principal 
chapel  at  S.  Onofrio.  In  spite  of  traditionary  ascrip- 
tion of  the  more  important  part  of  these  frescoes  to 
Pinturicchio,  Signer  Cavalcaselle  has  been  able  to 
prove  that  the  whole  of  the  chapel  is  really  the 
work  of  the  young  Peruzzi.  Two  other  works, 
probably  of  about  the  same  date  and  also  exhibit- 
ing the  same  affinities  with  the  style  of  Pinturicchio, 
are  to  be  found  in  the  Museum  at  Madrid :  '  The 
Rape  of  the  Sabines'  and  the  'Continence  of  Scipio'; 
wliilst  an  interesting  fragment  of  fresco  represent- 
ing the  '  Three  Graces '  in  the  Palazzo  Chigi  at 
Rome  recalls  the  celebrated  marble  group  in  the 
Cathedral  Library  of  his  native  city.  In  this  latter 
work  the  graceful  pose  and  charming  smile  of  the 
three  beautiful  heads  betray  the  influence  of 
Sodoma,  as  also  does  the  peculiar  treatment  of  the 
tree-trunks  and  foliage  in  the  background.  Of  the 
two  small  chapels  in  the  Church  of  S.  Rocco  a 
Ripetta  mentioned  by  Vasari,  one  is  totally  de- 
stroyed, and  the  other  so  injured  by  restoration  as 
to  leave  little  or  no  trace  of  the  original  work. 
Signer  Cavalcaselle,  however,  discovered  some 
much  more  impoitant  evidences  of  his  talent, 
overlooked  by  Vasari,  in  the  '  Stanza  dell'Eliodoro ' 
in  the  Vatican — work  spared  by  Raphael  from  the 
general  destruction  of  his  predecessor's  labours  in 
those  apartments.  It  is  even  suggested  by  Signer 
Morelli  that  the  portrait  introduced  into  the  fresco 
of  the  '  Expulsion  of  Heliodorus,'  generally  sup- 
posed to  be  a  likeness  of  "  Giulio  Romano,"  is 
really  one  of  "Baldassare  Peruzzi."  In  two  of 
the  saloons  of  the  Capitol  are  certain  large 
frescoes  representing  scenes  from  Roman  history, 
at  present  labelled  '  Bonfigli,' — but  attributed  at 
different  times  to  very  varied  authors — which,  in 
spite  of  much  destructive  restoration,  are  clearly 
the  work  of  Peruzzi.  Here  the  influences  of  both 
Pinturicchio  and  Sodoma  are  very  marked,  though 
the  taste  of  the  artist  himself  for  architectural 
effects  is  also  strongly  apparent.  It  was  at  about 
this  period  (1505-6)  that  he  appears  to  have  been 
particularly  attracted  to  this  latter  art,  and,  through 
the  influence  of  the  wealthy  Agostino  Chigi,  his 
fellow-citizen,  to  have  obtained  much  employment 
at  the  Vatican  from  Pope  Julius  II. ,  in  which  he 
even  rivalled  Bramante.  To  the  year  1508-9 
belongs  a  fine  work  by  him  in  mosaic,  still  existing 
in  the  crypt  of  the  Church  of  S.  Croce  in  Gierusa- 
lemrae ;  but  the  most  important  works,  both  pictorial 
and  architectural,  belonging  to  this  period,  were 
those  carried  out  by  him  for  Agostino  Chigi  at  the 
celebrated  Villa  Famesina  in  the  Trastevere,  the 
entire  plan  of  which  villa  tradition  has  till  recently 
assigned  to  Peruzzi.  Whether  this  be  so  or  not,  he 
undoubtedly  executed  important  external  decora- 


tions,  which  have  unfortunately  perished.  Those, 
however,  in  the  interior  which  still  survive,  though 
from  their  situation  placed  in  strong  contrast  with 
masterpieces  by  his  most  celebrated  contemporaries, 
hold  their  own  for  graceful  design  and  imagination, 
and  greatly  redound  to  his  credit  Throughout  all 
his  later  paintings  the  influences  of  the  two  greatest 
masters  of  the  time,  Raphael  and  Michelangelo, 
may  be  observed  striving  %vith  his  earlier  Sodom- 
esque  impressions,  blended  nevertheless  bj'  a  talent 
distinctly  individual  to  himself.  These  tendencies 
may  again  be  noticed  in  the  charming  frescoes 
painted  by  him  in  the  Capella  Ponzetti  of  the 
Church  of  the  Madonna  della  Pace.  In  1522  he 
was  invited  to  Bologna,  where  he  made  designs 
for  the  Church  of  S.  Petronio,  and  also  executed 
certain  works  for  Count  Giovanni  Battista  Benti- 
voglio.  Among  these  last  was  a  cartoon  for  the 
'  Adoration  of  the  Magi,'  subsequently  copied  by 
Girolamo  da  Treviso,  and  engraved  by  Agostino 
Carracci.  This  cartoon  is  now  in  the  National 
Gallery  in  London.  In  1520  he  had  been  ap- 
pointed by  Leo  X.  architect  of  St.  Peter's,  but  in 
1527,  at  the  Sack  of  Rome,  after  suffering  great 
hardships  and  being  plundered  of  all  his  posses- 
sions, he  escaped  to  Siena,  where  he  was  warmly 
welcomed,  appointed  City  Architect,  and  consulted 
on  a  vast  variety  of  sudjects,  artistic  and  military. 
To  him  is  due  the  removal  of  the  high  altar  and 
choir  of  the  Duonio  from  under  the  cupola  to  its 
present  position.  During  this  time  he  decorated  the 
chapel  and  certain  ceilings  at  the  Villa  Belcaro 
outside  the  city.  These  frescoes,  after  cruel  injury 
and  neglect,  have  been  carefully  restored,  but,  alas  ! 
show  little  trace  now  of  their  original  merit.  The 
Palazzo  Pollini,  formerly  "  del  Celsi,"  is  a  fine  speci- 
men of  his  architectural  skill,  of  which  examples 
abound  in  his  native  city,  and  it  contains  three 
much-injured  ceiling-paintings  by  him.  He  also 
painted  the  striking,  but  by  no  means  faultless, 
'  Sibyl  foretelling  the  Advent  of  Christ  to  the  Em- 
peror Augustus,'  in  the  Church  of  the  Fontegiusta. 
In  March  1535  he  returned  to  Rome  to  continue 
work  at  St.  Peter's,  but  died — not,  according  to 
Vasari,  without  suspicion  of  poison — on  the  7th  of 
January,  1536,  and  was  buried  in  the  Pantheon 
beside  Raphael.  As  an  architect  he  takes  raiik 
among  the  greatest,  and  is  scarcely  surpassed  by 
any,  but  as  a  painter,  althougli  he  had  much 
imagination,  grace,  and  skill  in  draughtsmanship, 
his  work  shows  rather  too  much  trace  of  the  pre- 
vailing influences  with  which  he  successively  came 
in  contact,  and  scarcely  excite  enthusiasm.  His 
taste  for  decorative  ornament  was  fine,  and  full  of 
charming  and  fanciful  conceits.  His  principal 
existing  works  with  pencil  and  brush  are  as 
follows  : 

Berlin.  Jlfa[/a:we,  98. 
(.Iliiusi.  Duomo,  Sacristy. 
Dresden.  Galhri/,  99. 

Loniiou.        A'a(.  Gallery. 

„  BriJgcuHitcr  ] 

House,  J 
„  Mr.  Jlond. 

Madrid.        Gallery,  573. 
.,        574. 
Milan.  Marchese  FassaU. 
„  Co)iie  Giovio. 

Muntpellier.  Gallery,  577. 
Munich.      Gallery,  1052. 


Annunciation.     E.  (?). 
Madonna  and  Saints. 
Adoration  of  tlie  Magi. 
Adoration     of      the      Magi. 

Adoration  of  the  Magi. 

Portrait  of  Alberti  Pio  da 
Carpi.     1512. 

Rape  of  Sabiues.     E. 

Continence  of  Scipio.     E. 

Bust  of  young  Man. 

Dido  and  jEneas. 

Bust  of  young  Man. 

Portrait  of  "  Bindo  Altoviti. " 
{Accordinti  to  Mr.  Beren- 
son.  Cent.  Italian  Painters.) 

Munster.        Gallery,  Vi.    Madonna  and  Infant  St.  John. 

in  Ar.  '  E. 

Rome.  Villa  Albani.     Madonna  with  SS.  Lawrence, 

Sebastian,       James,       and 
Donor.     E. 

„  Borghese,92.     Venus. 

„  Ca2>itol.     Frescoes  :     Sala  IV.  Judith ; 

Roman  Triumph.  E.  Sala 
VII.  Hannibal  in  Italy. 
Corsini,  706.  Flight  into  Egypt. 
Farnesina.  Frescoes :  Sala  di  Galatea, 
the  entire  ceiling,  and  in  a 
lunette  a  gigantic  Head  in 

„  ,,  Room    off    Sala    di    Psiche. 

Frieze.     All  about  15U. 

„  „  Saloon  (upper  floor).   Decora- 

tive frescoes. 

,,  I'atican.     Stanza  dell'  Eliodoro,  Fresco 

decoration  of  ceiling.    (De- 
coi-ative  work  only.) 

"       '^^'Tasfs^XIII.  ]  Jla'-'-i^Se  of  St.  Catherine.    E. 
„  Prince  Chigi.     Fresco  :  The  Tliree  Graces. 

„  *S'.  Croce  in  Gierusa-     Mosaics    (after    design)    not 

lemme.  Crypt.        later  than  1503. 
„    S.   31.   della   Pace,     Frescoes:       Madonna      with 
\st  Chapel,  L.         Saints    and     Ponzetti    as 
Donor ;      (above)     Biblical 
Scenes  1516. 

"        i:o/m"kIlTar:  ]  Presentation  of  the  Virgin. 
,,      S.  Onofrio,  Choii:     Frescoes:      Assumption    and 
other  sacred  subjects.     E. 

orio,over%tdandy'lf?°^^--      Co™"at,on,   and 
ZrdChapch,R.i      ^"■*"<'^- 
Siena.  Sala  IX.  29.     Madonnaandlnfant  St.  John. 

,,   Arcodelle  due  Porte.     Fresco:  Madonna,  Infant  St. 
Joliu,   and    Catherine.      L. 
„  Belcaro  (near  Siena).     Frescoes:      Ceiling,    Ground 
Floor.    Judgment  of  Paris. 
„      „  Loggia.     Decorations  (completely 

,,       „       Church,  Ap^e.     Madonna  and  Saints. 
„  Palazzo  Pollini.     Ceiling  Frescoes  :  Continence 

of      Scipio ;        Epipliany ; 
Stoning  of  Elders.     L. 
„    Duomo,  Chapel  of  S.     Frescoes:    Youthful 
Giovanni.        in  Desert ;  St.  John  Preach- 
ing.    1501. 

"  l^(''.!4ftar•'  z' I  ■^■"^"^''"^  ""'^  *''®  ^''^y'-     ^• 

R.  H.H.  C. 
PERUZZINI,  DOMENICO,  an  engraver,  born  at 
Pesaro,  supposed  to  have  been  the  elder  brother  of 
Giovanni  Peruzzini.  He  appears  to  have  lived 
mostly  at  Ancona,  and  flourished  from  1640  to 
1661,  according  to  the  dates  on  the  prints  attri- 
buted to  him  by  Bartsch.  These  prints  had  been 
jireviously  ascribed  to  Doviemco  Piola,  but  the 
style  is  entirely  different,  both  in  design  and 
execution.  It  is  supposed  that,  like  his  brother 
Giovanni,  he  was  a  scholar  of  Simone  Cantarini  da 
Pesaro,  and  his  etchings  resemble  those  of  that 
master,  and  of  Guido  Keni.  Subjoined  is  a  list  of 
their  titles : 

The  Holy  Virgin,  lialf-leugth,  with  the  infant  Jesus. 

D.  P.  1661. 
I'he  Virgin  seated,  with  the  Infant  on  her  knees.     D. 

P.  1661. 
Christ  tempted  by  the  Devil,  in  the  form  of  an  old  man. 

D.  P.  1642. 
Christ  bearing  liis  Cross,  with  other  figures,  half-lengths. 

B.  P.  P.  F.  engraved  on  the  cross  {circular). 
The  Holy  Family  and  Saints.    DonV^.  Per""'.  Anconae, 

St.  Anthony  of  Padua  praying,  and  the  Infant  Jesus 

appearing  to  him   ou  a  cloud  supported   by   three 

cherubim.    Bom  P.  F. 


The  Assassination.   A  man  iu  his  shirt  on  a  bed,  assailed 

by  three  soldiers,  cue  of  whom  thrusts  a  lance  into 

his  body.  D.  P.  1640. 
Four  landscapes.     The  first  is  signed  D.  P.f.  Anconae  ; 

the  others,  D.  P.  only. 
St.  Jerome  doing  Penance  in  the  Desert.     The  letters 

D.  P.  F.  are  on  a  plant  to  the  right.     {Considered 


PERUZZINI,  Giovanni,  was  born  at  Ancona, 
or  at  Pesaio,  in  1629,  and  was  a  scholar  of  Simone 
Cantarini.  There  are  several  of  his  pictures  in  the 
churches  of  his  native  city,  of  whicli  the  most 
esteemed  are  the  '  Decollation  of  St.  John,'  at  the 
Spedale ;  and  a  picture  of  '  St.  Teresa,'  at  the 
Carmelitani.  He  resided  some  time  at  Bologna, 
where  there  are  some  of  his  works  in  the  public 
edifices,  particularly  the  '  Descent  of  the  Holy 
Ghost,'  in  the  church  of  SS.  Vitale  ed  Agrioola ; 
and  a  picture  of  '  St.  Cecilia,'  in  the  church  dedicated 
to  that  Saint.  He  was  invited  to  the  court  of 
Turin,  where  he  executed  several  works,  both  in 
oil  and  in  fresco,  so  much  to  the  satisfaction  of  his 
patron,  that  he  was  made  a  knight  of  the  order  of 
St.  Maurice.  He  died  at  Jlilan  in  1694.  He  was 
vain  of  his  facihty  of  execution,  and  inscribed  on 
one  of  the  lunettes  of  the  Portico  de'  Servi  in  Bo- 
logna, "  Opus  24  Hor.  Eq.  Jo.  P."  (the  work  of 
twenty-four  hours  by  Gio.  Peruzzini,  knight).  Carlo 
Cignani,  on  reading  it,  observed,  "  Le  rainchionerie  si 
fanno  presto  "  (trifles  are  soon  done).  Giovanni's  son 
Paolo,  and  his  brother,  Domenico,  were  also  painters. 

PERY,  Nicolas,  an  obscure  historical  painter  of 
the  seventeenth  century.  He  was  received  into 
the  Guild  of  St.  Luke,  at  Brussels,  in  1736. 

PERZYN.     See  Persijn. 

PESARESE,  II  (or  Simone  da  Pesaro).  See 

PESARI,  Giovanni  Battista,  an  Italian  his- 
torical painter,  was  a  native  of  Modena.  He  lived 
some  time  at  Venice,  where  he  died  after  1650. 

PESARO,  Niccol6.     See  Trometto. 

PESCHEL,  Karl  Gottlieb,  a  German  historical 
painter,  born  at  Dresden  in  1798.  He  was  a  pupil 
of  Vogel,  and  studied  in  the  Dresden  Academy. 
In  1825  he  went  to  Rome,  where  he  remained  about 
a  year.  On  his  return  he  assisted  his  master  Vogel 
on  frescoes  at  Pilnitz.  About  1830  lie  was  ap- 
pointed a  Professor  in  the  Dresden  Academy. 
Considerable  attention  was  devoted  by  him  to 
mural  decoration,  and  good  examples  of  his  work 
are  to  be  seen  in  the  Roman  House,  Leipsic  ;  and 
at  the  Royal  Palace  at  Dresden.  He  died  in  1879. 
Amongst  his  chief  pictures  are : 

Rebecca  at  the  'Well.     {Leipsic  Museum. ) 

'  Come  unto  Me,  all  ye  that  labour.'    1851.    {Dresden 

The  Crucifixion.     {Leipsic  Jfuseum.) 
Ezekiel  in  Babylon. 

Angels  appearing  to  Jacob.     1345.     {Dresden  Gallery.) 
Holy  Family.     {Leipsic  Museum.) 

PESCI,  Gastaro,  a  Bolognese  painter  of  arnhi- 
tectural  perspectives  who  flourished  about  1776. 
No  details  of  his  life  are  known. 

PESCIA,  Mariano  da,  also  called  Graziadei, 
was  an  Italian  painter  the  time  of  whose  birth  and 
death  is  uncertain  ;  Zani  says  he  died  about  1520  ; 
others,  that  he  was  born  in  1525,  and  died  in  1550. 
It  is  also  said  that  he  was  a  scholar  of  Domenico 
Ghirlandajo,  and  assisted  him  in  liis  works  ;  but  in 
that  case  he  must  have  been  born  much  earlier,  as 
Ghirlandajo  died  in  1494.  Perhaps  it  was  Ridolfo 
Ghirlandajo.     In  the  chapel  della  Signoria,  in  the 

Palazzo  Vecchio  at  Florence,  there  is  an  altar-piece 
by  him ;  and,  in  the  Gallery,  the  '  Virgin  and 
Infant  Jesus,  with  Elizabeth  and  the  young  St. 
John.'  It  is  agreed  by  all  that  he  died  young,  and 
his  kno^vn  works  are  very  few. 

PESELLO  and  PESELLINO.     See  GinocHl. 

PESENTI,  Galeazzo,  called  II  Sabbioneta,  a 
painter  and  sculptor  of  Cremona,  who  flourished  in 
the  15th  century.  A  Martire  Pesenti,  also  called 
II  Sabbioneta,  lived  at  Cremona  at  the  end  of  the 
16th  century. 

PESNE,  Antoine,  the  son  of  Thomas  Pesne,  (a 
portrait  painter,  and  brother  of  Jean  Pesne,)  was 
born  in  Paris  in  1684  (?).  He  studied  under  his  father 
and  under  his  uncle  Cliarles  de  la  Fosse,  and  after, 
wards  spent  some  time  at  Venice  for  further  improve- 
ment. After  having  heen  received  a  member  of  the 
Paris  Academy  he  settled  at  Berlin,  where  he  became 
court  painter  to  Frederick  the  Great,  as  well  as 
Director  of  the  Academy.  He  died  at  Berlin  in 
1757.  He  painted  history  and  portraits,  and  his 
works  were  much  admired  by  the  connoisseurs  of 
the  court.  The  Galleries  of  the  Berlin  '  Schloss,'  and 
of  Potsdam  and  Sans-souci,  contain  many  of  his 
works,  and  some  elegant  genre  pictures  are  in  the 
Dresden  Gallery.  Pesne  painted  figures  in  the 
pictures  of  his  friends  C.  S.  Dubois  and  P.  C. 
Leygebe.  The  following  are  among  the  best  known 
of  his  own  pictures  : 

Portrait  of  Frederick  the  Great.     (Enyraved  by  Wille.) 
His  own  Portrait.     {Dresden  Gallei-y.    Engraved  by  G. 

F.  Schmidt.) 
Himself  and  Wife.     {Berlin  Museum.) 
Family  picture  of  the  Colonel  of  the  Swiss  Guard,  Baron 

von  Erbach. 
Tapestry  pictures  with  portraits  of  Prince  Leopold  and 

his  Family.     {Dessau  Castle.) 
Portrait  of  the  Chev.  Vleughels. 

,,  „         Painter  Dubuisson. 

,,  „        Mailame  Dubuisson. 

A  Cook  plucking  a  Turkey. 
A  Young  Girl  with  Pigeons. 
Portrait  of  the  Engraver  Scmidt  and  his  Wife. 

PE.SNE,  Jean,  a  French  engraver,  was  born  at 
Rouen  in  1623,  and  died  in  Paris  in  1700.  It  is 
not  ascertained  by  whom  he  was  instructed,  but 
he  attained  some  success  as  an  artist,  particularly 
as  a  designer.  He  produced  168  plates,  of  which 
some  are  executed  with  the  burin  alone,  and  others 
in  combination  with  the  point.  His  principal 
plates  are  from  tlie  pictures  of  Nicolas  Poussin, 
with  which  he  succeeded  admirably  ;  others  are 
after  Raphael,  Titian,  the  Carracci,  Guercino,  Giulio 
Romano,  and  others.  The  following  are  perhaps 
the  best  : 


Two  of  Nicolas  Poussin  ;  after  piftnres  by  that  painter^ 
Louis  le  Comte,  Sculptor  to  the  King. 
Fran(;ois  Langlois  ;  after  Van  Dyck. 


Assumption  of  the  Virgin. 

Esther  before  Ahasuerus. 

The  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds. 

The  dead  Christ,  with  the  Virgin  and  St.  John. 

The  Entombment. 

The  Death  of  Sapphira. 

The  Holy  Family  attended  by  Angels,  with  a  dedication 

to  Le  Brun. 
The  Vision  of  St.  Paul. 
The  Triumph  of  Galatea. 

The  Testament  of  Eudamidas  ;  one  of  his  best  prints. 



The  Seven  Sacraments,  in  seven  plates  of  two  sheets 

The  Labours  of  Hercules,  in  nineteen  plates;  from  the 

paintings  in  the  Louvre. 

The  Holy  Family;  after  Raphael. 

A  set  of  fifteeu  landscapes ;  after  Gtierczno,  and  other 

PESZKA,  Josef,  Polish  painter ;  born  February 
19, 1767,  at  Cracow;  became  a  pupil  of  Estreicher, 
and  then  of  Lampis  and  Smuglewicz  at  Warsaw. 
In  1797  he  went  to  Wilna  ;  in  1800  to  St.  Peters- 
burg, and  subsequently  to  Moscow.  Became  Court 
painter  to  Prince  Kadziwill.  He  returned  to  Cracow 
to  fill  the  post  of  Professor  at  the  University  there. 
His  choice  was  mostly  that  of  historical  and  genre 
subjects.     He  died  September  4,  1831. 

PETE,  Simon,  an  obscure  painter  of  Valladolid, 
who  flourished  about  1661. 

PETER,  Emm.,  a  German  miniature  painter, 
born  at  Jiigerndorf  in  Silesia,  in  1799.  He  died  at 
Vienna  in  1873. 

PETER,  Wenceslaus,  animal  painter,  was  born 
at  Carlsbad  in  Bohemia  in  1742.  He  applied  him- 
self successively  to  metal  working,  chasing,  and 
sculpture  before  settling  to  the  art  which  he  at  last 
adopted.  He  became  Professor  at  the  Academy  of 
San  Luca  in  Rome,  and  his  best  work  is  '  The 
Terrestrial  Paradise.'  A  '  Hen  and  Chickens '  by 
him  is  in  the  Borghese  Gallery.  He  died  at  Rome 
in  1829. 

PETERS,  Anton  de.    See  De  Peters. 

PETERS,  Bonaventura  and  Jan.    See  Peeters. 

PETERS,  Frans  Locas,  was  born  at  Mechlin  in 
1606.  He  was  the  son  of  an  obscure  painter,  from 
whom  he  learned  the  elements  of  design,  but  he 
afterwards  entered  the  school  of  Gerard  Segers. 
He  did  not,  however,  follow  the  style  of  that 
master,  but  abandoned  historical  painting  to  devote 
himself  to  landscapes.  He  was  taken  into  the 
service  of  the  Archduke  Leopold,  in  whose  employ- 
ment he  passed  the  greater  part  of  his  life.  He 
died  at  Brussels  in  1654. 

PETERS,  Gerrit.    See  Pietep.szes. 

PETERS,  Matthias,  flourished  at  Amsterdam 
about  the  year  1660,  and,  in  conjunction  with  his 
brother  Nicolaas  Peters,  engraved  the  plates  for 
the  '  Atlas  Major,'  published  by  Blaeu,  in  that  city, 
from  drawings  by  the  publisher. 

PETERS,  the  Reverend  Matthew  William, 
was  born  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  in  the  first  half  of 
the  18th  century.  His  parents  very  early  removed 
to  Ireland,  where  his  father  held  a  post  in  the  Cus- 
toms at  Dublin.  The  son  became  pupil  of  Robert 
West,  the  master  of  the  school  of  design  there,  and 
in  1759  he  obtained  a  premium  from  tlie  Society  of 
Arts.  He  was  brought  up,  however,  for  the  Chinch, 
and  came  to  hold  the  appointments  of  Prebendary 
of  Lincoln  and  chaplain  to  the  Prince  Regent.  In 
the  pursuit  of  art  as  an  amateur  he  travelled  in  Italy, 
and  when  at  Parma  he  copied  the  'St.  Jerome,' 
and  his  copy  is  now  in  the  church  at  SafEron  Walden. 
In  1782  he  also  copied,  for  the  Duke  of  Rutland, 
a  picture  by  Le  Brun  in  the  Carmelite  church  at 
Paris.  In  1771  he  was  elected  an  Associate  of  the 
Royal  Academy,  and  in  1777  a  full  Academician. 
He  resigned  in  1790,  and  died  in  1814,  at  Brasted 
Place,  in  Kent.  He  is  better  known  by  the  prints 
engraved  for  Boydell  and  Macklin  than  by  his 
paintings,  though  some  of  his  pictures  have  al- 
most the  impasto  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds.  His 
'  Resurrection  of  a  Pious  Familv, '  the 'Guardian 


Angel,'  'Cherubs,'  and  the  'Spirit  of  a  Child;' 
his  scenes  from  the  '  Merry  Wives  of  Windsor,' 
and  from  '  Much  Ado  about  Nothing,'  and  other 
theatrical  subjects,  were  very  popular.  He  painted 
many  fancy  subjects  and  also  portraits  with  much 
taste  and  elegance.  He  was  patronized  by  some 
of  the  nobility  of  his  day,  for  whom  he  painted 
subjects  very  different  from  his  '  Resurrection  of  a 
Pious  Family.'  There  are  engravings  of  several 
of  his  fancy  pieces  and  portraits  by  Bartolozzi, 
Marcuard,  Simon,  Thew,  Dickinson,  and  J.  R.Smith. 
He  was  severely  satirized  by  "  Peter  Pindar." 

PETERS,  PiETER  Francis,  the  younger,  German 
painter;  born  at  Nijmegen  in  1818;  a  pupil  of 
his  father.  After  travel  in  Germany,  Switzerland, 
France  and  Italy,  in  1845  he  settled  at  Stuttgart, 
where  with  Herdtle  he  founded  a  permanent  Art 
Exhibition ;  painted  landscapes,  such  as  '  An 
Autumn  Evening,  near  Stuttgart,'  'A  Mill,  near 
Monaco  ' ;  also  various  water-colours.  In  1872  he 
gained  the  grand  medal  in  London,  and  the  Order 
of  St.  Michael  in  1869.  He  died  at  Stuttgart, 
Feb.  23,  1903. 

PETERSEN,  Heinrich  Lhdwig,  a  Danish  en- 
graver, was  born  at  Altona  in  1806.  In  1824  he 
entered  the  Academy  of  Dresden,  and  in  1827  the 
atelier  of  Rossmasstsr.  In  the  two  following  years 
he  engraved  some  landscapes  and  portraits  at 
Heidelberg  for  the  Ehrenhalle,  and  in  1835  several 
plates  for  the  Bibliographical  Institute  at  Hild- 
burghausen,  and  for  the  Austrian  Lloyd's  Company 
some  small  landscapes  after  Rothbart  and  David. 
In  1838  he  settled  at  Nuremberg,  where  he  executed 
his  principal  plates — the  '  Madonna  della  Sedia,' 
after  Raphael ;  '  The  Tribute  Money,'  after  Titian  ; 
'  The  Children  in  the  Wood,'  after  Von  der  Eiubde, 
and  'Charles  IX.  on  the  Night  of  St.  Bartholomew.' 
From  1840  to  the  end  of  his  life  he  etched 
extensively  for  Hefner's  work  on  costumes,  and 
produced  numerous  facsimiles  from  drawings  by 
the  old  masters.  He  became  conservator  of  the 
art  collections  at  Nuremberg,  and  died  there  in 
1874.  He  was  also  a  restorer  of  engravings  and 

PETERSEN,  Johann-Erik  Christian,  marine 
painter,  was  born  at  Copenhagen  in  1839.  He 
studied  at  the  Academy  of  his  birthplace,  and  then 
under  Melbye  and  Dalil.  He  was  engaged  in  the 
war  as  a  Danish  officer  in  1864,  and  in  the  following 
year  went  to  America,  where  he  died  at  Boston 
in  1874. 

PETERSON,  Frederic,  enamel  painter,  was  a 
pupil  of  Boit,  and  died  in  London  in  1729. 

PETERZANO,  Simone,  (Preterzono,)  was  a 
native  of  Venice,  and  was  brought  up  in  the  school 
of  Titian.  He  flourished  about  the  year  1590.  His 
'  Pieta,'  in  the  church  of  San  Fedele,  at  Milan,  is 
signed  with  his  name,  to  which  he  has  added 
Titiani  discipulns.  In  the  church  of  San  Bar- 
naba,  at  Milan,  he  painted  some  frescoes  from  the 
life  of  St.  Paul.  There  is  a  fine  '  Assumption,'  in 
the  Chiesa  di  Brera,  at  Milan  by  him. 

PETHER,  Abraham,  was  born  at  Chichester 
in  1756.  In  the  early  part  of  his  life  he  ap- 
plied himself  to  the  study  of  music,  and  at  the 
age  of  nine  years,  is  said  to  have  occasionally 
performed  as  organist  in  his  native  city.  He 
afterwards  turned  his  thoughts  to  painting,  in 
which  he  was  instructed  by  George  Smith,  and 
attained  a  considerable  rank  in  the  art  as  a  land- 
scape painter,  particularly  by  his  moonlight  effects, 
whence  he  has  obtained  the  sobriqjtet  of  'Mooa« 


light  Pether.'  A  '  Harvest  Moon '  by  him  met 
with  special  adminition.  His  moonlight  pieces 
are  notable  for  their  astronomical  accuracy.  He 
exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  in  1784,  his  sub- 
ject being  '  Moonlight.'  In  1789  he  followed  this 
with  '  A  Ship  on  Fire  at  Night,'  and  at  intervals 
with  others,  till  in  1811  he  sent  a  second  'Erup- 
tion of  Vesuvius.'  Pether  not  only  distinguished 
himself  as  painter  and  musician ;  his  philosophi- 
cal and  mathematical  researches  were  of  some 
value.  He  also  showed  skill  as  a  mechanic,  and 
constructed  various  optical  instruments,  such  as 
telescopes,  misorosoopes,  air-pumps,  and  electric 
instruments.     Pether  died  April  13th,  1812. 

PETHER,  Sebastian,  the  eldest  son  of  Abraham 
Pether,  was  born  about  1790,  and  was  probably 
instructed  by  his  father,  as  he  painted  similar  sub- 
jects. His  pictures  consist  of  moonlights,  con- 
flagrations, and  sunsets,  and  exhibit  fine  feeling ; 
but  the  narrowness  of  his  circumstances,  and  the 
largeness  of  his  family,  reduced  him  to  the  necessitj' 
of  working  for  picture-dealers,  and  beyond  them  it 
does  not  appear  that  he  ever  had  a  patron,  except 
in  one  instance.  That  patron  was  Sir  John  F. 
Leicester,  Bart.,  who  commissioned  him  to  paint 
'  A  Caravan  overtaken  by  a  Whirlwind,'  which  was 
exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  in  1826,  together 
with  'The  Destruction  of  a  City  by  a  Volcano.' 
His  first  and  almost  his  only  previous  contributions 
had  been  in  1814,  when  his  subjects  were  '  A  View 
from  Chelsea  Bridge,'  and  '  The  Burning  of  Drury 
Lane  Theatre.'  He  had  considerable  knowledge 
in  the  mechanical  arts,  and,  it  is  said,  was  the 
first  that  suggested  the  idea  and  construction  of 
the  stomach-pump  to  Mr.  Jukes,  the  surgeon 
who  introduced  it  to  the  medical  profession.  His 
pictures  are  not  numerous  ;  but  they  were  a  source 
of  great  emolument  to  his  friends  the  dealers,  as 
they  could  be  readily  copied,  and  the  copies  dis- 
posed of  to  country  gentlemen  ;  whence  it  is  that 
his  name  so  frequently  appears  in  catalogues.  His 
real  works  have  considerable  merit.  He  died  at 
Battersea  in  1844. 

PETHER,  William,  painter  and  mezzotint  en- 
graver, was  the  cousin  of  Abraham  Pether,  and 
was  born  at  Carlisle  in  1731.  He  painted  por- 
traits in  oil  and  miniature,  and  studied  engraving 
under  Thomas  Frye.  He  was  admitted  into  the 
Ro}-al  Academy  in  1778,  and  exhibited  occasionally 
between  1781  and  1794.  He  died  in  London  about 
1795.  He  engraved  several  fine  plates  after  Rem- 
brandt and  other  masters,  as  well  as  a  few  from 
his  own  works.  Among  others,  we  have  the 
following  prints  by  him  : 


The  three  brothers  Smith,  Painters  of  Chichester ;   Tl'. 

Pether  pijuc.  et  fee,     1765. 
Benjamin  West ;  after  Lawranson. 
S.imuel  Chandler,  D.D. ;  after  ChamherKn. 
Fran9ois  du  Quesnoy,  Sculptor  ;  after  C.  le  Brun. 
Carlo  Tessarini,  Musician  ;  after  Palthe. 
Eembrandt's  Wife  (the  Jewish  Bride) ;  after  Remhrantlt. 
Bubens's  second  Wife  ;  after  liubens. 


The  Rabbi;  after  Hemhrandt. 
An  Officer  in  Armour  ;  after  the  same. 
An  old  Man  with  a  beard  ;  after  the  sawe. 
The  Lord  of  the  Vineyard  ;  after  the  same. 
A  Village  Festival ;  after  Teniers. 
A  Warrior  ;  half-length  ;  after  Giori/iove. 
The  Descent  from  the  Cross  •.  after  the  picture  in  King's 
College,  Cambridge,  by  DanieU  da  Votterra. 

The  Philosopher  ;  after  Jos.  Wriyht. 

The  Sculptor  ;  after  the  same. 

The  Academy  ;  after  the  same. 

The  Continence  of  the  Chevalier  Bayard  ;  after  Penny. 

The  Hermit ;  after  the  same. 

The  Alchemist ;  after  the  same. 

PETIT,  Giles  Edm6,  a  French  engraver,  was 
born  in  Paris  in  1696,  and  died  in  1760.  He  was 
a  pupil  of  J.  Chereau,  and  engraved  several  plates 
in  the  style  of  his  instructor,  the  most  esteemed 
being  his  portraits.  Among  others,  we  have  the 
following  prints  by  him  : 


Francis    I.,   King   of    France ;    after   Titian ;    for   the 

Crozat  Collection. 
Louis  Philip,  Regent  of  France  ;  after  Liotanl. 
Louis  XV.,  King  of  France  ;  after  C.  van  Loo. 
Charles  Edward  Stuart,  the  Pretender ;  after  Dupra. 
Phihbert  Papillon,  Canon  of  Dijon. 
Ren6,  Charles  de  Maupeon,  President  of  the  Parliament. 
Peter  Bayle,  Author   of    the    Historical   and   Critical 

Maria  Theresa,  Queen  of  Hungary. 
Annand  Jules,  Prince  of  Rohan  ;  after  Riffaitd. 
Henri  Charles  de  Pompone,  Abb6  of  St.  Medard. 
Jean  Fr6d6ric  Philipeaux,  Count  of  Maurepas. 
Joachim  Frau(;ois  Potier,  Duke  of  Gesvres. 


The  Disciples  at  Emmaus  ;  after  J.  Andre. 
The  Visitation  ;  after  the  same. 
The  Virgin  of  the  Rosary ;  after  the  same. 
St.  Catharine  of  Siena ;  after  the  same. 

PETIT,  Jean  Louis,  a  Frencli  historical  and 
marine  painter,  was  born  in  Paris  in  1795.  He 
was  a  pupil  of  Maudevare  and  Regnault.  He  died 
in  1876.     Works : 

Combat  of  Roland  and  Rodomont. 
The  Wreck,    f 

PETIT,  the  Rev.  John  Louis,  an  English  amateur 
draughtsman,  born  in  1801.  He  was  educated  at 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  where  he  graduated  in 
1823  as  a  senior  optime,  and  afterwards  took  holy 
orders.  Antiquarian  pursuits  were  his  delight,  and 
he  drew  the  illustrations  for  his  works  and  papers. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Institute  of  British  Archi- 
tects, and  of  the  Arclia;ological  Institute.  He  also 
produced  a  few  good  etchings.  He  died  at  Lich- 
field in  1868.     Amongst  his  publicarions  were  : 

'Remarks  on  Church  Architecture,  with  Illustrations.' 

'  Principles  of  Gothic  Architecture  as  applied  to  Pansb 

Churches.'     1845. 
'  The  Abbey  Church  of  Tewkesbury.'     1848. 
'  Architectural  Studies  in  France.'     1854. 

PETIT,  L^once,  a  French  draughtsman  and 
illustrator,  was  born  in  1839.  He  was  a  constant 
contributor  to  the  Salons  after  1869,  and  to  the 
'Journal  Amusant'  and  '  Le  Monde  Illustr^.'  He 
died  in  1884. 

PETIT,  Louis,  a  designer  and  engraver,  waa 
bom  in  Paris  in  1760,  and  was  a  scholar  of_N. 
Ponce.  He  was  much  employed  in  designing 
vignettes  and  other  book  illustrations,  which  he 
etched  with  considerable  ability.  He  died  about 
1812.  Among  his  detached  engravings  the  follow- 
ing are  most  deserving  of  notice  : 

La  Belle  Jardiniere,  jointly  with  Massard  ;  after  RaphaeL 
The  Infant  Jesus  asleep,  finished  by  Bonnet  ;  after  the 

Aurora  ;  after  the  same. 

A  Holy  Family ;  after  the  same.  , ,      „      , 

St  Romualdus ;  after  A.  Sacchi  ;  finished  by  Dam'mne. 


The  dancing  Nymphs  ;  after  Van  der  Werff. 

And  several  plates  for  Ligni's  '  History  of  the  Life  of 
Christ ' ;  among  which  are  the  '  Trans6guration,'  after 
Raphael ;  and  the  '  Last  Supper,'  after  Leonardo  da 

PETIT,  Louis  Marie,  a  French  water-colour 
painter  of  still-life  and  miniatures,  flourished  at 
Fontainebleau  at  the  end  of  the  18th  century.  He 
was  a  pupil  of  David  and  De  Moitte.      Works  : 

The  School-boy  and  the  Arts. 

Landscape  with  Mill. 

PETITOT,  Jean,  the  elder,  enameller  and  minia- 
ture painter,  was  bom  at  Geneva  in  1607.  He  was 
the  son  of  a  sculptor  and  architect,  who  designed 
him  for  a  jeweller,  and  having  frequent  occasion  to 
make  use  of  enamel  in  that  trade,  he  attained  such 
skill  in  colour,  that  he  was  advised  to  apply  him- 
self to  portrait  painting.  He  was  patronized  by 
Charles  I.  and  Louis  XIV.,  and  liis  extraordinary 
ability  %vas  deserving  of  their  protection.  In  com- 
pany with  Pierre  Bordier,  who  afterwards  became 
his  brother-in-law,  he  visited  Italy,  where  they  both 
resided  some  years.  Petitot  painted  the  heads  and 
hands,  and  Bordier  the  draperies  and  backgrounds. 
In  this  division  of  labour  tliey  visited  England, 
and  had  the  good  fortune  to  form  the  acquaint- 
ance of  Sir  Theodore  Turquet  de  Mayerne, 
physician  to  the  king,  who  had,  by  experiment, 
discovered  how  to  get  super-excellent  colour  in 
enamel.  Mayerne  introduced  Petitot  to  King 
Charles  I.,  who  retained  him  in  his  service,  and 
gave  him  apartments  at  Whitehall.  He  painted 
tlie  portraits  of  that  monarch  and  of  his  family, 
several  times.  He  copied  several  pictures  after  Van 
Dyck,  who  assisted  him  with  his  advice.  King 
Charles  often  went  to  see  him  at  work,  as  he  took 
great  pleasure  both  in  painting  and  chemical  experi- 
ments. The  death  of  his  royal  protectot  was  a  misfor- 
tune for  Petitot,  who  did  not  quit  the  exiled  family, 
but  followed  them  in  their  flight  to  Paris,  where 
he  was  looked  upon  as  one  of  their  most  faithful 
adherents.  Charles  II,,  during  his  abode  in  France, 
took  great  notice  of  Petitot,  and  introduced  him  to 
Louis  XIV.,  who  appointed  him  his  painter  in 
enamel,  and  gave  him  apartments  in  the  Louvre. 
He  painted  that  monarch  several  times,  Anne  of 
Austria,  his  mother,  and  Maria  Theresa,  his  queen. 
Being  a  zealous  Protestant,  and  dreading  the  con- 
sequences of  the  revocation  of  the  edict  of  Nantes 
in  1685,  Petitot  begged  the  king's  permission  to 
retire  to  Geneva.  Louis,  unwilling  to  part  with  so 
favourite  an  artist,  for  some  time  evaded  the  de- 
mand, and  employed  the  celebrated  Bossuet,  bishop 
of  Meaux,  to  endeavour  to  convert  him.  This  not 
succeeding,  Petitot  was  at  length  allowed  to  leave 
France,  after  a  residence  of  thirty-six  years,  and  lie 
returned  to  Switzerland.  He  settled  at  Geneva, 
but  the  crowd  of  admirers  who  came  to  see  him 
was  so  great,  that  lie  was  obliged  to  quit  Geneva 
and  retire  to  Vevay,  where  he  continued  to  exercise 
his  art  till  he  had  reached  the  age  of  84.  He  died 
in  1691. 

Petitot  was  the  first  artist  to  bring  enamel  paint- 
ing to  complete  technical  perfection.  In  the  Soutli 
Kensington  Museum  {Jones  Collection)  there  are 
fifty-two  enamel  portraits  which  are  certainly  by 
Petitot,  while  some  eight  or  ten  more  are  ascribed 
to  him  with  more  or  less  justice.  Among  tlie 
former  several  are  scarcely  to  be  equalled,  certainly 
not  to  be  excelled,  elsewhere.  Among  them  we 
may  name  six  portraits  of  Louis  XIV.,  and  por- 
traits  of  Sully,  La    Valliere,  Vendome,   Olympia 


and  Hortense  Mancini,  Richelieu,  Mazarin,  Mme. 
de  S^vign^,  Moliere,  '  La  Grande  Mademoiselle,' 
Mme.  de  Montespan,  the  Duke  of  Orleans,  Armand 
de  Meilleraye,  Turenne,  and  Ninon  de  I'Enclos.  In 
tlie  Apollo  Gallery  of  the  Louvre  are  about  sixty 
of  Jean  Petitot's  finest  enamels,  consisting  of  por- 
traits of  Louis  XIV.,  of  his  family,  of  ladies  of  the 
Court,  and  of  the  statesmen  and  military  com- 
manders of  France. 

PETITOT,  Jean  Lonis,  the  younger,  the  son  of 
Jean  Petitot  the  elder,  was  born  in  or  about  1660. 
He  was  instructed  in  enamelling  by  his  father. 
He  settled  in  London,  where  he  exercised  his  art 
with  considerable  success,  and  painted  for  Charles 
II.  up  to  1682,  when  he  removed  to  Paris.  In 
1695  he  returned  to  London,  where  eventually 
he  died.  His  works  are  inferior  to  those  of  liis 
father,  though  they  possess  great  merit.  A  few 
of  the  best  are  at  South  Kensington,  and  others 
are  in  the  Dartrey  Collection.  Among  others  he 
painted : 

Charles  11. 

Peter  the  Great. 

Queen  Catherine. 

The  Due  de  Berry. 

The  Due  d'Anjou. 

PETRAZZI,  AsTOLFO,  was  a  native  of  Siena,  and 
flourished  about  the  year  1635.  He  was  a  scholar 
of  Ventura  Salimbeni  and  Pietro  Sorri,  and,  accord- 
ing to  Baldinucci,  painted  some  pictures  for  the 
public  edifices  and  private  collections  at  Siena. 
One  of  his  principal  works  is  the  '  Communion  of  St. 
Jerome,'  at  the  Agostiniani  at  Siena,  in  which  he 
exhibits  something  of  the  style  of  the  Carracci.  He 
excelled  in  painting  children,  whom  he  introduced 
very  happily  into  his  emblematical  subjects.  Such 
are  his  '  Four  Seasons  '  in  tlie  Villa  Chigi,  at  Volte, 
which  are  admired  for  tlie  playfulness  and  ingenuity 
of  the  groups.     He  died  in  1665. 

PETRI,  Heinrich,  was  born  at  Gottingen  in 
1835.  At  the  age  of  seventeen  he  entered  the 
Academy  in  Diisseldorf  In  1854  his  first  paid 
work  was  a  copy  of  a  '  Madonna '  after  Deger. 
He  was  for  a  short  time  at  Munich  in  1857,  and  in 
the  following  year  proceeded  to  Rome,  where  he 
studied  the  masters  of  the  early  Renaissance  and 
Overbeck.  After  his  return  he,  in  1861-2,  painted 
in  encaustic  in  the  convent  chapel  of  Nonnen- 
werth,  particularly  a  '  Descent  from  the  Cross,' 
which  attracted  general  attention.  In  1868  he 
paid  a  second  visit  to  Rome,  in  order  to  paint  an 
altar-piece  for  Lisbon.  In  1870  we  find  him  at 
Diisseldorf  producing  a  '  Virgin  and  St.  John 
weeping  over  the  Body  of  Christ,'  and  in  1871  his 
chef  d'cenvre,  'The  Virgin  as  the  Protectress  of 
poor  Children.'  He  died  at  Diisseldorf  in  February 

PETRI,  PiETRO  DE,  was  born,  according  to 
Orlandi,  at  Premia,  in  the  Novarese  state,  in  1671  ; 
Zani,  however,  says  he  was  born  in  1663,  and  died 
in  1716.  He  studied  at  Rome,  in  the  school  of 
Carlo  Maratti.  He  painted  history,  and  united 
with  the  style  of  Maratti  somewliat  of  the  taste  of 
Pietro  da  Cortona.  One  of  his  principal  works  at 
Rome  is  a  picture  of  the  '  Crucifixion,' in  the  church 
of  SS.  Vinceiito  ed  Anastasio :  he  also  painted 
some  frescoes  in  the  tribune  of  San  Clemente.  We 
have  a  few  etchings  by  this  artist  from  his  own 
designs,  executed  in  the  style  of  a  painter,  among 
which  are  : 

The  Assumption  of  the  Virgiu. 
San  Lorenzo  Criustiniano. 


[  The  lAii/vrc 




[^The  Louvre 





Zani  distinguislies  Inm  from  Pietro  Antonio  de 
Petri,  or  Pitri,  towhom  Bartsch  has  assigned  four 
engravings  in  addition  to  the  two  above  named. 
Zani  says  the  latter  was  born  at  Rome. 

PETRIE,  George,  a  landscape  painter,  the  son 
of  James  Petrie,  was  born  at  Dublin  in  1789.  His 
art-training  was  gained  in  the  school  of  the  Dublin 
Society.  He  was  much  devoted  to  antiquarian 
pursuits,  and  furnished  many  drawings  for  the 
illustration  of  works  on  Ireland.  In  1810  he  visited 
Wales,  and  in  1813  London,  in  company  with 
Danby  and  O'Connor.  In  1816  he  exhibited  at  the 
Royal  Academy.  In  1826  lie  was  elected  an  as- 
fiociate  of  the  Hibernian  Academy,  becoming  a 
full  member  in  1828,  and  subsequently  president. 
From  1833  to  1839  he  was  entirely  employed  on 
the  Ordnance  Survey  of  Ireland,  and  took  charge 
of  the  topographical  and  antiquarian  branch  of  the 
work.  In  1845  he  visited  Scotland.  In  1847  he 
received  the  honorary  degree  of  D.C.L.  from  the 
University  of  Dublin,  and  in  1849,  a  pension  on  the 
Civil  List.  He  resigned  the  presidency  of  the 
R.H.A.  in  1859,  and  died  at  Dublin  in  1866.  He 
published  much  relating  to  archiEology  ;  his 
magnum  opus  is  '  On  the  Ecclesiastical  Architec- 
ture of  Ireland ; '  but  in  early  life  he  contributed 
many  papers  to  the  '  Dublin  Examiner,'  and  similar 

PETRIE,  James,  a  Scotch  portrait  painter  of  the 
18th  century,  born  at  Aberdeen.  About  1780  he 
settled  in  Dublin,  and  obtained  a  good  practice 
there.  In  the  troubled  times  of  the  Irish  Rebellion 
he  was  a  firm  loyalist,  but  nevertheless  he  painted 
several  members  of  the  'patriot'  party,  among 
them  Emmet,  Curran,  and  Lord  Edward  Fitzgerald. 

PETRINI,  Cav.  Giuseppe,  an  Italian  painter, 
born  at  Carono,  in  the  Luganese,  about  1700.  He 
was  a  pupil  of  Strozzi,  and  painted  historical 
subjects.     He  died  about  1780. 

PETTER,  Anton,  was  born  at  Vienna  in  April, 
1781.  In  1808_  he  visited  Home,  and  in  1814 
obtained  admission  to  the  Vienna  Academy  with 
liis  '  Meleager  murdered  by  his  mother  in  his  wife's 
arms.'  In  1820  he  became  professor  to  the  Aca- 
demy, and  in  1828  director.  He  died  at  Vienna  in 
1858.     His  principal  historical  pictures  are: 

Ma-^imilian's  meeting  with  his  BriJe,  Mary  of  Burgundy. 
(/«  the  Johanneum  at  Gratz.) 

Meeting  of  the  same  Royal  Couple,  the  Consort  holding 
their  little  son  Philip  in  her  arms,  after  the  Battle  of 
Guinegate.     {Belvedere.) 

Joanna  of  Aragon  by  her  husband's  cofEn. 

Charles  V.'s  visit  to  Francis  I. 

Rudolf  of  Hapsburg  by  Ottokar's  corpse  ;  tcilh  other 
subjects  from  Fi/rker's  '  Rudolphias.' 

PETTER,  Franz  Xaver,  flower  painter,  was 
born  at  Vienna  in  1791,  and  died  in  1866.  He  was 
a  pupil  of  Drechsler  in  the  Academy,  and  afterwards 
became  a  professor  there.  The  Belvedere  possesses 
a  '  Vase  of  Flowers'  by  him  (183.S). 

PETTIE,  John,  the  son  of  Alexander  Pettie,  a 
tradesman,  was  born  at  Edinburgh  on  March  17, 
1839,  and  a  few  years  later  removed  with  his  parents 
to  East  Linton,  in  Haddingtonshire.  As  a  boy  in 
the  village  school  he  showed  an  early  predilection 
for  figure  subjects  in  preference  to  landscape,  and 
was  continually  drawing  portraits  of  himself  and 
his  relations,  and  sketching  the  local  celebrities. 
His  resolve  to  become  an  artist  was  encouraged 
by  his  parents,  and  he  was  sent  to  Edinburgh  to 
reside  with  his  uncle,  Robert  Frier,  a  well-known 
teacher  of  drawing.  At  the  age  of  seventeen  he 
entered  the  Trustees'    Academy,  then   under  the 

care  of  Robert  Scott  Lauder,  and  among  his 
fellow-students  were  W.  Q.  Orchardson,  J.  Mac- 
Whirter,  Peter  Graham,  Tom  Graham,  G.  Paul 
Chalmers,  and  W.  MacTaggart.  Pettie's  first  ex- 
hibited picture,  '  The  Prison  Pet,'  appeared  at  the 
Royal  Scottish  Academy  in  1858,  and  among  his 
other  early  paintings  in  Edinburgh  were  :  '  False 
Dice,"  Convent  Hospitality,'  'Distressed  Cavaliers,' 
'  Morning  Prayer,'  and  '  Evening  Prayer.'  In  1860 
'  The  Armourers '  was  hung  on  the  line  at  the 
Royal  Academy,  and  in  the  following  year  he 
was  represented  by  'What  d'ye  lack.  Madam'?' 
Encouraged  by  this  success  he  moved  in  1862 
to  London,  where  he  shared  a  studio  with 
Orchardson,  and  from  that  date  contributed  yearly 
to  the  Academy,  exhibiting  119  pictures  in  all. 
Nearly  the  whole  coterie  of  Scott  Lauder's  pupils 
had  gathered  about  this  time  in  London,  and  met 
in  one  another's  studios  once  a  week  to  renew  a 
Sketch  Club  they  had  started  in  Edinburgh.  On 
his  marriage  in  1865  Pettie  went  to  live  in  St. 
John's  Wood  Road,  and  later  built  "  The  Lothians  " 
in  Fitzjohn's  Avenue,  where  his  kindly,  genial  and 
hospitable  nature  drew  round  him  a  large  circle  of 
friends.  In  1866  he  was  elected  A.R.A.,  and 
became  a  full  member  of  the  Academy  in  succes- 
sion to  Sir  Edwin  Landseer  in  1873,  exhibiting 
'Jacobites,  1745,'  as  his  diploma  picture.  Towards 
the  end  of  his  life  he  became  a  popular  portrait 
painter,  but  it  was  in  historical  and  genre  pictures 
that  he  excelled.  He  was  a  keen,  rapid  and 
enthusiastic  worker.  His  strong  vigorous  nature 
found  its  own  expression  in  his  pictures,  which 
were  always  dramatic,  and  always  characterized 
by  a  rich  glow  of  colour.  In  his  early  years  he 
contributed  to  the  book  illustrations  for  which  the 
"  sixties  "  are  famous,  making  several  drawings  for 
'Good  Words'  from  1861  to  186,3.  In  1868  and 
1869  wood-engravings  after  his  drawings  appeared 
in  the  '  Sunday  Magazine.'  He  also  illustrated  'The 
Postman's  Bag'  (along  with  J.  MacWhirter),  and 
Wordsworth's  '  Poetry  for  the  Young'  in  1863.  In 
1891  Pettie  began  to  suffer  from  an  aifection  of 
the  ear,  produced  by  an  abscess  on  the  brain,  which 
caused  his  death  at  Hastings  on  Feb.  21, 1893.  He 
was  buried  in  Paddington  Cemetery  on  Feb.  27. 

Among  his  more  important  pictures  besides 
those  mentioned  were:  'Terms  to  the  Besieged' 
(1872);  'The  Flag  of  Truce' (1873);  'The  Step' 
(1876)  ;  'The  Sword  and  Dagger  Fight'  (1877); 
'The  Death  Warrant'  (1879)  ;  '  Before  his  Peers' 
(1881)  ;  •  Monmouth  and  James  II. '  (1882)  ;  '  The 
Vigil'  (1884)  (bought  under  the  terms  of  the 
Chantrey  Bequest,  and  now  in  the  Tate  Gallery)  ; 
'  Challenged '  and  'Sir  Peter  Teazle'  (1885);  'The 
Chieftain's  Candlesticks'  (1886)  ;  'Two  Strings  to 
her  Bow'  (1887);  'The  Traitor'  (1889);  'The 
World  went  very  well  then'  (1890);  and  'The 
Ultimatum'  (1892).  Among  his  principal  portraits 
are  those  of  Bret  Harte  (1885)  ;  Sir  Walter 
Besant  (1887)  ;  Charles  Wyndham  as  David  Gar- 
rick  (1888)  ;  the  Rev.  Oswald  Dykes,  D.D.  (1889  ; 
now  at  Westminster  College,  Cambridge) ;  and  Sir 
August  Manns  (1892).  In  1894-5  a  selection  of 
his  works  was  included  in  the  Winter  Exhibition 
of  the  Royal  Academy.  n  H. 

PETTIT,  Joseph  Paul,  a  landscape  painter,  who 
died  at  Balsall  Heath  near  Birmingham  in  1882. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Society  of  British  Artists, 
and  an  exhibitor  at  the  Academy,  British  Institu- 
tion, and  Suffolk  Street  Exhibitions  from  1845  to 



PETTY,  Robert,  painter,  was  bom  in  London 
about  1740.  He  resided  mostly  at  Hamburg,  where 
he  painted  birds,  fruits,  and  flowers  in  water-colours. 
He  died  in  Holland  in  1789. 

PETZHOLDT,  Ernst  Christian  Frederik, 
landscape  painter,  was  born  at  Copenhagen  in 
1805,  and  studied  from  1825  at  the  Academy  and 
under  Eckersberg.  He  won  medals  in  1827  and 
1828,  and  in  the  following  year  travelled  in  the 
Harz  mountains.  From  1830  to  1835  he  was 
occupied  in  a  visit  to  Italy  and  Sicily,  and  went  in 
1836  to  Munich,  and  thence  to  Italy  a  second  time, 
and  to  Greece,  where  he  died  suddenly  at  Patras  in 
1839.     Among  his  best  paintings  are  : 

Sketch  at  Capri. 

Hadrian's  Villa  at  Tivoli.     (Copenhaijen  Gallery.) 

View  from  the  Villa  Pamfili. 

View  on  the  Pontine  Marshes. 

PETZL,  Joseph,  genre  painter,  was  born  at 
Munich  in  1803.  After  studying  under  Langer  in 
the  Munich  Academy,  he  placed  himself  under 
Begas  in  Berlin,  and  afterwards  set  off  on  a  journey 
through  Bohemia,  Saxony,  Hanover,  Schleswig, 
and  Sweden.  In  1832-4  he  went  to  Rome,  and,  in 
the  suite  of  the  King  of  Greece,  to  Constantinople. 
He  afterwards  spent  two  years  at  Venice.  He  died 
at  Munich  in  1871.     His  principal  pictures  are  : 

Greek  Chieftains.  (In  possession  of  H.  Jdnisch,  Hamburg.) 

Greek  Wedding. 

The  Division  of  au  Inheritance. 

The  runaway  Daughter  among  Actors. 

Slaye-dealer  and  Eunuchs  bringing  Female  Slaves  be- 
fore the  Pacha.     (Kosenstein,  tituttgart.) 

The  Novice  {enyraved  hy  Bald). 

Scene  in  an  Inn  {lithoi/raphed  by  Letter). 

Tyrolese  Fugitives  [h'thoifraphed  by  Ziinmermann). 

The  Invalid  (lithoqraphed  In/  Jlohe). 

The  Crack  Shot  [lithographed  by  Btrgmann). 

PEUTEMAN,  PiETER,  (or  Nicolaas,)  was  bom 
at  Rotterdam  in  1650  or  1657.  He  excelled  in 
painting  objects  of  still-life,  such  as  musical  instru- 
ments, books,  vases,  &c.  Balkema  attributes  his- 
torical works  also  to  him.  His  death  is  said  to 
have  been  occasioned  by  terror.  One  day  in  1692 
Peuteman  fell  asleep  in  the  dissecting  room  of  the 
Rotterdam  Hospital,  where  he  was  studying 
anatomy.  He  was  awakened  by  a  movement  a- 
uiong  the  bones  and  skeletons  in  the  room,  which 
had  been  set  in  motion  by  a  sudden  earthquake. 
From  the  fright  thus  caused  he  never  recovered. 
Peuteman  engraved  many  of  his  own  works. 

PEYNAUD,  Jacques  Franqois,  was  born  at 
La  Fert^  St.  Aubin  in  1771.  He  was  a  pupil  of  the 
Academy  of  Orleans,  and  of  Girodet  and  Aubry, 
and  for  eighteen  years  was  director  of  the  free 
school  of  design  at  St.  Malo.  His  principal  works 
are,  the  '  Martyrdom  of  St.  Clement,'  at  Caucales  ; 
'  Souls  in  Purgatory,'  at  Pleustuis  ;  and  a  portrait  of 
Maupertuis,  now  at  St.  Malo.  He  died  at  St.  Malo 
in  1829. 

PEYRANNE,  Philippe,  a  French  painter  who 
flourished  at  Toulouse  about  1780.  He  was  a 
pupil  of  Suau.joere,  and  of  David,  and  painted  hi.s- 
torical  and  still-life  pictures.     Works  : 

Young  Girls  studying  Art. 

Martyrdom  of  St.  Stephen.     (3Iouchy.) 

PEYRE,  Antoine  Francjois,  an  architect,  and 
brother  of  Mathieu  Joseph  Peyre  ;  he  painted  a  few 
pictures.     He  was  born  in  1739  ;  died  in  1823. 

PEYROL,  Juliette  Bonheur,  French  painter ; 
born  July  19, 1831,  in  Paris  ;  she  was  a  sister  of  the 
famous  Rosa  Bonheur  ;  studied  with  her  father, 
Raymond  Bonheur ;  made  her  debut  with  pictures  of 


still-life,  but  soon  devoted  her  attention  to  animals, 
her  studies  of  sheep  being  specially  noteworthy. 
Her  work  was  often  shown  at  London  Exhibitions 
of  French  art,  as,  for  instance,  at  the  French  Gallery, 
Pall  Mall.  She  married  the  French  artist  Peyrol, 
and  became  the  Directress  of  an  Art  School  in 
Paris.     Here  she  died  in  1891. 

PEYRON,  Jean  FRANgois  Pierre,  a  French  his- 
torical painter  and  engraver,  was  bom  at  Aix  in 
1744,  and  died  in  Paris  in  1820.     He  was  a  scholar 
of  Arnulfi  and  of  the  elder  Lagrenee.    His  subjects 
are  from  the  ancient  poets,  and  from  Greek  and 
Roman  history,  occasionally  also  from  events  oc- 
curring in   his  own   time,  such   as  the  death   of 
General  Walhubert  at  the  battle  of  Austerlitz.^    In 
1773  he  obtained  with  his  '  Death  of  Seneca '  the 
Grand  Prix  de  Rome,  and  accordingly  went  to  that 
city,  where  he  studied  from  the  antique  and  from 
nature;  painting  also  his  pictureof'Cimon  allowing 
himself  to  be  taken  Prisoner  in  order  to  see  after 
his   Father's  Funeral.'     In    1781    he   returned   to 
Paris,  and  was  in  1787  admitted  a  member  of  the 
Academy,  with  a  picture  of  '  Dentatus,'  now  at 
Fontainebleau.     The  greater  number  of  his  pictures 
were  executed  between  1780  and  1800,  but  he  con- 
tinued to  exhibit  till  1812.     He  engraved  several 
subjects  after  Raphael,  Poussin,  and  after  his  own 
designs.     He  was  director  of  the  Gobelins  Manu- 
factory in  1787,  and  executed  many   cartoons  for 
that   establishment.      Tlie  Revolution  caused  hira 
much  privation  and  suffering,  which  he  bore  with 
exemplary  patience.     Works : 

The  Funeral  of  Miltiades.     (Paris. 

Alcestis  and  Admi-tus. 

Paul  Emihus,  the  conqueror  of  Perseus. 

PFANNSCHMIDT,  Karl  Gottfried,  German 
painter  ;  born  September  15,  1819,  at  Miihlhausen, 
and  was  a  pupil  of  Cornelius  and  Dage  at  Berlin  ; 
he  afterwards  travelled  much  in  Italy.  He  became 
Professor  at  the  Berlin  Academy,  his  art  being,  as 
it  were,  an  echo  of  the  classic  school  prevalent 
in  the  first  half  of  the  19th  century.  Of  his 
works  we  may  mention  '  Caritas,'  '  Abendmahl,' 
and  'Altar'  (in  St.  Paul's  Church,  Schwerin).  Many 
of  his  drawings  were  published.  He  obtained  the 
P.erlin  gold  medal  in  1884,  and  also  the  Red 
Eagle  of  the  fourth  class.  He  died  July  5, 1887,  at 

PFAKSTILL,  LUDWIG,  (Pfanstil,  or  Pfannen- 
STIL,)  a  painter  and  engraver  who  was  born  at 
Vienna  at  the  beginning  of  the  17th  century,  and 
died  at  Frankfort  in  1665.  He  painted  portraits 
and  allegories,  and  engraved  a  '  Pieta  '  in  mezzotint. 

PFEFFEL,  JoHANN  Andreas,  a  German  en- 
graver, was  born  at  Bischoffingen  in  1674.  He  re- 
sided at  Vienna,  where  he  produced  among  other 
plates  a  portrait  of  the  Emperor  Leopold.  He  after- 
wards removed  to  Augsburg,  where  he  followed 
the  business  of  a  printseller.  His  works,  as  an 
engraver,  were  chiefly  confined  to  architecture  and 
ornamental  foliage,  which  he  executed  in  a  neat 
style.  In  conjunction  with  C.  Engelbrecht,  he  en- 
graved a  set  of  plates  of  jewellery  ornaments,  from 
the  designs  of  A.  Morison  ;  and  executed  part  of 
the  plates  for  the  '  History  of  Architecture,'  pub- 
lished at  Vienna  in  1721  by  John  Henhard  Fischers. 
Scheuchzer's  Bible  was  one  of  the  works  issued 
from  his  establishment  at  Augsburg.  Finally  he 
became  Court  engraver  at  Vienna,  where  he  died 
in  1750.  His  son  Johann  Andreas  Pfeffel  the 
younger  was  born  at  Augsburg  in  1715,  and  died 


in  1768.  He  also  worked  upon  the  plates  of 
Scheuchzer's  Bible. 

PFEIFFER,  Francois  Joseph,  a  portrait  painter 
and  engraver,  born  at  Aix-la-Chapelle  in  1741. 
He  practised  for  many  years  at  Amsterdam,  but 
late  in  life  he  settled  at  Brussels,  where  he  died  in 

PFEIFFER,  Franqois  Joseph,  a  designer,  en- 
graver, and  lithographer,  the  son  of  the  preceding, 
was  born  at  Liege  in  1778.  For  several  years  he 
was  engaged  as  a  scene-painter  at  Amsterdam. 
He  died  at  Terburg  in  1835. 

PFEIFFER,  Karl  Hermann,  an  engraver,  was 
born  at  Frankfort  in  1769.  He  studied  at  the 
Royal  Academy  at  Vienna,  under  the  Professor  Cli. 
Brand.  He  worked  with  point  and  burin,  in  tlie 
English  manner,  and  was  a  very  industrious  artist. 
He  died  at  Vienna  in  1829.  His  engravings  are 
numerous,  particularly  of  portraits,  which  are 
cliiefly  of  German  nobility,  and  persons  of  science 
and  letters,  of  his  time.  He  also  engraved  after 
some  of  the  older  Italian  and  other  painters,  such  as 
Raphael,  Correggio,  Fra  Bartolommeo,  Giuliano  da 
Parma,  Sassoferrato,  Rubens,  Lampi,  Oelenhainz, 
and  Fiiger.     Among  his  plates  we  may  mention  : 

Virgin  with  the  Child  and  St.  John  ;  after  Raphael. 
VcQus  and  Cupid  ;  after  Correggio. 
Kubens's  Portrait ;  after  Kuliens. 

_  PFENNINGER,  Elizabeth,  the  niece  of  Hein- 
rich  Pfenninger,  was  born  at  Zurich  in  1772,  and 
died  after  1836.  She  was  a  miniature  painter,  and 
studied  in  Geneva  under  Boileau  and  Bouvier,  and 
in  Paris  under  Renault  and  Augustin.  Her  minia- 
tures are  well-handled. 

PFENNINGER,  Heinrich,  a  Swiss  painter  and 
engraver,  born  at  Zurich  in  1749.  He  was  a  scholar 
of  Jan  Balthasar  Bullinger,  under  whom  he  spent 
five  years,  and  afterwards  went  to  Dresden,  where 
he  worked  under  Zingg  and  Graf,  and  by  virtue  of 
his  access  to  the  Electoral  Gallery,  devoted  himself 
to  a  study  of  the  best  masters,  particularly  Van 
Dyck  and  Rembrandt.  On  his  return  to  Switzer- 
land, he  was  engaged  by  Lavater  to  make  the 
designs  and  engrave  some  of  the  plates  for  his  work 
on  Physiognomy.  In  1795  he  visited  Paris,  and 
in  1808  Hungary.  He  died  in  1815.  He  was 
much  employed  as  a  portrait  painter,  and  has 
etched  a  great  number  of  plates  of  portraits  and 
views  in  Switzerland.  He  engraved  some  of  the 
portraits  for  Fiissli's  '  Supplement  to  the  Lives  of 
the  Swiss  Painters.'  We  have  also  the  following 
by  him  : 

A  set  of  seventy-five  Portraits  of  Illustrious  Personages 
of  Switzerland,  accompanied  with  an  abridged  history 
of  their  Uves  by  Leonard  Meister.     1T81. 

Thirty-four  Portraits  of  the  most  celebrated  German 
Poets,  with  their  characters,  by  L.  Meister.     1785. 

A  set  of  six  Views  in  Switzerland. 

He  signed  his  work  if.  iy. ;  H.  Ff.  fecit;  Heinr. 
Pf.;  and  Ff en.  fee. 

PFENNINGER,  Johannes,  painter  and  engraver, 
was  born  at  Stafa,  by  Lake  Zurich,  in  1765.  He 
learnt  engraving  under  H.  von  Mechel  in  Basle, 
and  painting  in  Rome  (1794-9).  After  this  he  re- 
turned to  Zurich  and  occupied  himself  on  portraits, 
principally  miniatures  in  water-colour.  He  died 
at  Zurich  in  1825.     Among  his  works  are  : 

The  first  Navigator  {engraved  by  Hegi). 

The  Laocoon  Group,  in  sepia. 

The  Dismissal  of  Hagar  ;  the  same. 

The  Crucifixion  ;  after  Michelangeh  ;  in  Indian  ink. 

PFLUG,  Johann  Baptist,  genre  painter,  was 
bom  at  Biberach  in  1785,  and  studied  at  the  Munich 
Academy  in  1805-9.  After  this  he  became  a 
teacher  of  drawing  in  his  native  town,  and  devoted 
himself  to  painting  humorous  scenes  from  the 
popular  life  of  Upper  Swabia,  and  also  military 
pictures  and  a  few  portraits.  He  died  at  Biberach 
in  1865.  Several  of  his  works  are  at  the  Rosenstein, 
near  Stuttgart.  Noticeable  among  his  productions 
are : 

A  Peasants'  "Wedding. 

The  Gipsy  Family. 

The  Gamesters. 

The  Village  Alehouse. 

"Washing  Day. 

The  Battle  of  Stockach.     1842. 

Distribution  of  Medals  to  Veterans.     1843. 

Austrian  Hussars.     1844. 

March  of  the  Kussians  from  the  Waldsee. 

PFORR,  Franz,  historical  painter,  was  born  at 
Frankfort-on-the-Maine  in  1788.  He  was  the  son 
of  the  better  known  Johann  Georg  Pforr.  His 
first  master  was  his  uncle,  Tischbein,  the  in- 
spector of  the  Cassel  Gallery.  In  1805  he  went 
to  the  Academy  of  Vienna,  and  studied  under 
Fiiger,  and  it  was  there  that  he  made  the  acquaint- 
ance of  Overbeck.  In  1810  he  went  to  Rome. 
Cornelius,  too,  entered  into  friendship  with  Over- 
beck  and  Pforr,  and  both  of  these  artists,  who 
outlived  Pforr,  spoke  in  high  terms  of  his  talent, 
and  confessed  themselves  indebted  to  the  taste 
which  he  always  displayed  in  his  works.  Pforr 
died  at  Albano  in  1812.  His  subjects  were  taken 
from  Scripture,  from  German  legends,  or  from 
his  own  fancy.  The  Stadel  Institute  has  a  picture 
by  him  entitled  '  Rudolf  of  Hapsburg  presenting 
his  Horse  to  an  Ecclesiastic' 

PFORR,  Johann  Georg,  animal  painter  and 
etcher,  was  born  at  Upfen,  near  Eisenach,  in  1745. 
He  was  working  at  the  mine  at  Richelsdorf,  when 
the  Hessian  minister,  Waitz,  discovered  his  talent, 
and  placed  him  in  his  own  porcelain  factory.  In 
1777  he  entered  the  Academy  at  Cassel,  where  in 
the  following  year  he  obtained  the  first  prize,  and 
in  the  next  year  was  admitted  a  member.  In  1781 
he  settled  in  Frankfort,  where  he  died  in  1798. 
He  had  a  passionate  fondness  for  horses,  which  led 
him  to  paint  them  with  a  success  hardly  sur- 
passed. He  worked  well  in  sepia  and  Indian 
ink,  and  was  a  good  etcher ;  but  he  could  not 
render  the  human  figure  with  freedom.  The  Stadel 
Institute  at  Frankfort  possesses  eight  of  his  pictures. 

PFRUNDT,  Georg,  (or  Pfrdnd,)  was  born  at 
Flachslanden,  in  Bavaria,  in  1603,  and  died  at 
Durlach  in  1663.  According  to  Sandrart,  he  en- 
graved a  considerable  number  of  architectural  and 
geographical  subjects.  He  was  an  engineer, 
sculptor,  modeller  in  was,  and  steel  engraver,  and 
served  the  Duke  of  Weimar  in  the  first  of  these 

PHEIDIAS,  the  celebrated  sculptor,  who  was 
born  at  Atliens  about  500  B.C.,  and  died  about  430, 
is  said  by  Pliny  to  have  painted  at  Atliens  a  picture 
of  Pericles  as  the  Olympian  Jupiter. 

PHELPS,  Richard,  a  portrait  painter  who  prac- 
tised in  England  in  the  first  half  of  the  18th  century. 
J.  Faber  engraved  after  him  a  portrait  of  Bampfield 
Moore  Carew. 

PHILESIUS,  Rigmann,  a  German  engraver  on 
wood,  resided,  according  to  Papillon,  at  Strasburg 
in  the  beginning  of  the  16th  century.  He  executed 
a  set  of  twenty-five  cuts  of  the  Life  and  Passion  of 



our  Saviour,  published  at  Strashuig,  by  John 
Knoblauch,  in  1508.  He  was  also  a  carver  of  wood. 
Zani  notices  hira  under  the  names  Rigman,  Pki- 
lesius,  and  Philery,  or  Phillery. 

PHILIP  IV.  of  Spain  (1605-1665)  was  an 
amateur  painter.  He  produced  among  other  pic- 
tures a  'St.  James  with  the  Lamb,'  'Jesus  with  St. 
John,'  and  a  '  JIagdalen  in  the  Desert.'  Philip  V. 
(1683-17-16),  according  to  Palomino,  was  also  an 
amateur  artist,  drawing  in  pen  and  ink  with  skill 
and  facility. 

PHILIPPE,  Je.4N  B.  C.     See  Chatelain. 

PHILIPPE,  PlETER,  was  a  Dutch  engraver,  who 
flourished  at  the  Hague  about  the  year  1660.  We 
have  by  hira  a  few  plates  of  portraits  and  festivals, 
among  which  are  the  following: 


Louis  Henri,  Prince  of  Nassau  ;  P.  Philippe  fee. 
Henri  Charles  de  la  Tremouille,  Prince  ds  Tarente ; 
ajter  Van  der  Bank. 

The  Assembly  of  the  States-General  of  Holland ;  after 

A  grand  Festival ;  after  the  same. 
A  set  of  Merry-makings ;  after  Van  der  Venne.     1600. 

PHILIPPI,  Heixrich,  was  born  at  Cleves  in 
1838,  and  studied  in  Dusseldorf,  Munich,  and 
Rome.  He  joined  the  German  forces  in  1860  and 
1870-1  as  a  Landwehr  officer,  and  at  Koniggratz 
was  wounded  in  the  foot.  After  leaving  the  army 
ho  devoted  himself  entirely  to  art,  and  produced 
historical,  genre,  and  animal  pictures.  An  early 
death  at  Diisseldorf  in  1874  interrupted  his  success- 
ful career.     Among  his  best  compositions  are : 

Thusnelda  in  the  Triumph  of  Germanicus. 
Scenes  from  the  Peasant  "War. 

Scenes  from  the  Life  of  the  Romans  and  Pompeians. 
Soldiers  of  the  Landwehr  retvurning  home. 
Choice  Ewes. 

PHILIPPOTEAUX,  Henri  Emmanuel  Felix,  a 
French  battle  painter,  was  bom  in  Paris  in  1815. 
He  studied  art  under  Leon  Cogniet.  He  painted 
military  scenes  with  great  success,  though  some- 
times with  a  curious  dryness.  Late  in  life  he  pro- 
duced one  or  two  excellent  panoramas.  He  died  in 
Paris  in  1885.     Works  : 

Chasseurs  d'Afrique  at  Balaclava. 



The  Death  of  Turenne. 

The  Retreat  from  Moscow. 

Surrender  of  Antwerp. 

Henry  IV.  and  Sully  at  I\Ty. 

The  English  Cavalry  at  Balaclava. 

The  English  squares  at  "Waterloo  receiving  the  French 
Cuirassiers.     {South  Kensington.) 

Battle  of  Fontenoy.     (South  Kensintjton.) 

PHILIPS,  Charles,  an  English  portrait  painter, 
the  son  of  Richard  Philips,  was  born  in  1708.  His 
practice  was  among  the  nobihty,  and  he  had  a 
large  clientele  at  an  early  age.  He  married  in 
1738,  and  lived  in  Great  Queen  Street,  St.  Giles's. 
His  portraits  are  generally  of  a  small  size,  and 
though  well  painted  and  good  likenesses,  do  not 
show  him  to  have  been  possessed  of  any  high  art 
qualities.  This  is  especially  evident  in  his  portrait 
groups.  Several  of  his  portraits  have  been  en- 
graved.    He  died  in  1747.     Works: 

Knole  Park.  Lady  Betty  Germaine.    1731. 

Knowsley  Hall.  Wilson,  Bishop  of  Sodor  and 


London.  National  \  TVarburton,  Bishop    of    Glou- 

Portrait  Gallery.  J      cester. 
Thornton-le-  Hall.    Duke  of  Cumberland  and  Lord 

Street.  Cathcart. 

„  „        The  Family  of  Lord  A.  Hamil- 

ton.     1731. 
Wobum  Abbey.  The    Second    Duke   of    Marl- 

borough.   1731. 

PHILIPS,  Nathaniel  George,  was  the  youngest 
son  of  John  Leigh  Philips,  Esq.,  of  Mayfield,  Jlan- 
chester,  and  was  born  on  June  9,  1795.  After 
leaving  school  he  went  to  Edinburgh  University, 
intending  to  adopt  the  medical  profession,  but  the 
favourable  encouragement  he  received  from  Sir 
William  Allan  and  other  artists  caused  him  to 
abandon  this  intention  and  devote  his  time  to  art. 
Having  a  moderate  competency  derived  from  the 
property  of  his  father,  whose  collection  of  books 
and  works  of  art  took  nineteen  days  to  dispose  of 
by  auction  in  1814,  he  spent  three  years  travelling 
and  studying  in  Italy.  In  Rome  his  work  was  so 
highly  appreciated  that  in  18:>5,  on  the  death  of 
Fuseli,  he  was  chosen  to  fill  the  vacancy  in  the 
membership  of  the  Academy  of  St.  Luke.  His 
sketches  also  served  on  one  occasion  to  ransom 
him.  from  a  more  than  ordinarily  cultured  band  of 
brigands.  On  his  return  he  settled  at  Liverpool, 
where  he  painted  landscapes  and  exhibited  as  a 
member  of  the  Liverpool  Academy.  His  most  not- 
able achievement,  however,  is  a  fine  series  of  twenty- 
eight  plates,  many  of  them  engraved  by  himself, 
from  early  drawings  of  old  halls  in  Lancashire  and 
Cheshire.  This  work  was  originally  published  in 
part  between  the  years  1822  and  1824,  before  his 
Italian  tour  ;  but  it  was  reissued  in  complete  form 
on  a  handsome  scale  in  1893  by  Henry  Gray,  the 
publisher,  with  contributory  letterpress  by  twenty- 
four  authors,  and  a  memoir  of  the  artist's  life. 
Philips  occasionally  practised  etching  as  well  as  en- 
graving. His  work  is  masterly  and  accurate.  He 
was  famous  personally  for  his  conversational  gifts, 
and  was  an  excellent  musician.  He  died,  un- 
married, at  Rodney  Street,  Liverpool,  on  August  1, 

PHILIPS,  Richard,  an  English  portrait  painter, 
born  in  1681,  who  enjoyed  a  large  practice  in  the 
early  part  of  the  18th  century.  He  died  in  1741. 
Amongst  his  works  are: 

London.       Ironmongers-'  \  g;^  jj  ggg 

Halt.        J 
■\Voburn  Abbey.  Unknown  male  Portrait.    1731. 

PHILLERY,  Anton,  an  old  engraver  on  wood, 
lived  at  Antwerp  about  1630,  and  has  left  a  middle- 
sized  print  representing  two  soldiers  standing 
before  a  woman,  who  is  seated,  holding  a  dog 
upon  her  lap.  It  bears  the  following  inscription 
in  old  Flemish  characters,  (Sfttprint  t'antlDerptn  bn 
mp  ^pijillctn  Br  figursniBcr,  printed  at  A^ittverp,  by 
me  Phillery,  the  figure-cxMer.  There  is  also  known 
a  'Genealogia  illustrissimas  Domus  Austriie'  by 

PHILLIP,  John,  was  born  at  Aberdeen  April 
19th,  1817.  His  parents  were  of  humble  condition, 
but  from  his  youngest  days  he  showed  a  strong 
inclination  for  art.  He  was  apprenticed  early  in  life 
to  a  house  painter,  where  he  made  his  first  effort 
in  art  by  trying  to  copy  a  portrait  of  Wallace 
from  a  sign-board  which  hung  on  the  opposite  side 
of  the  street.  He  is  said  to  have  received  some 
instruction  from  Mr.  Forbes,  a  local  portrait  painter, 
but  in  1834  he  went  to  London  as  a  stow-away  on 



a  brig  belonging  to   a  friend  of  liis  father.     On 
arriving  in  London  he  was  kept  hard  at  work,  but 
contrived   to   visit  the   exhibition    of    the   Royal 
Academy  at  Somerset  House.     He   attracted  the 
notice  of  a  Major  Pryse  Gordon,  who  recommended 
him  to  Lord  Panmure,  by  whose  generosity  he  was 
placed  as  a  pupil  with  T.  M.  Joy.     In   1837  he 
entered  the  Academy  as  a  student,  and  in  1839  he 
exhibited  two  pictures,  'A  Moor'  and  a  portrait. 
In   1840   he   exhibited   his   finst   subject   picture, 
'Tasso   in    disguise,  relating    his  persecutions  to 
his  Sister,'  and  in  the  same  year  he  returned  to 
Aberdeen,  where  he  was  principally  employed  in 
painting  portraits.     In  1846  he  again  sought  Lon- 
don, where  he  continued  to  have  his  domicile  till 
his  death.     In  1847  he  exhibited  at  the  Academy 
'A  Presbyterian  Catechising,'    and  at  the  British 
Institution    'Courtship'    and   'The    Grandfather.' 
In  1848  he   exhibited  a  'Scotch  Fair';  m   1849, 
'  Drawing  for  the  Militia ' ;  in  1850,  '  Baptism  in 
Scotland,'   and  in   1851,  'Scotch  Washing,'   'The 
Spae  Wife,'   and  '  A  Sunbeam.'     In  this  year_  he 
went  to  Spain  and   lived  for  a   time   at   Seville, 
where   he   made   numerous    sketches,   and   began 
several  pictures,  one  of  which,  '  The  Spanish  Gipsy 
Mother,'  was    purchased   by   the    Queen    on    the 
recommendation   of    Sir   E.    Landseer.      He   also 
painted  for   Her   Majesty  'The   Letter- Writer    of 
Seville.'     In  1856-57',  in  company  with  his  friend 
Richard  Ansdell,  he  made  a  tour  through  Spam, 
and  in  1857  sent  home  to  the  Academy  'Charity' 
and 'The  Prison  Window';  and  in  the  same  year 
he  was  elected  an  Associate  of  the  Royal  Academy. 
In  the  year  1858  he  painted  '  Spanisli  Contraban- 
distas'   for   the   Queen,  a   portrait    of  the  Prince 
Consort  for  the  city  of  Aberdeen,  '  El  Cortejo,'  and 
'Youth   in   Seville."     In   1859    he   became   a   full 
Academician,  and  exhibited  '  Huff,'  and  a  portrait 
of  A.  L.  Egg,  R.A.     In  1860  was  exhibited  his 
picture  of  '"ihe  Marriage  of  the  Princess  Royal,' 
ordered  by  the  Queen,  and  '  Prayer,'  his  diploma 
picture ;  and  in  the  autumn  of  the  same  year  he 
was  again  in  Spain.    In  1861  he  exhibited  '  Gossips 
at  a  Well ' ;  in  1862  '  Doubtful  Fortune,'   or  '  The 
Fortune-Teller.'    '  A   Spanish   Volunteer,'   '  Water 
Drinkers,'  and  '  Dolores.'     In  1863  was  exhibited 
his  '  House  of  Commons,'  painted  for  the  Speaker, 
Mr.  Denison,  afterwards  Viscount  Ossington,  repre- 
senting a  debate  on  the  French  Treaty,  1860 ;  and 
'  Agua  Bendita.'     In  1864  appeared  'La  Gloria— a 
Spanish  Wake,'  bought  for  the  Scottish  National 
Gallery,   Edinburgh,   in    1897,  for  5250!.,   and    a 
portrait  of  the  Earl   of  Dalhousie  ;    and  in  1865 
'  The  Early  Career  of  Murillo,  1634."     In  1866  lie 
produced  a  portrait  of  Duncan  McNeill,  of  Colonsay, 
Lord  Justice  of  Scotland,  and  '  A  Chat  round  the 
Brasiero.'     In  the  spring  of  this  year  he  went  to 
Rome,  for  the  winter,  but  ill  health  brought  him 
back  to  London,  where  he  was  attacked  by  paralysis, 
and  died  February  27, 1867.    Phillip  married  a  sister 
of  Mr.  Richard  Dadd.     A  large  collection  of  his 
works  was  exhibited  at  the  London  International 
Exhibition  in  1873.     Besides  those  already  men- 
tioned we  may  name  : 

The  Brig  Manly.     1834. 

Portrait  of  himself  at  the  age  of  twenty-three.     1840. 

Sketch  portrait  of  Sir  J.  E.   Millais,  Bt.,  lUA.     1843. 

(T.  Oldham  Barhiv,  Esq.,  R.A.) 
The  Miller's  Daughter.     1847. 
Girl  tending  Cattle.     1850. 
The  Gipsy  Queen.     1853. 
The  Highlander's  Home.     1855. 

Richard  Ansdell,  R.A.     1358. 

S.  Bough,  A.R.S.A.    1856. 

The  Evil  Eye.     1858. 

H.R.H.  The  Princess  Beatrice.     1860. 

The  Toilet.     1860. 

A  Spanish  Widow.     1861. 

La  Bomba,  or  the  Wine-Drinkers. 

The  Grape-Seller.    Seville.    1862. 

La  Loteria  Nacional.     1S62. 

Breakfast  in  the  Highlands.     1865. 

A  large  number  of  his  unfinished  pictures  were  sold 
after  his  death  ;  among  them  : 
Spanish    Boys    playing    at    BuU-Fighting.      {Scottish 

National  Gallery.) 

PHILLIPS,  Charles,  a  mezzotint  engraver,  was 
born  in  1737.  He  studied  in  London,  and  was  in 
1765  employed  by  Boydell.  The  latest  date  known 
on  his  works  is  1770.  He  worked  also  in  the  dot 
manner.  We  have,  among  others,  the  following 
prints  by  him : 

Portrait  of  the  Daughter  of  N.  Hone,  R.A. 

A  Boy  holding  a  Pigeon ;  after  Mola. 

A  Woman  plucking  a  Fowl ;  after  Kemlrandt. 

The  Philosopher  ;  after  the  same. 

Tlie  Holy  Family  ;  'after  Farmigiano. 

Venus  and  Cupid  ;  after  Salviati. 

Isaac  blessing  Jacob ;  after  Spac/iioletto. 

And  others,  after  Loutherboury  and  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds. 

PHILLIPS,  Giles  Firman,  an  English  landscape 
painter,  born  in  1780.  His  practice  was  confined 
to  river  scenes,  and,  living  at  Greenwich,  these 
were  chiefly  furnished  by  the  Thames.  He  ex- 
hibited at  the  Academy  from  1836  to  1858,  and 
published  '  Principles  of  Effect  and  Colour'  (1838), 
and  'Practical  Treatise  on  Drawing'  (1839).  He 
died  March  31,  1867. 

PHILLIPS,  Henry  Wyndham,  an  English  por- 
trait painter,  born  in  1820.     He  received  his  art 
instruction  from  his  father,  T.  Phillips,  R.A.,  and 
exhibited   at   the    Academy   from    1839   to    1868. 
Though  his  works  were  chiefly  portraits  and  he 
had  a   large   circle   of  sitters,  he  painted    a   few 
Scriptural   subjects.      For    several    years   he  was 
secretary  to  the  Artists'  Benevolent  Institution.    He 
died  December  5,  1868.     Amongst  his  works  are  : 
London.      Garrick  Club.     Charles  Kean  as  Louis  XI. 
Royal  College  }  p^  p^^^j 
of  Physicians.  ) 

'Institution  of )  jj^bert  Stephenson.     1866. 
Civil  Engineers.  S 
PHILLIPS,  S.,  an  English  engraver,  practising 
in  London  at  the  close  of  the  18th  century.  Amongst 
his  plates  are  : 
The  Birth  of  Shakespeare  ;  after  Westall. 
The  Guardian  Angel ;  after  Maria  Coswtiy. 
PHILLIPS,    Thomas,    a    well-known    portrait 
painter,  was  born  at  Dudley,  in  Warwickshire,  in 
1770.     He   was   placed   with    Eginton,   the   glass 
jiainter,   at  Birmingham,  and  came  to  London  in 
1790  with  a  letter  of  introduction  to  Benjamin  West, 
who  employed  him  on  the  windows  in  St.  George's 
Chapel  at  Windsor.     In  17'J2  he  commenced  as  an 
exhibitor,  with  a  '  View  of  Windsor  Castle  ' ;  and  in 
the  two  following  years  he  exhibited  the  '  Death  of 
Talbot,  Earl  of  Shrewsbury-,  at  the  battle  of  Cas- 
sillon,'    '  Ruth  and   Naomi,'  '  Elijah  restoring  the 
Widow's  Son,'  '  Cupid  disarmed  by  Euphrosj-ne,' 
and  other   subject   pictures.     Soon  afterwards  he 
devoted  himself  chiefly  to  portrait  painting.     Not- 
withstanding that  he  had  to  compete  with  Hoppner, 
Owen.  Jackson,  Lawrence,  and  Beechey,  he  kept 
steadily  progressing  in  public  favour,  and  seemed 
to  be  the  selected  painter  for  men  of  genius  and 


talent.  In  1804  he  was  elected  an  AsBociate  of  the 
Academy.  In  1806  he  painted  the  Prince  of 
Wales,  Lord  Egremont,  the  Marquis  of  Staiford, 
and  the  Stafford  Family.  In  1808  he  became  an 
K.A.,  and  in  1824  succeeded  Henry  Fuseli  in  the 
professorship  of  painting,  which  office  he  held  till 
1832.  On  his  appointment  to  the  professorship  lie 
made  a  tour  in  Italy,  in  the  company  of  Hilton,  in 
order  to  enable  him  to  discharge  the  duties  of  the 
office  more  efficiently.  He  delivered  ten  '  Lectures 
on  the  History  and  Principles  of  Painting,'  which 
he  afterwards  published  in  one  volume  (in  1833). 
These  lectures  are  clear  and  simple  in  their  style, 
and  instructive  in  substance  and  arrangement, 
especially  in  those  parts  where  he  gives  an  exposi- 
tion of  his  views  of  the  principles  of  art.  He  died 
in  London,  April  20,  1845.  In  1802  he  painted  by 
stealth,  but  with  the  connivance  of  Josephine,  a 
portrait  of  Napoleon  which  is  now  at  Petworth  ; 
it  has  been  engiaved.  Phillips  wrote  many  of  the 
articles  on  the  tine  arts  in  Rees's  Cyclopsedia,  and 
in  other  publications.  He  was  one  of  the  great  pro- 
moters of  the  Artists'  General  Benevolent  Institu- 
tion. His  Diploma  picture  at  Burlington  House  is  a 
'  Venus  and  Adonis.'  The  following  portraits  were 
painted  nearly  in  the  order  in  which  we  give  them. 

Lord  Thurlow. 

"William  Blake  (engraved  by  Scliiavonetti). 

Lord  Byron  (twice). 

Count  Platoff. 

The  poet  Crabbe. 

Earl  Grey. 

Lord  Brougham. 

Sir  Joseph  liauks. 

Joshua  Brookes,  the  celebrated  lecturer  on  surgery. 

Major  Deuliam,  the  African  traveller. 

Lord  Stowell. 

Sir  E.  Parry. 

Sir  J.  Brunell. 

David  Wilkie.     (Xatioiuil  Gallery.) 

Sir  F.  Burdett. 

Lord  Lyndhurst. 

Dr.  Arnold. 

The  Duke  of  Sussex. 

Sir   Nicholas   Tindal,  Chief  Justice  of  the  Common 

Dr.  Shuttleworth,  Bishop  of  Chichester. 
Sir  Walter  Scott,  Thomas  Moore,  Thomas  Campbell, 

Southey ,  and  Coleridge,  for  Mr.  Murray. 
Dr.  Buckland. 
Professor  Sedgwick. 
I>avies  Gilbert. 
Mrs.  Somerville. 
Mr.  Hallam,  the  historian. 
Francis  Baily,  the  astronomer. 
Michael  Faraday. 
Sir  Humphrey  Davy. 

was  one  of  the  last  of  tlie  Greek  painters  previous 
to  the  decline  of  the  art  in  the  3rd  century  B.C. 
Another  painter  of  the  same  name  is  mentioned  by 
Pliny  as  the  author,  about  50  B.C.,  of  a  'Glaucon 
and  his  Son,'  for  the  comitia. 

PHILOXENES,  a  native  of  Eretria,  was  a  dis- 
ciple of  Nicomachus,  and  adopted  the  expeditious 
style  of  his  instructor.  According  to  Pliny,  he 
painted  for  Cassander  a  picture  representing  the 
■  Defeat  of  Darius  bj*  Alexander,'  which  was  con- 
sidered one  of  his  most  important  works. 

PHILP,  James  George,  painter,  was  a  native 
of  Falmouth,  and  was  bom  in  1816.  He  first  ex- 
hibited at  the  Royal  Academy  in  1846,  his  contri- 
butions being  two  landscapes  in  oils.  He  after- 
wards successfully  devoted  himself  to  painting  in 
water-colour,  and  in  1856  became  a  member  of  the 


New  Society  of  Painters  in  Water-Colours.  Ho 
died  April  11,  1885. 

PHKYLUS,  an  ancient  Greek  painter  of  some 
repute,  is  mentioned  by  Pliny  as  a  contemporary 
of  Aglaophon  the  younger,  Cephisodotus,  and 
Evenor.     He  flourished  about  420  B.C. 

PIACENZA,  Bartolino  DA.  This  name  isfound  on 
some  wall-paintings,  executed  in  the  14th  century, 
in  the  Baptistery  at  Parma.  The  town  of  Piacenza 
also  possesses  some  works  attributed  to  thesarae  man. 

PIAGALI,  Francesco,  a  native  of  Saragossa, 
who  flourished  in  the  17th  century,  and  is  placed 
by  Palomino  among  the  good  Valencian  painters. 

PIAGGIA,  Teramo,  (or  Ebasmo  da  Zoagli,)  was 
a  native  of  Zoagli,  in  the  Genoese  state,  and  flour- 
ished about  the  year  1547.  He  was  a  disciple  of 
Lodovico  Brea.  In  conjunction  with  Antonio 
Semini,  he  painted  several  works  for  the  churches 
at  Genoa,  of  which  one  of  the  best  was  a  '  Martyr- 
dom of  St.  Andrew.' 

PIANE,  Giovanni  Maria  dalle,  a  painter  called 
Molinaretto,  was  born  at  Genoa  in  1660.  He 
studied  at  Rome  under  G.  B.  Gaulli,  and  painted 
historical  pictures  and  portraits.  He  visited  Parma 
and  Piacenza,  and  Charles  Bourbon  of  Naples 
appointed  him  court  painter.     He  died  in  1745. 

PIANORO,  II.     See  Morelli,  Bartolommeo. 

PIASTRINI,  Giovanni  Domenico,  was  an  his- 
torical painter  of  Pistoia,  and  flourished  at  the 
beginning  of  the  18th  century.  He  was  a  pupil  of 
Luti.  He  painted  several  frescoes  in  the  porch  of 
the  Madonna  della  Umilta,  at  Pistoia,  aud  also 
worked  in  S.  Maria  in  Via  Lata,  at  Rome. 

PIATTI,  Francesco,  is  said  by  Fuessli,  in  his 
Supplement,  to  have  been  bom  at  Teglio,  in  the 
Valteline,  in  1650.  He  does  not  acquamt  us  by 
whom  he  was  instructed,  but  informs  us  that  he 
painted  a  great  number  of  altar-pieces  and  pictures 
for  the  churches  and  galleries  of  the  neighbourliood, 
and  highly  commends  a  picture  of  '  Cleopatra,'  by 
him,  in  the  possession  of  a  noble  family  at  Delebio. 
Zani  says  he  was  living  in  1690. 

PIATTOLI,  Gaetano,  a  Florentine  painter,  was 
born  in  170.3.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Riviere,  a  French 
painter,  and  painted  portraits  and  mythological 
scenes.  He  died  about  1770.  His  wife  Anna  was 
also  a  portrait  painter,  and  died  in  1788. 

PIAZZA,  Albertino,  (called  Toccagni,)  bom  at 
Lodi  about  1450,  died  before  1529 ;  son  of  a 
painter,  Berlino,  by  whom  no  works  are  known, 
and  probably  a  pupil  of  Borgognone.  Conjointly 
with  his  brother,  Martino  Piazza,  he  painted  many 
altar-pieces,  the  two  brothers  being  the  chief  repre- 
sentatives of  the  local  school  of  Lodi.  Albertino 
was,  however,  an  artist  of  greater  distinction  and 
finer  fibre  than  his  brother,  though  with  strongly 
eclectic  tendencies.  In  many  of  liis  later  works 
he  shows  himself  a  close  follower  of  the  school 
of  Leonardo,  as  exemplified  more  especially  by 
Cesare  da  Sesto,  while  in  others  a  strain  of 
Raphaelesque  feeling  is  apparent.  Among  his 
principal  paintings  are  the  following : 

Bergamo.    Lochis  CoU.    Marriage  of  St.  Catherine. 
„      Sigmr  Frh^^i  j  j,^^^^„^  ^j  j^e  Magi. 

Castiglione  S.  Maria  Altar-piece  (joint  work  with 
d'Adda.  ddl'  Jnco-  Martino) :  Madonna  and 
ronata.  Child,  with  SS.  Eoch  and 
John  Baptist ;  CVucidxion, 
with  Saints ;  and  above,  tb« 
Annunciation.  Predella:  the 
twelve  Apostles. 


Walker  and  Cockerell  photo]  [Nalional  Portrait  Gallery 




Jncar&nata  (Be- 

rinzaghi  Chapel). 




Borrovieo  Coll. 

,,  Crespi  Coll. 

„  Marckese  Vis* 

conii  Venosta. 

Padua.  Gallery. 

Verona.  Gallery. 

Lodi.  S.  Agnese.    Altar-piece  {joint  work,  dated 

1520) :  St.  Augustine  en- 
throned, with  Saints ;  Ma- 
donna and  Child,  with 
Saints  and  the  donor,  Nic- 
colo  Galliaui. 

The  Assumption. 

Altar-piece  (after  1513,  joint 
iDork):  Madouna  and  Child, 
with  St.  Anthony  (who  pre- 
sents Albertino  Berinzaghi) 
and  other  Saints ;  above, 
Crucifixion,  with  Saints. 
SS.  AppoUonia  and  Catherine 
{lunette  fresco). 

The  Coronation  of  the  Virgin 

Christ  and  the  Apostles   {pre- 

Madonna  and  Child. 

Triptych,  with  several  Saints. 

I  Pieta  {predella). 

Christ  with  SS.  Peter  and  John. 

Holy     Family      {ascribed      to 

Haphael).  C.  J.  Pf. 

PIAZZA,  Cavaliere  Andrea,  was  the  nephew  of 
Cosimo  Piazza,  by  whom  he  was  instructed  in  the 
art,  and  he  accompanied  his  uncle  to  Rome,  where 
he  had  the  advantage  of  studying  after  the  great 
masters.  He  passed  some  years  in  the  service  of 
the  Duke  of  Lorraine,  and  on  bis  return  to  Venice 
painted  a  large  picture  of  the  '  Marriage  at  Cana,' 
for  the  Church  of  Santa  Maria,  which,  according 
to  Lanzi,  is  his  most  celebrated  work.  He  died  at 
Venice  in  1670.  There  is  a  picture  by  him  dated 

PIAZZA,  Bertino,  a  painter  of  Lodi  in  the  15th 
century,  the  father  of  Albertino  and  Martino  Piazza, 
and  grandfather  of  Calisto  da  Lodi.  No  works  by 
him  are  known,  but  he  is  probably  the  painter 
who,  according  to  Lomazzo,  was  summoned  by 
Francesco  Sforza  to  decorate  with  frescoes  the 
courtyard  of  the  Palazzo  dell'  Arengo  at  Milan, 
where  he  was  associated  with  Bonifazio  Bembo 
and  other  distinguished  masters  of  the  day. 

PIAZZA,  Calisto,  (usually  called  Calisto  da 
Lodi,)  bom  before  1505,  died  after  1561  ;  the 
son  of  Martino  Piazza  according  to  a  contract 
of  1529,  in  which  Calisto  and  his  brothers  are 
mentioned  as  receiving  payment  for  completing  a 
picture  left  unfinished  by  their  uncle  Albertino. 
His  principal  master  was  Romanino  of  Brescia, 
whom  he  often  approaches  closely,  and  he  must 
also  have  been  intimately  associated  with  Ales- 
sandro  Moretto,  who  was  his  fellow-pupil  in  the 
workshop  of  Romanino.  Calisto  was  employed  for 
some  years  at  Brescia  and  in  the  Val  Camonica, 
but  returned  to  Lodi  in  1529,  where,  in  company 
with  his  brothers  Scipione  and  Cesare,  he  decorated 
several  chapels  in  the  Church  of  the  Incoronata, 
some  of  these  paintings  being  valued  in  1532  by 
Civerchio  and  other  artists.  In  1539  he  visited 
Spain  and  Portugal,  and  is  known  to  have  executed 
a  fresco  in  the  Escurial.  About  1544  he  settled  at 
Milan,  and  did  much  good  work  in  the  Churches 
of  S.  Maurizio,  S.  Francesco,  S.  Nazzaro  e  Celso, 
&c.  Calisto  was  a  very  prolific  painter,  and 
though  many  works  which  he  is  known  to  have 
executed  have  disappeared,  he  is  still  well  repre- 
sented in  North  Italy.  In  1562  his  son  Fabio,  a 
very  feeble  painter,  was  ordered  to  complete  the 
work  in  the  Incoronata  at  Lodi  which  Calisto  had 
left  unfinished  at  his  death.  The  archives  of  this 
church  contain  many  records  of  payments  made  to 

the  three  brothers,  Calisto,  Cesare,  and  Scipione, 
between  the  years  1529  and  1549.  By  the  last- 
named  painter,  who  died  in  1551,  there  is  a  signed 
work  in  the  Church  of  S.  Spirito  at  Bergamo. 
Among  the  best  works  of  Calisto  are  the  following ; 

Breno.  (ValCanonica).    The  Madonna  and  Child,  with 


„  ,,  The  Deposition.  i 

Brescia.        S.  Clemente,     The  Annunciation,  with  Saints. 

„  S.  Maria  in    The    Visitation     {sitjiied      and 

Calchera.         dated  1521). 
„  Gallery.     The  Nativity  {signed  and  dated 

Cividate.  ( Val    Madonna  and  Child,  with  Saints 

Canonica.)         {signed). 
Codogno.  The  Assumption,  with  portraits 

of     the     Tiividzio      family 
Crema.      Church  of  the     Madonna    and      Child,    with 
Trinitii.        Saints     {signed    and      dated 
Edolo.   {Val  Canonica.)     Frescoes:  History  of  St.  John 
Baptist,  and  the  Cracifixion.  {ValCanonica.)     Frescoes:  St.  George ;  Death  of 
St.  John   Baptist;  and  the 
Esine.    {ValCanonica.)    Pieta,  with  Two  Angels,  and 
seven    other  figures   {signed 
and  dated  1521). 
Lodi.  Cathedral.    Altar-piece:  Madonna  and  Child, 

with  Saints ;  Massacre  of  the 
Innocents  {left  uufiitished  by 
Albertino,  compUted   by   Ca- 
listo and  his  brothers). 
„  Incoronata.    Beheading  of  St.  John  Baptist 

{signed  and  dated  1530). 
„  „  Scenes  from  the  History  of  the 

„  „  Deposition    {signed    and   dated 

.,  „  Scenes  from  the  Passion. 

„  „  Scenes   from    the    History    of 

Joachim  and  Anna. 
Milan.  Brera.    Madonna     and     Child,    with 

Saints  and    an    Angel    mu- 
sician (1530). 
„  „        Baptism  of  Clirist. 

„  „       St.  Stephen,  with  two   Saints 

^  ,,        Portrait  of  Lodovico  Vistarini. 

\,  (Stairs  leading     The   Marriage    in     Cana,    and 

to  the  Library).        medallions  of  Apostles.   1545 
{from    the     refectory    of  S. 
St.  Peters-         M.  Paul    Madonna  and  Child  {copy  of  a 
burg.  Delaroff.         picture    by     Moretto    in   the 

Layard  Collection,  Venice). 
Verona.  Gallery.     The  Daughter  of  Herodias. 

Vienna.  Gallery.     The     Daughter    of     Herodias 

(dated  1526).  C.  J.  Ff. 

PIAZZA,  Martino,  of  Lodi,  died  about  1527 ; 
father  of  the  above,  and  brother  of  Albertino,  with 
whom,  as  already  noted,  he  executed  many  large 
altar-pieces  for  the  churches  of  Lodi  and  elsewhere. 
He  was  probably  a  pupil  of  Borgognone,  and  later 
followed  the  Leonardesque  painters.  As  a  colour- 
ist  he  often  attained  to  great  excellence,  and  his 
landscapes  are  of  peculiar  charm.  The  name  of 
Martino  Piazza  has  been  connected  with  several 
pictures  in  private  collections  in  England  and  in 
North  Italy.  In  addition  to  the  works  already 
mentioned,  which  he  executed  conjointly  with  his 
brother,  the  following  may  be  ascribed  with 
certainty  to  Martino  alone: 

London.  Nat.  Gallery.  St.  John  Baptist  {signed  with  a 

Milan.  Amhrosiana.  Adoration  of  the  Magi  {vfith  a 
monogram  similar  to  the  pre- 



Milan.  Brera.     St.  John  Baptist  (dated  1519). 

Sessa  Coll.     Nativity  (1520). 
Eome.  Collection  of    Madonna  and  Child,  with  the 

Miss  Hertz.        little  St.  John  and  a  lamb. 

C.  J.  Ff. 

PIAZZA,  Paolo,  called  Fka  Cosimo,  born  at 
Castelfranco,  1577,  died  at  Venice,  1663.  Studied 
at  Venice,  and  acquired  some  reputation  for  his 
painting  in  S.  Giovanni  e  Paolo  over  the  tomb  of 
Marc  Antonio  Bragadino,  the  defender  of  Fama- 
gosta.  He  was  employed  later  by  the  Capuchins 
of  his  native  place,  and  entered  the  Order,  taking 
the  name  of  Fra  Cosimo.  Subsequently  he  worked 
at  the  Court  of  the  Emperor  Rudolph  II.,  and  went 
to  Rome,  where  he  enjoyed  the  favour  of  Pope 
Paul  V.  and  of  Cardinal  Scipione  Borghese,  for 
both  of  whom  he  executed  numerous  works.  On 
his  return  to  Venice  he  painted  prophets  and 
sibyls  in  the  Church  of  the  Redentore,  and  was 
commissioned  by  the  Doge  Antonio  Priuli  to  exe- 
cute frescoes  in  the  Ducal  Palace,  but  he  died 
before  completing  the  work.  C,  J.-  Ff. 

PIAZZETTA,  Giovanni  Battista,  born  at  Pie- 
trarossa,  near  Treviso,  1682,  died  at  Venice,  1754. 
Pupil  of  Antonio  Molinari.  Went  to  Bologna, 
where  he  was  influenced  by  Giuseppe  Maria 
Crespi,  and  more  especially  by  the  works  of 
Guercino.  He  became  first  Director  of  the  Aca- 
demy of  Venice  in  1750,  and  was  enrolled  an 
honorary  member  of  the  Clementina  Academy  at 
Bologna.  Among  his  best  works  are  :  frescoes  in 
S.  Giovanni  e  Paolo,  Venice  ;  the  '  Decollation  of 
S.  John,'  in  the  Church  of  the  Santo,  Padua ;  the 
'  Standard-Bearer,'  Dresden  Gallery,  and  the  '  As- 
sumption,' Lille.  Other  works  by  him  at  Dresden, 
Cassel,  and  Brunswick.  Pitteri  and  others  have 
engraved  after  him,  and  mention  is  made  by  Nagler 
of  two  etchings  by  himself.  Piazzetta  enjoys  the 
distinction  of  having  exercised  some  influence 
over  the  development  of  Giovanni  Battista 
Tiepolo,  the  greatest  Venetian  master  of  the  18tli 
century.  C.  J.  Ff. 

PICARD,  Alexandre  Noel,  a  French  painter, 
born  in  Paris  in  1813.  He  chiefly  painted  land- 
scapes.    He  died  in  1869. 

PICARD,  HUGDES,  French  painter,  bom  in  1840 
at  Voreppe  (dep.  Isfere).  Studied  first  at  Grenoble, 
and  subsequently  in  Paris  under  Boulanger  and 
Leffebvre.  Painted  portraits  and  landscapes,  also 
genre  scenes,  such  as  '  La  legon  de  Chant,'  '  La 
.  U'9on  au  Convent,'  &c.  He  was  also  a  prolific 
illustrator.     He  died  in  Paris,  January  16,  1900. 

PICART,  Bernard,  an  engraver,  and  the  son  of 
Etienne  Picart,  was  born  in  Paris  in  1673.  He  was 
instructed  in  design  and  engraving  by  his  fatlier, 
but  obtained  further  help  from  Le  Brun  and 
Jouvenet.  At  the  age  of  sixteen  he  gained  honours 
at  the  Academy  of  Paris.  He  distinguished  him- 
self both  as  designer  and  engraver,  and  executed 
a  vast  number  of  plates.  He  used  both  the  point 
and  the  burin  ;  but  in  his  larger  plates  the  exe- 
cution was  not  equal  to  the  drawing,  and  his  later 
productions  were  inferior  to  his  earlier  ones.  His 
works  chiefly  consist  of  plates  for  books,  and  other 
ornamental  engravings.  In  1710  he  left  Paris,  and 
settled  at  Amsterdam,  where  he  was  greatly  em- 
ployed by  the  booksellers,  and  died  there  in  1733. 
He  engraved  a  set  of  seventy-eight  plates  in 
imitation  of  the  different  styles  of  the  old  engravers, 
which  were  published  after  his  death,  in  1738,  in 
one  volume,  entitled  'Les  Impostures  Innooentes.' 
The  following  are  his  most  esteemed  works : 



Chadesl.;  after  VanDyck.     1724. 

Charles  II. ;  after  Kneller.     1724. 

James  II. ;  after  Largilliire.     1724. 

William  III. ;  after  Van  der  We)f. 

George  I. ;  after  Kneller. 

Edward  Hyde,  Earl  of  Clarendon ;  after  Zoust.    1724. 

William,  Lord  KusseU  ;  after  Kneller.     1724. 

Frederick,  Duke  of  Schomberg  ;  after  the  same.     1724. 

Gilbert  Burnet,  Bishop  of  Salisbury ;  after  Hoadly.  1724. 

Eugene  Francois,  Prince  of  Savoy  ;  after  Van  Schuppen. 

Don  Luis,  Prince  of  the  Asturias. 
Jan  de  Wit,  Grand  Pensionary  of  Holland.     1727. 
Fran(;ois  Pierre,  Cardinal  de  Foix.     1713. 
Philip,  Duke  of  Orleans,  supported  by  Minerva  and 

Apollo  ;  after  A.  Coypel.     1706. 
Etienne  Picart,  the  Roman,  Engraver  to  the  King. 
Roger  de  Piles  ;  ipse  pinx.  B.  Ficart  fee.  aqua  forti.  1704. 


The  Murder  of  the  Innocents.  The  first  impressions  are 
before  the  crown  was  placed  upon  the  head  of  Herod. 

A  set  of  twelve  Prints,  called  the  Epithalamia. 

Truth,  the  Research  of  Philosophy ;  a  Thesis  in  honour 
of  Descartes. 

The  Triumph  of  Painting. 

The  Death  of  Niobe's  Children. 

The  Feast  of  the  Gods  and  the  Ccesars. 

A  set  of  Prints  for  the  Annals  of  the  Dutch  Republic. 

The  Frontispieces  to  •  Ceremonies  Religieuses,'  11  vols. 
1723 — 1743 ;  and  to  various  other  works. 


Time  discovering  Truth  ;  after  the  picture  by  Poussin,  iu 

the  Louvre. 
Au  Allegory  on  human  Life ;  after  the  same. 
Arcadia  ;  after  the  same. 

Two  Muses,  Calliope  and  Terpsichore;  after  Le  Sueur. 
Abraham  dismissing  Hagar ;  after  Le  Brun. 
The  Discovery  of  Calisto's  shame  ;  after  Ann.  Carracci. 
Neptune  calming  the  Sea ;  after  A  n.  Coypel. 

PICART,  Charles,  an  English  engraver  and 
draughtsman,  bom  about  1780.  He  practised  in 
London,  and  died  about  1837.  Specimens  of  his 
work  will  be  found  in : 

Dibdiu's  '  Decameron.' 

'  Description   of   the   Ancient   Marbles  iu  the  British 

Lodge's  '  Portraits.' 

He  also  engraved  several  dramatic  portraits  after 
Clint  and  Wivell. 

PICART,  Etienne,  called  '  Le  Romain,'  was  born 
in  Paris  in  1632.  After  a  long  sojourn  in  Rome 
he  was  employed,  with  several  other  artists,  to 
engrave  the  pictures  in  the  King  of  France's  col- 
lection. His  plates  are  sometimes  executed  with 
the  burin  only,  in  the  style  of  Poilly ;  but  he  also 
engraved  a  few  in  which  the  point  is  predominant. 
He  died  at  Amsterdam  in  1721.  His  prints  are 
extremely  numerous ;  the  following  are  the  most 
deserving  of  notice  : 



Jean  Francois  Paul  Gaudy,  Cardinal  de  Retz. 
Bust  of  Cardinal  Fachenettus ;  after  Morand. 
Melchisedeck  de  Thevenot,  the  traveller  ;  after  Chaveau. 
Nicolas  Choart  de  Busenval,  Bishop  of  Beauvais. 
Claude  de  Brion,  President  of  the  Parliament. 
Pierre  Loisel,  Doctor  of  the  Sorbonue. 
Franijoise    Athenais    de    Eochechouart,    Marquise    de 


The  Ecce  Homo,  with  three  Angels  ;  after  Alhani. 

The  Birth  of  the  Virgin  ;  after  Guido. 

The  Marriage  of  St.  Catharine ;  after  Correggio. 


Triumph  of  Virtue ;  after  the  same. 

Triumph  of  Vice  ;  after  the  same, 

St.  Cecilia ;  after  Domenichino. 

A  Concert  of  Music  ;  after  the  same. 

The  Infant  Jesus  sleeping,  with  the  Virgin  holding  up 

her  finger  to  St.  John ;  called  '  Silenzio ' ;  after  Aim. 

The  Holy  Family ;  after  Palma. 
The  Parting  of  SS.  Peter  and  Paul ;  after  Lanfranco. 
The  Plague  among  the  Philistines ;  after  N.  Foussin. 
Christ  curing  the  BUnd  ;  after  the  same. 
The  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds  ;  after  the  same. 
The  Martyrdom  of  SS.  Gervais  and  Protais ;  after  Le 

St.  Paul  burning  the  Books  of  the  Ephesians ;  after  the 

The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Andrew ;  after  Le  Bmn. 
The  Stoning  of  St.  Stephen  ;  after  the  same. 
The  Adoration  of  the  Magi ;  after  Courtois. 
The  Virgin  and  Infant ;  after  Noel  Coypel. 
St.  Anthony  of  Padua  adoring  the  Infant  Jesus ;  after 

Van  Dyck. 

PICART,  Jean,  was  a  French  engraver,  who 
resided  in  Paris  about  the  year  1640.  He  is  sup- 
posed to  have  been  a  pupil  of  Crispin  van  de  Pass, 
as  he  engraved  from  the  designs  of  that  master, 
and  imitated  his  style,  though  not  very  success- 
fully. He  appears  to  have  been  principally  em- 
ployed in  engraving  ornaments  for  books,  and  a 
few  portraits.  We  have  by  him  a  portrait  of 
Edward,  prince  of  Portugal,  a  half-length,  with 
emblems  ;  that  of  Erasmus,  a  whole-length,  forming 
the  frontispiece  to  an  edition  of  part  of  his  works, 
published  in  Paris  in  1639  ;  and  several  other  plates 
for  books,  &c. 

PICART,  Jean  Michel,  was  a  Flemish  painter, 
bom  about  1600.  He  painted  flowers  and  land- 
scapes, but  his  chief  employment  was  selling 
pictures.  He  established  himself  in  Paris,  where 
he  employed  many  young  artists  to  make  copies 
which  he  sold  as  originals.     He  died  in  1682. 

PICAULT.  Pierre,  a  French  engraver,  was  bom 
at  Blois  in  1680.  It  is  probable  that  he  was  a  pupil 
of  Gerard  Audran,  as  he  copied,  on  a  small  scale, 
the  celebrated  '  Battles  of  Alexander,'  from  the 
plates  engraved  by  that  artist,  after  Le  Brun.  He 
also  engraved  some  portraits,  and  the  '  Visitation 
of  the  Virgin  to  St.  Elisabeth,'  after  Carlo  Maratti. 
He  died  young  in  1711.  He  usually  signed  his 
plates  P.  Picault,  Blesensis,  sculp- 

PICCHl,  Giorgio,  a  painter  of  Castel-Durante, 
who  flourished  about  1559.  He  sojourned  for  a 
time  in  Rome,  where  he  was  employed  in  the 
Vatican.     He  worked  in  the  manner  of  Baroccio. 

PICCHIANTI,  Giovanni  Domenico,  an  Italian 
designer  and  engraver,  was  bom  at  Florence  about 
1670.  He  was  taught  the  rudiments  of  drawing 
by  G.  B.  Foggini,  a  sculptor,  and  applied  himseff 
to  engraving,  both  with  the  point  and  the  burin. 
In  conjunction  with  Lorenzini,  Mogalli,  and  other 
artists,  he  executed  several  plates  from  the  pictures 
in  the  Gallery  of  Florence.  We  have,  among 
others,  the  following  prints  by  him : 


Sebastiano  del  Piombo ;  after  Titian. 
Cardinal  Bentevoglio  ;  after  Tan  Dyck. 
Pope  Leo  X.  with  the  Cardinals  Rossi  and  Giulio  de' 
Medici ;  after  Raphael. 


The  Madonna  della  Seggiola ;  after  Raphael. 

The  Virgin  and  Infant  Jesus,  with  St.  John  ;  after  Ann 

The  Tribute  Money ;  after  Titian. 

VOL.  IV.  I 

The  Virgin  and  Child ;  after  the  same. 

Abraham  sendiug  away  Hagar ;  after  Pietro  da  Cortona 

PICCINI,  GiACOMo,  an  engraver,  was  bom  at 
Venice  in  1617,  but  it  is  not  known  hy  what  master 
he  was  instructed.  Zani  says  he  was  still  working 
in  1669  ;  but  the  latest  date  on  his  prints  is  1655. 
We  have  several  plates  by  him,  executed  in  a  stiff, 
disagreeable  style ;  among  them  a  set  of  thirty 
portraits  of  the  principal  painters  of  the  Venetian 
school  for  the  account  of  their  Lives  published  by 
Ridolfi  in  1648.  We  have  also  the  following  prints 
by  him : 

The  Portrait  of  Alessandro  Farnese. 

Diogenes,  with  his  Lantern  ;  after  P.  Liheri. 

The  Holy  Family  :  after  the  same. 

Judith,  with  the  Head  of  Holofernes  at  her  feet ;  after 

The  Holy  Family ;  after  the  same. 

PICCINI,  GuGLiELMo,  was  the  brother  of  Giacomo 
Piccini,  and  among  other  prints  etched  a  plate  after 
a  '  Pieti,'  l)y  Rubens.  He  had  a  daughter,  Isabella 
Piccini,  who  was  a  nun,  and  engraved  a  set  of 
portraits  of  the  illustrious  personages  of  Italy,  for 
the  '  Conchilia  Celeste  '  of  G.  B.  Fabri. 

PICCININO;  NICC0L6,  an  obscure  Milanese 
painter,  who  was  at  work  at  Milan  about  1500. 

PICCIONI,  Matteo,  an  Italian  painter  and  en- 
graver, was  born  at  Ancona  probably  in  or  about 
1615.  Of  his  works  as  a  painter  little  is  known; 
but  he  was  made  a  member  of  the  Academy  of  St. 
Luke  in  1655.  We  have  a  few  spirited  etchings  by 
him,  two  of  which  are  dated  1641.  The  following 
are  among  them : 

St.  Luke  painting  the  Virgin ;  after  Raphael. 

The  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds' ;  after  Paolo  Veronese. 

The  Holy  Family  ;  after  the  same. 

The  Virgin  and  the  Infant  Jesus,  with  St.  John ;  after 

A.  Camassei. 
Moses  exposed  on  the  Nile ;  after  the  same. 

PICCOLA,  Niccola  La,  a  native  of  Crotona,  in 
Calabria.  He  was  born  in  1730,  and  worked  in 
Rome,  where  he  painted  some  decorative  pictures 
in  the  Vatican,  which  have  since  been  copied  in 
mosaic.  Some  of  his  work  is  also  to  be  seen  at 

PICENARDI,  Carlo.  Two  artists  of  this  name 
painted  in  Cremona  early  in  the  17th  century.  One 
was  a  pupil  of  Lodovico  Carracci,  and  painted 
church  pictures  and  burlesque  histories.  These 
were  imitated  by  the  other  Picenardi,  who,  however, 
died  young. 

PICHIO,  Ernest,  (also  called  Picq,)  French 
painter  ;  born  in  Paris  in  1840  ;  a  pupil  of  Augusts 
Couder  ;  his  historical  pictures  achieved  consider- 
able success,  notably  '  Charles  IX.  et  Cath(5rine  de 
Medicis  le  Matin  de  la  St.  Barthelemy'  (Salon 
1866).  Better  known  yet  was  the  '  Mort  d'Alphonse 
Baudin,'  which  the  Paris  Municipal  Council  caused 
to  be  engraved  at  its  own  expense.  His  death 
occurred  in  Paris  in  August  1893. 

PICHLER,  Johann,  gem-cutter,  painter  and  en- 
graver, was  born  at  Naples  in  1734.  He  was  a 
pupil  of  his  father,  Anton  Pichler,  and  the  painter 
Corvi.  In  1761  he  painted  several  pictures  for 
the  Franciscans  and  Augustinians,  and  made  ex- 
periments in  encaustic  and  mosaic.  In  1763  he 
joined  his  father  at  Rome,  after  which  he  visited 
England,  returning  to  Rome  in  1775. _  Most  of  his 
time  was  given  to  gem-cutting,  in  which  he  rose  to 
such  excellence  that  many  of  his  intaglios  were 
sold  as  antiques.  It  is  said  that  even  Winkelmann 
was  deceived  by  them.    He  died  at  Rome  in  1791. 



PICHLER,  JoHANN  Peter,  mezzotint  engraver, 
■was  born  at  Botzen  in  1765,  and  studied  at  Vienna 
under  Professor  Jakobe.  He  worked  for  the  Prince 
of  Anlialt  Dessau  at  Dresden,  and  died  at  Vienna 
in  1806.     Among  his  best  plates  are  : 

Portrait  of  the  King  of  Poland ;  after  Lampi. 

The  Fruit  Girl ;  after  Murillo. 

Venus ;  after  Titian. 

Omphale;  after  Domenichino, 

Perseus  and  Andromeda. 

Magdalene  and  St.  John  ;  after  Batoni, 

Rembrandt's  portrait  of  himself. 

PICHON,  Pierre  Augostb,  French  painter; 
born  at  Soreze  (Tarn),  December  6,  1805  ;  a  pupil 
of  Ingres ;  was  a  fashionable  portrait-painter 
during  the  reign  of  Louis  Philippe  ;  obtained  a 
third-class  medal  in  184.3,  a  second-class  medal 
in  1844,  a  first-class  medal  in  1846,  a  rappel  in 
1857,  and  a  like  distinction  in  1861,  when  he 
received  the  Legion  of  Honour.  He  died  in  Paris, 
October  1900. 

PICKAERT,  PiETER,  who  was  probably  a 
native  of  Holland,  has  left  a  set  of  coarse  etchings, 
published  in  Holland,  and  representing  tlie  flight 
of  James  II.  from  England.  They  are  probably 
from  his  own  designs,  as  he  adds  the  word  fecit  to 
his  name.  Neither  the  time  of  his  birth  nor  death 
are  recorded,  but  he  must  apparently  have  been 
living  in  1688. 

PICKEN,  Andrew,  an  English  lithographer, 
born  in  1815.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Louis  Hagln-, 
and  had  much  employment  in  illustrating  books  of 
travel.  Through  ill-health  he  made  two  sojourns 
in  Madeira,  and  published  a  fine  work,  '  Madeira 
Illustrated.'  In  1835  he  exhibited  at  the  Academy 
a  '  Tomb  in  Narboime  Cathedral.'  He  died  in 
London,  amid  much  promise,  in  1845. 

PICKENOY,  Nicolas  Elias,  called  Elias,  a 
little-known  Dutch  painter,  who  is,  however,  the 
reputed  master  of  Van  der  Heist,  was  born  at 
Amsterdam  about  1590.  There  are  twelve  pictures 
by  him  in  the  Kijks  Museum  at  Amsterdam,  which 
sliow  him  to  have  been  an  excellent  portraitist. 
He  died,  probably  at  Amsterdam,  between  1646 
and  1656. 

PICKERING,  George,  a  drawing-master  of 
Chester,  who  h;id  an  important  local  renown  for 
the  beauty  of  his  work  in  water-colour.  He  was 
a  Yorkshire  man,  who  resided  for  many  j'ears  at 
Chester,  and  later  on  at  Liverpool.  He  exhibited 
largely  at  the  Liverpool  Academy,  and  his  pictures 
were  very  highly  esteemed.  He  also  drew  for  the 
engraver  many  views  in  Lancashire,  and  is  believed 
to  have  done  work  with  the  graver  himself.  He 
died  at  Birkenhead  in  1857,  and  his  loss  was  much 
lamented  by  his  hosts  of  pupils,  who  had  found  in 
him  not  only  an  admirable  teacher  but  a  refined 
and  most  estimable  friend. 

PICKERING,  Henry,  an  English  portrait  painter 
in  the  early  part  of  the  18th  century.  He  was  a 
follower  of  Kneller,  and  painted  portraits  "  in 

PICKERSGILL,  Frederick  Richard,  a  nephew 
of  H.  W.  Pickersgill,  R.A.,  was  born  in  London 
in  1820.  His  tastes  were  early  shown,  and,  after 
instruction  from  his  maternal  uncle,  F.  Withering- 
ton,  he  entered  the  Academy  schools.  His  first 
exhibited  picture,  'The  Brazen  Age'  (18.39), 
his  '  Combat  between  Hercules  and  Achelous ' 
(1840),  and  again,  his  '  Amoret's  Deliverance 
from  the  Enchanter'  (1841),  showed  hie  peculiar 


talent  and  predilections,  his  chief  pictures  being 
based  on  his  loving  study  of  Spenser,  Milton, 
Shakespeare,  and  the  romantic  episodes  of  history. 
In  1843  he  gained  a  £100  prize  in  the  Westminster 
Hall  competition  by  his  cartoon  of  '  The  Death  of 
King  Lear.'  In  1847  he  followed  up  this  success 
by  gaining  the  first  prize  for  his  '  Burial  of  Harold 
at  Waltham  Abbey,'  which  was  purchased  for 
.£500  for  the  decoration  of  the  new  Houses  of 
Parliament.  This  brought  him  into  prominence, 
and  he  was  elected  in  that  year  an  Associate  of  the 
Royal  Academy  at  the  unusually  early  age  of 
twenty-seven.  In  1857  he  became  full  Academi- 
cian, his  diploma  picture  being  a  Spanish  subject, 
'The  Bribe,'  and  the  Prince  Consort  bought  his 
'  Death  of  Francesco  Foscari.'  His  '  Birth  of 
Christianity '  is  in  the  South  Kensington  Museum 
(Jones  Bequest),  as  are  also  the  sketch  and  com- 
pleted design  for  'The  Industrial  Arts  in  Time  of 
Peace,'  designed  for  a  lunette  in  fresco  but  not 
carried  out.  In  the  Glasgow  Gallery  there  hangs 
(on  loan  from  the  National  Gallery)  'Amoret, 
iEmylia  and  Prince  Arthur  in  the  Cottage  of 
Slander.'  He  was  strongly  influenced  by  W. 
Etty  ;  his  colour  was  sound  and  often  brilliant,  and 
his  drawing  and  composition  correct  though  some- 
what formal  and  academic.  He  exhibited  50 
pictures  in  all  at  the  Royal  Academy,  and  six  at 
the  British  Institution  (1841-1847).  He  also  illus- 
trated Milton's  '  Comus,'  Poe's  poems,  Mas- 
singer's  'Virgin  Martyr,'  and  certain  Biblical  sub- 
jects ('The  Life  of  Clirist,'  'The  Lord's  Prayer'). 
These  were  engraved  on  wood  by  Dalziel,  and 
some  designs  appeared  in  Dalziel's  Bible  Gallery 
in  1881.  He  was  chosen  as  Trustee  and  Keeper 
of  the  Academy  in  1873,  but  resigned  these 
posts  in  1887,  retiring  finally  from  the  Academy 
in  1888.  He  died  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  in 

PICKERSGILL,  Henry  Hall,  an  English  sub- 
ject and  portrait  painter,  the  eldest  son  of  H.  W. 
Pickersgill,  R.A.  His  studies  were  completed  in 
the  Netherlands  and  Italy,  and  he  first  exhibited  at 
the  Academy  in  1834.  About  1844  he  spent  two 
years  in  Russia,  which  furnished  him  with  subjects 
for  some  pictures.  On  his  return  he  practised  as  a 
portrait  painter  in  the  midland  counties.  He  died 
m  1861.  His  picture  'The  Right  of  Sanctuary  '  is 
£t  South  Kensington.     Other  works  : 

The  Troubadours. 

Holy  Water. 


Fishermen  of  Rabatsky,  on  the  Neva. 

Ferry  on  the  Neva. 

Cupid  and  Psyche. 

Finding  of  Moses. 

Romeo  and  Juliet. 

PICKERSGILL,  Henry  William,  an  English 
portrait  and  subject  painter,  born  in  London  in 
1782.  He  was  originally  intended  for  a  silk  manu- 
facturer. Preferring  art,  he  became  a  pupil  of  George 
Arnald,  A.R.A.,and  in  1805  entered  theschools  of  the 
Academy.  Here  he  first  exhibited  in  the  following 
year,  and  was  elected  an  Associate  in  1822,  and  a 
full  member  in  1826.  His  practice  became  very 
large,  and  most  of  the  eminent  persons  of  the  day 
sat  to  him.  Up  to  1872,  when  he  retired  from 
work,  he  exhibited  no  less  than  363  pictures  at  the 
Academy.  These  were  chiefly  portraits,  with  the 
exception  of  a  few  landscapes  and  fancy  subjects. 
He  died  at  Barnes  April  21,  1875.  Amongst  his 
works  are  : 


H  alkcr  and  Cockcrell phoio\  {^National  Porii  ait  Cmllery 



Bowood.  Lady  playing  Guitar. 

London.       Nat.  Gallery.     Portrait  of  K.  Vernon.     1846. 
„  .,  A  Syrian  Maid.     1837. 

„  „  The  Nun. 

„     National  Fortrait     Portraits       of       AVordsworth, 

Galltry.  Jeremy   Beutham,   Hannah 

More,  W.  Godwin,  '  Monlj' 

Lewis,  G.    Stephenson,   and 

Sir  T.  Taltourd. 

Incorporated  }  ^ord  Chancellor  Truro. 
Law  iioctdy.  j 
„     Moyal  Institution.     Professor  Faraday. 
„  „  Dr.  Braude. 

Lougleat.  Portrait  of  second  Marquis  of 

Windsor  Castle.  Portrait  of  Lord  Hill. 

PICKNELL,  William  Lucian,  American  painter; 
born  185-t  at  Boston  ;  ii,  pupil  of  Innes  at  Rome, 
and  of  Gerome  at  the  Ecole  des  Beaux  Arts  ;  he 
also  studied  in  Brittany  with  R.  Wylie  ;  returned 
to  America  in  1882,  and  settled  in  New  York  ; 
examples  of  his  work  are  in  the  Museums  of  New 
York,  Philadelphia,  Boston  and  Liverpool ;  he 
obtained  an  honourable  mention  at  the  Paris 
Salon  of  1880,  and  the  Boston  gold  medal.  He 
died  at  Boston  in  1807. 

PICOLET,  CoRNKLis,  a  painter  of  portraits  and 
conversations,  flourished  at  Rotterdam  from  about 
1670  to  1690.  His  reputation  rests  rather  on  the 
circumstance  of  his  having  been  the  first  instructor 
of  Adrian  van  der  Werf  than  on  any  particular 
work  that  can  be  with  certainty  ascribed  to  himself. 

PICOT,  Francois  Edohard,  a  French  historical 
painter,  born  in  Paris  in  1786.  He  studied  under 
Vincent,  and  in  1811  obtained  the  second  '  Prix  de 
Rome'  for  his  'Lycurgus.'  In  1813  he  obtained 
the  same  award  by  his  '  Death  of  Jacob.'  As  he 
could  not  be  sent  to  Rome,  he  was  awarded  a  pnze 
of  3000  francs.  Many  commissions  for  decorative 
works  were  entrusted  to  him :  the  cliief  of  these 
were  for  the  Louvre,  for  Versailles,  and  for  the 
churches  of  St.  Vincent  de  Paul  (in  conjunction  with 
Flandrin)  and  St.  Glotilde.  He  was  elected  to 
the  Institute  in  1856.  He  died  in  Paris  in  1868. 
Amongst  his  works  u  re  : 

Amiens.  Museum.     Cephalus  and  Procris.     1824. 

Brussels.  JIuseum.     jEneas  and  Venus.     1815. 

Grenoble.  Museum.     The  Plague  at  Florence.     1839. 

Paris.  Louvre.     Orestes  and  Electra.     1822. 

„      Comedie  Franqaise.    Portrait  of  Talma. 

„        JV.  D.  de  Lorette.     Coronation  of  the  Virgin. 

„  «S'.  Suljiice.     Death  of  Sapphira.     1819. 

Versailles.  Siege  of  Calais.     1838. 

PICOT,  Victor  Marie,  a  French  engraver,  was 
born  at  Abbeville  in  1744,  and  studied  in  Paris. 
He  came  to  London  in  the  year  1766  with  Wynne 
Ryland,  and  about  1770  he  was  living  with  Ravenet, 
whose  only  daughter,  Angelica,  he  married.  In 
1766  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Incorporated 
Society  of  Artists.  He  engraved  several  plates  after 
Serres,  Barralet,  Loutherbourg,  and  others,  some  of 
which  were  for  the  collection  of  Boydell.  He  re- 
turned to  France  in  1790,  and  died  about  1805.  We 
have,  among  others,  the  following  prints  by  him : 

The  Four  Evangelists  ;  after  Suiens. 

Diana  and  her  Nymphs  ;  after'the  same. 

The  Nurse  and  Child  ;  after  Schedone. 

A  young  Man  holding  a  Flute  ;  after  B.  Luti. 

Apollo  holdiug  a  Branch  of  Laurel ;  after  S.  Cantarini. 

A  Landscape  and  Figures  ;  after  Zuccarelli. 

Two  Sea-pieces  ;  after  V.  Serres. 

Two  Landscapes,  Morning  and  Evening  ;  after  Barrcdet. 

Several  other  subjects  ;  after  the  same. 

PICOU,  Henri  Pierre,  French  painter  of  his- 
torical and  allegorical  subjects  ;  born  at  Nantes, 
I  2 

February  27,  1822  ;  a  pupil  of  Delaroche  and 
Gleyre;  made  his  debut  at  the  Salon  in  1847; 
obtained  second-class  medal  in  1848,  and  a  rappel 
in  1857  ;  in  1853  won  the  second  Prix  de  Rome  ; 
was  considered  the  fashionable  painter  towards 
the  close  of  the  Second  Empire.  Among  his  chief 
works  we  may  mention  :  '  Cleopatre  et  Antoine  sur 
le  Cydnus,' '  Le  Passage  du  Styx,' '  L'fitoile  du  Soir," 
'  Une  Nuit  de  Cleopatre,'  and  '  Psyche  aux  enfers.' 
He  died  at  Nantes,  July  17,  1895. 

PICOU,  Robert,  (orPiQuOT,)a  French  engraver, 
was,  according  to  MaroUes,  a  native  of  Tours,  and 
flourished  about  the  year  1630.  He  enjoyed  the 
title  of  Peintre  du  Roi ;  he  visited  Italy,  and  re- 
mained some  time  at  Rome.  Dumesnil  describes 
seven  rare  prints  by  him,  of  which  the  last, 
executed  from  a  picture  by  Jacopo  Ba,ssano,  is  the 
best ;  the  others  are  evidently  from  his  own  de- 
signs. Tliey  are  executed  partly  witli  the  point, 
partly  with  tlie  burin.  We  have  also  several  frontis- 
pieces and  other  book  ornaments  by  him,  from  his 
own  designs.  The  following  are  the  titles  of  the 
seven  plates  above  alluded  to  : 

Love  asleep  ;  E.  Picou.fe. 

Two  Cupids  caressing;  R.  Picou.fe.  Romce. 

Two  Infants;  R.  Picou.fe.  Roma. 

Three  Infants  ;  R.  Picou.fe. 

The  little  Wrestlers  ;  R.  Picou.  fecit. 

Two  couples  of  Infants  ;  E.  P.  ^c. 

Jesus  Christ  delivered  to  His  Enemies.  On  the  margin 
to  the  left  inscribed  Jacohus  de  poto  Bassaii  pinxit,  R. 
Picou  sculpsit ;  and  on  the  right,  dartres  formis  Cum 
Priuilegio.  In  a  second  impression,  dartres  formis 
is  erased,  and  JIariette  Excudit  substituted. 

PICQDB,  Charles,  a  Flemish  painter,  born  at 
Deynze  in  1799.  He  painted  portraits,  still-life, 
and  historical  pictures.  He  died  at  Brussels  in  1869. 

PICQUET,  J.  In  Dubrayet's  drawing-book  there 
is  a  print  by  this  artist,  representing  '  Juno,  Pallas, 
and  Venus,'  half-length  figures,  executed  with  the 
graver.     It  is  inscribed  Joan  Picquetft. 

PICQUET,  Thomas,  a  French  painter  of  the  17th 
century,  quoted  by  Marolles. 

PICQUOT,  Henri,  supposed  to  be  the  brother 
of  Thomas  Picquot,  was  a  scholar  of  Simon  Vouet, 
at  Paris,  and  flourished  about  1640,  as  appears  by 
that  date  on  one  of  his  prints.  Dumesnil  describes 
three  prints  by  him  ;  the  first  two  after  Chapron, 
etched  with  the  point  in  a  style  analogous  to  that 
of  Michel  Dorigny,  the  other  from  his  own  design, 
also  with  the  point,  in  a  very  light  and  spirited 

The  young  Virgin  ascending  the  steps  of  the  Temple ; 
a  composition  of  many  figures,  with  a  glory  of  angels 
and  cherubim  above  ;  diappron  jnuen.  et  pinxit ;  H. 
Picquot  jncidit  Cum  Priuileyiu  Regis.  1640.  In  a 
second  impression,  Coypel,ex.  avec  piHvilege^  was  sub- 

The  Virgin  giving  the  breast  to  the  Infant  Jesus ; 
Joseph,  Elisabeth,  and  the  infant  St.  John  are  intro- 
duced. Although  this  print  bears  the  name  of  Gueri' 
neau,  and  not  of  H.  Picquot,  Dumesnil  is  of  opinion 
that  it  is  by  the  latter. 

A  sick  Frog  attended  by  others ;  one  acts  as  a  physician, 
two  seem  to  pray,  another  is  bringing  a  potion,  and 
four  frogs  are  dancing  to  the  sound  of  a  violin.  lu 
the  margin  are  six  lines  of  French  verse,  moralizing  on 
the  brutalizing  propensities  of  man.  M.  Picquot  jnven. 
et  fecit.  F.  L.  D.  dartres  excudit  avec  Privileqe  du 

PICQUOT,  Thomas,  an  engraver  of  goldsmiths' 
work,  designs  for  embroidery,  damascening,  and 
other  ornaments,  flourished,  according  to  Zani, 
from  1623  to  1645.  Dumesnil  conjectures  that  he 
was  a  scholar  of  Marin  le  Bourgeois,  painter  and 



valet  de  chambre  to  Henry  IV.  and  Louis  XIII., 
and  describes  fourteen  prints  by  liim,  the  first  of 
which  is  a  portrait  of  the  aforesaid  Marin  le  Bour- 
geois ;  the  others  consist  of  arabesque  designs  for 
goldsmiths'  and  armourers'  work,  book  and  other 
decorations.  The  portrait  is  etched  in  the  manner 
of  a  painter,  and  is  the  best  piece ;  the  ornaments 
are  etched  with  an  extremely  delicate  point,  and 
appear  in  white  on  a  dark  ground. 

BIDDING,  Henry  J.,  an  English  subject  painter, 
born  in  1797.  He  was  the  son  of  a  Cornish  lottery- 
office  keeper,  and  studied  under  Aglio.  His  works  ■ 
appeared  at  the  Academy  from  1824  onwards,  and 
also  at  the  Society  of  British  Artists,  of  which  latter 
body  he  was  elected  a  member  in  184.3.  He  fre- 
quently chose  humorous  subjects,  and  some  of  liis 
pictures  enjoyed  considerable  popularity.  He  died 
at  Greenwich  in  1864.    His  best-known  works  are  : 

The  Gaming  Room  at  Homburg.     1860. 
The  Fair  Peniteut. 
Negro  in  the  Stocks. 

Greenwich  Pensioners  re-fighting  the  battle  of  the  Nile. 
{U'ohurn  Abbey.) 

The  two  last-named  were  engraved  by  himself. 

PIDGEON,  Henry  Clark,  painter  in  watpr- 
colours,  was  born  in  1807.  He  was  originally 
intended  for  the  Church,  but  abandoning  this, 
took  first  to  literature  and  then  to  art.  He  was 
for  some  time  a  teacher  of  drawing  in  London,  but 
in  1847  removed  to  Liverpool  as  Professor  of  the 
School  of  Drawing  at  the  Institute  there.  He  liad 
a  strong  antiquarian  bent,  and  made  many  sketches 
of  old  local  buildings.  In  1848  he  was  associated 
with  Mr.  .Joseph  ilayer  and  Mr.  Abraham  Hume 
in  founding  the  Historic  Society  of  Lancashire  and 
Cheshire,  to  the  Proceedings  of  which  lie  con- 
tributed numerous  lithographs  and  etchings.  On 
his  arrival  in  Liverpool  he  was  elected  a  member 
of  the  Liverpool  Academy,  and  held  the  post  of 
Secretary  in  1860.  He  contributed  some  fifty  works 
to  the  Liverpool  Academy  Exhibitions.  He  was 
elected  an  Associate  of  the  Institution  of  Painters 
in  Water-Colours  in  1846,  and  a  full  member  in 
1861.  He  was  also  President  of  the  Sketching 
Club.  He  exhibited  four  times  at  the  Royal 
Academy  and  twice  at  the  British  Institute, 
besides  numerous  pictures  at  the  Suffolk  Street 
Galleries  and  the  Manchester  Institution.  His 
work  is  accurate  in  draughtsmanship,  broad  in 
treatment,  and  in  colour  somewhat  after  the  style 
of  Varley.  He  died  in  Fitzroy  Street,  Regent's 
Park,  on  August  6,  1880.  E.  G.  D. 

PIDOLL,  Karl  von,  German  painter,  born 
January  7,  1847,  at  Vienna  ;  was  a  pupil  of 
Arnold  Bocklin  and  H.  von  Maries.  For  a  long 
period  he  lived  in  Paris,  and  afterwards  at  Frank- 
fort-on-the-Maine,  where  he  obtained  some  distinc- 
tion as  a  portrait-painter.  Among  other  works  he 
published  a  series  of  seven  pen-drawings  in  litho- 
graph, representing  views  of  Gelnhausen.  He 
died  in  1901. 

PIEMANS,  an  obscure  Dutch  artist  of  the  17th 
centuiy.  He  painted  somewhat  in  the  manner  of 
"Velvet"  Breughel,  and  formed  one  pupil,  his 
nephew,  Jan  de  Baan. 

PIEMONT,  NicoLAAs,  called  Opgang,  was  bom 
at  Amsterdam  in  1659.  He  at  first  passed  some 
time  under  Marten  Zaagmolen,  an  obscure  artist, 
but  he  afterwards  became  a  scholar  of  Nicolaas 
Molenaer.  He  visited  Italy,  where  he  passed  seven- 
teen years,  and  improved  his  talents  for  landscape 
painting,  by  designing  from  nature  in  that  country. 

116  ■ 

From  Rome  he  returned  to  Holland,  where  he 
painted  pictures  from  his  Italian  sketches  and 
gained  a  great  reputation.  His  landscapes  bear  a 
strong  resemblance  to  the  works  of  Jan  Both.  He 
died  at  VoUenhove  in  1709.  The  sobriquet  'Opgang' 
(up-going)  was  bestowed  upon  him  in  consequence 
of  his  marriage  with  the  landlady  of  the  Guild. 

PIENE,  A.  DE,  a  French  engraver,  produced, 
among  other  plates,  a  portrait  of  the  '  Duchess  of 
Savoy,'  after  Sacchetti,  for  a  book  published  in  1672. 

PIENEMAN,  Jan  Willem,  a  Dutch  historical, 
portrait,  and  landscape  painter,  born  at  Abcoude 
in  1779.  He  was  a  pupil  of  the  Amsterdam 
Academy,  and  subsequently  taught  drawing  in  the 
military  school  at  Delft.  The  appointments  of 
Director  of  the  Hague  Museum  and  of  the  Amster- 
dam Academy  were  afterwards  conferred  upon 
him.  He  died  at  Amsterdam  in  1853.  The  follow- 
ing pictures  by  him  are  in  the  Rijks  Museum, 
Amsterdam  : 

An  Arcadian  Landscape. 

Portrait  of  Joanna  Cornelia  Ziesenis. 

„  „  „  „        as  Agrippina. 

„  Andries  Snoek. 

„  Albertus    Bernardus   Boothaan   and    Louis 


Battle  of  Waterloo.    (Signed  J.  W.  Pieneman,  a.d.  1824.) 

PIENEMAN,  Nicolas,  a  Dutch  historical  painter, 
the  son  and  pujiil  of  J.  W.  Pieneman,  was  born  at 
Amersfoortin  1809.  He  died  at  Amsterdam  in  1860. 
Amongst  Ids  chief  works  are  : 

The  Death  of  Admiral  De  Ruyter. 

"William  I.  of  Orange  wounded  by  Jaurequi. 

The  Condemnation  of  Bameveldt. 

Portrait  of  J.  AV.  Pieneman.     [Haarlem  Pavilion.) 

J.  S.  de  Ryk  in  presence  of  Kequessens. 

The  Death  of  Archimedes. 

Portrait  of  William  III. 

Portrait  of  C.  J.  Fodor.     (Fodor  Museum^  Amsterdam.) 

PIEPENHAGEN,  AronsT,  landscape  pamter, 
was  born  at  Soldin,  in  Prussia,  in  1792.  He  was 
originally  a  button-maker,  but  raised  himself,  by 
no  other  assistance  than  the  diligent  study  of 
nature,  to  a  distinguished  rank  in  art.  He  died  at 
Prague  in  1868.     Three  of  his  best  pictures  are : 

AVinter  Landscape. 

Landscape  in  a  Storm. 

Sketch  of  Forest  Scenery. 

PIERA,  P.,  a  Dutch  painter,  and  a  native  of 
Amsterdam.  He  painted  landscapes  and  portraits, 
and  had  two  sons  who  followed  in  their  father's 
steps.     He  died  in  1784. 

PIERCE,  Edward,  was  an  English  artist,  who 
flourished  in  the  reigns  of  Charles  I.  and  II.  He 
was  eminent  as  a  painter  both  of  history  and  of 
landscapes,  and  also  excelled  in  architectural  and 
perspective  views.  For  some  time  he  was  an 
assistant  to  Van  Dyck,  and  after  the  Restoration 
he  was  employed  to  repair  the  altar-pieces  and 
ceilings  in  London  churches,  damaged  by  the 
Puritans.  He  died  soon  afterwards,  and  was 
buried  at  Stamford.  Few  of  Pierce's  works  now 
remain,  the  far  greater  part  being  destroyed  in  the 
fire  of  London  in  1666.  Lord  Orford  attributes  to 
him  a  set  of  friezes,  in  eight  plates,  etched  in  1640. 
His  son  John  is  said  to  have  attained  some  eminence. 
Another  son,  Edward,  became  a  successful  sculptor. 

FIERI,  Antonio  di,  called  Lo  Toppo,  was  a 
native  of  Vicenza.  He  worked  about  1738,  and 
painted  landscapes  and  frescoes. 

FIERI,  Stefano,  was  a  native  of  Florence,  and 
a  disciple  of  Battista  Naldini.  Zaci  places  his 
birth  in  1513,  and  his  death  in  1600.     According 


to  Baglione,  lie  visited  Rome  in  the  pontificate  of 
Clement  VIII.,  and  was  taken  under  the  protection 
of  Cardinal  Aiessandrode'  Medici,  by  whom  he  was 
employed  in  the  church  of  San  Prassede,  where  he 
painted  some  pictures  of  the  Apostles,  and  an  'An- 
nunciation.' In  Santa  Maria  in  Via  Lata  is  a  picture 
by  him  of  the  '  Assumption  of  the  Virgin.'  He 
assisted  Giorgio  Vasari  in  the  Cupola  of  Santa 
Maria  del  Fiore,  at  Florence,  and  painted  for  the 
Palazzo  Pitti  the  'Sacrifice  of  Isaac,'  one  of  his 
best  works. 

PIERINO  DEL  Vaga.     See  Buonaccorsi. 

PIERINO  DE  Nova.     See  Nova. 

PIERO,  Giovanni  di.     See  Giovanni. 

PIERO  DI  LORENZO,  the  son  of  Lorenzo  di 
Piero,  was  born  at  Florence  in  1462.  He  became 
an  assistant  to  Cosimo  Roselli,  and  accompanied 
the  latter  when  he  was  summoned  to  Rome  by 
Sxtus  IV.  Hence  the  name  Piero  di  Cosimo, 
by  which  he  is  known.  In  1485  he  returned  to 
Florence,  and  was  employed  with  Fra  Bartolommeo 
in  the  Convent  of  Sant  Ambrogio.  The  connection 
with  Roselli,  however,  seems  to  have  lasted  till  the 
death  of  the  latter,  which  took  place  in  1506,  and 
BO  Piero  may  be  considered  to  have  taken  a  share 
in  several  altar-pieces  in  S.  Spirito  at  Florence, 
and  other  works  of  Roselli.  Piero  did  not  confine 
himself  to  sacred  subjects,  but  took  pleasure  in 
classic  fable,  especially  when  he  was  able  to  dis- 
play animal  life  in  natural  or  fantastic  shapes. 
This  may  be  seen  in  'The  Wedding  of  Perseus 
disturbed,'  '  Sacrifice  to  Jove  for  the  Safety  of 
Andromeda,'  and  two  '  Rescues  of  Andromeda,'  in 
the  UfEzi,  and  in  a  splendid  '  Death  of  Procris ' 
in  the  National  Gallery.  A  picture  by  him  of 
'Venus  playing  with  Cupid  and  a  sleeping  Mars' 
is  in  the  Berlin  Museum.  He  was  the  inventor  of 
the  strange  masque  called  '  The  Triumph  of  Death,' 
which  became  the  fashion  in  the  Carnival  at 
Florence.  Besides  the  picture  already  named, 
which  is,  perhaps,  Piero's  master-piece,  the 
National  Gallery  possesses,  according  to  the  best 
connoisseurs,  a  second  example  of  him,  in  a 
picture  now  ascribed  to  Lorenzo  Costa,  and  called 
the  portrait  of  Francesco  Ferrucci.  This  is  a 
work  of  much  power,  and  besides  its  undoubted 
affinity  with  the  acknowledged  productions  of 
Piero,  it  ofiers  a  curious  confirmation  of  his 
asserted  authorship,  in  the  introduction  of  the 
Palazzo  Vecchio,  with  Michelangelo's  David  at  its 
portal,  into  the  background.  For  Piero  di  Cosimo 
■was  a  member  of  the  committee  appointed  in  1504 
by  the  Signory  of  Florence  to  choose  a  site  for  that 
statue.  Many  of  his  pictures,  most  of  them,  per- 
haps, pass  under  other  names.  The  '  Vierge  au 
Pigeon,'  in  the  Louvre,  and  two  fine  Holy  Families, 
both  '  tondos,'  at  Dresden  and  in  the  Borghese 
Gallery,  Rome,  are  among  the  best  of  these.  Piero 
was  a  man  of  curious  interests  and  habits,  caring 
much  more  for  the  strange  traditions  of  the  pagan 
mythology  than  for  the  tales  of  his  own  Church. 
He  was  the  master  of  Andrea  del  Sarto.  He  died 
at  Florence  in  1521. 

PIERO  DA  PERUGIA,  a  miniaturist  of  the  15th 
century,  many  of  whose  works  are  preserved  in  the 
Duomo  at  Siena. 

PIERO  DI  RIDOLFO,  an  obscure  painter  who 
flourished  in  Tuscany  at  the  close  of  the  16th 

PIERON,  GusTAVE,  a  Flemish  landscape  painter, 
who  studied  at  the  Antwerp  Academy,  and  resided 
in  that  city.     He  died  in  1864. 

PIERONI,  Adhlfo,  painter,  engraver,  and  medal- 
list, was  born  at  Lucca  in  1832.  He  studied  under 
Onestini  and  Casale,  though  he  was  best  known  as 
a  medallist.     He  died  at  Florence  in  1875. 

PIERRE,  a  native  of  Troyes,  who  designed  and 
painted  the  fine  series  of  windows  in  the  cathedral 
dealing  with  the  parable  of  the  Prodigal  Son. 

PIERRE.  A  painter  of  this  name  is  mentioned  in 
the  Belgian  archives  as  the  author  of  a  portrait, 
painted  in  1417  or  1418,  of  Margaret  of  Burgundy, 
the  eldest  daughter  of  Philip  the  Bold  and  the  wife 
of  William  IV.,  Count  of  Hainault.  In  1418  this 
portrait  was  placed  in  the  Chapel  of  St.  Anthony  in 
Barbefosse,  near  Mons. 

PIERRE,  maitre,  a  painter  of  this  name  was  at 
work  in  1486  in  the  Monastery  of  the  Cordeliers,  at 
Nancy.     He  was  a  native  of  Strasbourg. 

PIERRE,  AndrS,  a  native  of  Blois,  who,  in  1472, 
painted  a  large  '  Nativity '  for  the  chapel  of  the 
Chateau  de  Montilz. 

PIERRE  DE  COMPIEGNE  a  native  of  Com- 
piegne,  (?)who\vas  at  work  on  miniatures  and  illum- 
inations for  the  Chapter  of  Troyes  in  the  year  1387. 

PIERRE  DE  COPIAC,  a  glass-painter,  who 
painted  the  windows  in  the  Cathedral  of  Montpellier, 
his  native  place. 

PIERRE  DEST.  CATHERINE,  a  native  of  Lille, 
who  painted  in  the  year  1365  an  altar-piece  for  the 
church  of  St.  Maurice  in  that  city. 

PIERRE,  Dieddonne,  the  son  of  Etienne  Pieebe, 
a  fruit  and  flower  painter,  was  born  at  Nancy  in 
1807.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Hersent,  and  painted 
historical  subjects.  In  the  Museum  of  Nancy  there 
is  a  '  Christ  in  the  Garden  of  Olives  '  by  him.  He 
died  in  1838. 

PIERRE,  Jean  Baptiste  Marie,  was  born  in 
Paris  in  1714  (or  171.3).  He  was  at  first  a  pupil 
of  Natoire,  but  went  to  Italy  when  j'oung,  and 
studied  some  years  at  Rome  under  De  Troy.  On 
his  return  to  Paris  he  distinguished  himself  as  a 
painter  of  history,  and  was  employed  for  some  of 
tlie  public  buildings,  partioularl}'  on  a  large  ceiling 
in  the  chapel  of  the  Virgin  at  St.  Roch.  He  painted 
an  excellent  picture  of '  St.  Nicholas  and  St.  Francis,' 
for  the  church  of  St.  Sulpice,  which  has  been  en- 
graved by  Nicolas  Dupuis.  He  was  made  director 
of  the  Academy  in  Paris,  and  was  appointed  prin- 
cipal painter  to  the  Duke  of  Orleans  and  to  the 
king.  He  died  in  Paris  in  1789.  Among  his  best 
paintings  are,  '  Peter  curing  the  Lame  Man,'  and 
'  The  Death  of  Herod  '  (in  St.  Germain  des  Pres). 
Pierre  left  several  etchings,  among  which  we  may 
name  the  following : 

The  Village  Entertainment ;  after  his  own  design. 
Several  Studies  of  Heads  ;  made  by  him  in  Italy. 
Some  Plates  of  subjects  from '  Fontaine's  Fables ' ;  after 
designs  by  Sithleyras. 

PIERSON,  Christoph,  was  born  at  the  Hague 
in  1631,  and  was  destined  by  his  parents  for  mer- 
cantile pursuits,  but  became  a  scholar  of  Bar- 
tholomaus  Meyburg,  whom  after  some  time  he 
accompanied  to  Germanj',  but  after  an  absence  of 
three  years  returned  to  Holland,  and  established 
himself  at  Gouda,  where  he  met  with  immediate 
employment  as  a  painter  of  history  and  portraits. 
Notwithstanding  the  reputation  he  had  acquired, 
the  encouragement  given  to  the  pictures  of  Lee- 
mens,  a  painter  of  dead  game,  guns,  &o.,  induced 
him  to  adopt  similar  subjects,  in  which  he  sur- 
passed his  model.     He  died  at  Gorcum  in  1714. 

PIET,  — ,  was  a  native  of  the  Low  Countries, 
and  flourished  about  the  year  1600.     He  engraved 



the  plates  for  a  work  entitled  '  Le  Maniement 
d'Arraes  de  Nassau,'  &c.,  by  Adam  V.  Brien,  pub- 
Uehed  in  1608. 

PIETERS,  Geertje,  or  Gertrude,  was  a  fruit 
and  flower  painter,  and  was  working  at  Delft  at 
the  beginning  of  the  18th  century.  She  was  a 
pupil  of  Maria  van  Oosterwyck,  and  was  of  good 
repute  in  lier  day,  though  most  of  her  productions 
have  been  attributed  to  De  Heem.  The  Suermondt 
Collection  had  a  '  Piateof  Fruit '  by  her,  dated  1680. 

PIETERS,  Gj5rard,  a  Flemish  historical  painter, 
who  was  a  native  of  Bruges.  He  was  received  as 
master  painter  in  1562,  but  in  1590  he  left  Bruges 
and  settled  at  Ghent,  where  he  was  often  employed 
by  the  town  authorities.  He  died  in  1612.  His 
son  Pierre  worked  with  his  father. 

PIETERS,  Jan,  or  John,  was  born  at  Antwerp 
in  1667,  and  was  a  scholar  of  Pieter  Eyckens.  He 
came  to  England  in  1685,  when  he  was  eighteen 
years  of  ago,  and  finding  no  employment  for  a 
painter  of  history,  he  offered  his  services  to  Sir 
Godfrey  Kneller,  wlio  employed  liim  to  paint  the 
draperies  and  backgrounds  of  his  portraits.  He 
excelled  in  copying  the  works  of  Rubens.  He  died 
in  London  in  1727,  and  was  buried  in  the  church- 
yard of  St.  Martin's-in-the-Fields. 

PIETERS,  Pierre,  the  son  of  Gerard  Pieters, 
accompanied  his  father  to  Ghent  in  1590,  and  was 
admitted  to  the  freedom  of  that  city.  In  1609  he 
was  at  work  for  the  magistracy  of  Ghent,  but  must 
have  been  already  dead  in  1612,  for  in  that  year  his 
wife  is  spoken  of  as  a  widow,  in  a  document  still 

PIETERS,  Simon,  a  Flemish  historical  painter, 
received  as  master  painter  at  Bruges  in  1521.  He 
was  Dean  of  St.  Luke's  Guild  in  1549.  In  1553  he 
restored  the  'Last  Judgment'  of  Walens,  and  painted 
several  pictures  for  the  city.     He  died  in  1556. 

PIETERSZ,  RoELOF,  an  obscure  painter  who 
worked  at  Utrecht  about  1517. 

PIETERZEN,  Abraham,  a  Dutch  painter  who 
flourished  at  Middelburg  early  in  the  present 
century.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Van  Regemorter,  at 

PIETERSZBN,  Aert,  the  son  of  Pieter  Aertszen 
(known  as  Lange  Peer),  was  born  at  Amsterdam 
in  1550.  He  deserves  great  praise  for  his  picture 
of  the  '  Lesson  of  Anatomy,'  which  hangs  in  the 
same  room  as  the  world-famous  picture  of  the  same 
subject  by  Rembrandt,  in  the  Surgeons'  Guild-Hall 
at  the  Hague.  It  represents  the  professor  Sebastiaen 
Egberts  lecturing  over  a  dead  body  to  twenty-eight 
eager  listeners,  much  in  the  same  way  as  Rembrandt 
has  depicted  Tulp.  It  is  now  in  the  Rijks  Museum, 
Amsterdam.  Pieterszen's  picture  is  vigorously  exe- 
cuted in  a  brown  tone,  and  exhibits,  more  especially 
in  the  countenances,  much  vivacity,  facility  of 
drawing,  and  genera!  truth  to  nature.  It  bears  the 
painter's  monogram  of  A.  P.  and  the  date  1603, 
which  is  twenty-nine  years  earlier  than  Rembrandt's 
work.  Besides  this,  the  Rijks  Museum  possesses 
two  more  excellent  examples  of  Pieterszen,  both 
groups  of  portraits.  Pieterszen  died  at  Amster- 
dam, and  was  buried  there  on  the  12th  June,  1612. 

PIETERSZEN,  Gerrit,  (Pietees,  or  Peeters,) 
was  a  painter  and  etcher,  who  flourished  at  Amster- 
dam at  the  end  of  the  16th  century  and  beginning 
of  the  17th.  He  was  first  instructed  by  Jacob 
Lenartszen  and  Cornells  van  Haarlem,  and  after- 
wards went  to  Antwerp  and  Rome.  After  a 
residence  of  some  years  in  the  latter  city  he  re- 
turned to  Amsterdam,  where  he  distinguished  hira- 


self  as  one  of  the  ablest  artists  of  his  time. 
Unfortunately  he  devoted  himself  principally  to 
portraiture,  and  the  rapid  production  of  small 
pictures,  but  his  talents  fitted  him  for  liigher 
efforts.  He  was  particularly  successful  with  the 
nude,  and  is  also  celebrated  as  a  painter  of 
gallant  assemblies  and  conversations,  which  he 
composed  in  a  very  agreeable  style,  and  finished 
with  great  neatness  and  delicacy.  According  to 
Balkema  he  died  in  1626.  There  is  a  beautiful 
landscape  drawing  by  him  in  the  cabinet  at 
Munich.    He  etched  several  plates,  among  them  : 

St.  Cecilia,  with  Angels. 

St.  John  in  the  'Wilderness. 

The  three  Theological  Virtues. 

PIETERSZOON,  Pieter,  a  glass-painter  of 
Haarlem,  who  was  received  into  the  Guild  of  St. 
Luke  in  1619,  and  formed  a  large  class  of  scholars. 

PIETRASANTA,  Angelo,  a  painter,  was  born 
at  Milan  in  1837.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Hayez,  and 
worked  from  1859  to  1861  in  Rome  and  Florence, 
where  he  won  a  considerable  reputation  as  a  fresco 
painter.  He  painted  '  The  Rucellai  Gardens,'  the 
'  Borgia  Family,'  and  figures  of  '  Europe '  and 
'  Science  '  in  the  Galleria  Vittorio  Emmanuele,  at 
Milan.  His  last  work  was  the  decoration  of  the  Sanc- 
tuary of  the  Incoronata,  at  Lodi.     He  died  in  1876. 

PiETRO  BORGHESE.     See  Dei  Franceschi. 

PIETRO  DI  PIETRI,  an  Italian  painter,  born  at 
Novara  in  1671.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Carlo  Maratti, 
and  painted  historical  subjects.     He  died  in  1716. 

PIETRO,  Giovanni  iji.     See  Giovanni. 

PIETRO  DI  BENEDETTO.   See  Dei  Franceschi. 

PIETROLINO,  an  Italian  painter  of  the  12th 
century,  who  was  at  work  at  Rome,  with  Guido 
Guiduccio,  between  1110  and  1120.  In  a  MS, 
preserved  at  Venice  it  is  stated  tliat  Pietrolino'a 
home  was  at  Siena.  Some  remains  of  his  work  are 
said  to  be  visible  in  the  Church  of  the  Santi  Quattri 
Coronati,  in  Rome. 

PIETROWSKI.     See  Piotrowskt. 

PIGAL,  Edm£  Jean,  a  French  painter  of  still- 
life,  was  born  in  Paris  in  1794.  He  was  a  pupil 
of  Gros.  Among  his  works  is  a  'Consultation  of 
Doctors.'     He  died  in  1872. 

PIGEON,  Jean  Baptiste,  a  Flemish  painter, 
born  at  Biire  in  1823.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Marinas 
Van  der  Haert  and  Mathieu,  and  painted  portraits 
and  historical  subjects.  His  chief  work  is  the  'In- 
stitution of  the  Rosary,'  in  the  Church  of  Anhde, 
near  Dinant.     He  died  in  1868. 

PIGLHEIN,  Elimar  Ulrich  Bruno,  German 
painter  ;  born  February  19,  1848,  at  Hamburg  ;  a 
pupil  of  Pauwels  at  Weimar,  and  of  Diez  at 
Munich.  In  1855  he  travelled  through  Palestine, 
and  subsequently  painted  a  remarkable  panorama 
of  the  Crucifixion.  This  was  destroyed  bj'  fire  in 
1892.  He  was  a  Professor  and  Honorary  Associate 
of  the  Munich  Academy.  He  executed  many 
charming  and  piquant  pastels  ;  and  among  his 
most  notable  works  are ;  '  The  Entombment  of 
Christ,'  'The  Blind  Woman,'  'Moritur  in  Deo,' 
'The  Krupp  Family,'  &c.  He  died  at  Munich, 
July  15,  1894.  P.  P; 

PIGNATELLI,  Vicente,  a  Spanish  amateur 
landscape  painter,  born  about  1700.  He  was  a 
noble.  He  showed  a  decided  inclination  for  the 
arts,  and  took  a  prominent  part  in  founding  an 
Academy  at  Saragossa,  of  which  he  became  the 
first  President.     He  died  in  1770. 

PIGNE,  Nicolas,  a  French  engraver,  was  born 
at  Chalons  in  1690,  and  is  said  to  have  been  a  pupil 


of  Bernard  Picart.  He  appears  to  have  been  in 
England,  as  there  is  a  portrait  with  his  name,  of 
Richard  Fiddes,  B.D.,  prefixed  to  '  Divinity,'  by 
the  latter,  and  dated  1718.  We  have  by  this  artist 
a  few  plates  in  line,  among  which  are  the  following : 

The  Virgin,  with  the  Infant  sleeping  in  a  cradle,  with 
St.  John  standing  by  her  side,  attended  by  foui 
angels ;  aper  F.  Trevisani ;  for  the '  Crozat  Collection.' 

The  Woman  of  Canaan  kneehng  at  the  feet  of  Christ ; 
after  Ann.  Carracci. 

PIGNONE,  SiMONE,  was  born  at  Florence,  accord- 
ing to  Oretti,  in  1614.  After  being  instructed  in 
the  elements  of  art  by  Domenico  Gresti,  he  became 
a  Bcholar  of  Francesco  Furini.  He  afterwards  lived 
for  a  time  in  Venice,  where  he  improved  his 
colour  by  studying  the  works  of  Titian  and 
Tintoretto.  On  his  return  to  Florence  he  painted 
several  pictures  for  the  churches,  of  which  the 
most  admired  are  the  pictures  of '  St.  Michael  dis- 
comfiting the  Evil  Spirit,'  in  the  church  of  the 
Nunziata  ;  and  '  St.  Louis  distributing  his  Wealth 
to  the  Poor,'  in  Santa  Felicita.  He  also  excelled 
in  painting  mythological  subjects,  which,  however, 
he  sometimes  treated  with  too  much  licentiousness. 
He  died  in  1698. 

PIJNACKER,  Adam,  sometimes  erroneously 
called  Adriaen,  was  born  at  Pijnacker,  near  Delft, 
in  1621,  and  went  when  young  to  Rome,  where  for 
three  years  he  studied  the  works  of  the  most  dis- 
tinguished landscape  painters,  and  made  designs  of 
the  most  picturesque  objects  in  the  environs  of 
that  capital.  On  his  return  to  Holland  he  soon 
gave  proof  of  how  much  he  had  profited  by  his 
travels,  and  became  one  of  the  most  admired  and 
best  employed  artists  of  his  country.  It  was  at 
that  time  the  practice  to  ornament  the  apartments 
of  important  houses  with  the  works  of  the  most 
eminent  landscape  painters  ;  and  Pijnacker  was 
much  engaged  in  works  of  that  description. 
His  style  has  something  in  common  with  that  of 
Jan  Both.  It  is,  however,  at  once  more  decor- 
ative and  less  true  to  nature.  His  composition  is 
excellent,  but  bis  colour  too  cold,  and  his  texture 
metallic.  In  the  Gotha  Gallery  there  is  a  '  Land- 
scape with  a  Ruin  '  by  him,  which  is  signed  with 
the  initials  A.  V.  P.  P.  He  was  a  fine  draughts- 
man of  trees.  Almost  all  of  his  pictures  contain 
men  and  animals.  Pijnacker  died  at  Amsterdam, 
where  he  was  buried  on  March  28,  1673.  Among 
his  best  works  we  may  name  : 

Amsterdam.      Museum.     Four  Landscapes. 
Berlin.  „  Landscape  with  Shepherds. 

Cassel.  „  Cows  and  Cowherds. 

Dulwich.  Gallery.    An  Italian  Landscape. 

»  n  Landscape,  with  Sportsmen.   (A 

^first-rate  example.) 
Hague.  Museum.     ATorrent.     {Very  fine.) 

St.  Petersburg.    Her-   Jg,^.,^^,^ 

milage,  j 
Vienna.  Academy.     Mountainous  Landscape. 

PILAJA,  Paolo,  an  Italian  engraver,  flourished 
at  Rome  from  1727  to  1747.  He  executed  a  set  of 
plates  for  a  book  entitled  '  Storia  di  Volsena,'  by 
the  Abate  Adami,  published  at  Rome  in  1737.  We 
have  also,  among  others,  the  following  prints  by 
him  : 

The  Portrait  of  Pope  Benedict  XIII. ;  after  Brughi. 
The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Fedele  ;  aftn-  S.  Conca. 
A  Miracle  wrought  by  St.  Thoribio  ;  after  the  same. 
S.  Liberale,  with  two  Children  ;  after  the  same. 
Statue  of   the   Prophet  Elijah ;    after  the  sculpture  by 
Agost.  Cornachini,  in  St.  Peter's  at  Kome. 

PILEN  Hans,  an  unimportant  Dutch  landscape 

painter,  flourished  toward  the  close  of  the  16th 
century.  He  painted  somewhat  in  the  style  of 
Pieter  Lastmann. 

PILES,  Roger  de,  painter,  etcher,  and  writer  on 
art,  was  born  at  Clamecy  (Nievre)  in  1635,  and 
died  in  Paris  in  1709.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Claude 
Franfois,  and  travelled  in  Italy  and  Holland.  His 
fame  depends  chiefly  on  his  voluminous  writings 
on  art. 

PILGRIM,  J.  U.     See  Wechtlin. 

PILKINGTON,  Sir  William,  Bart.,  an  English 
amateur  landscape  painter,  born  in  1775.  He  suc- 
ceeded to  the  title  as  eighth  baronet  in  1811.  His 
style  was  founded  on  that  of  the  classic  school, 
and  especially  that  of  Richard  Wilson.  He  was 
also  an  amateur  architect  and  a  good  scholar. 
Butterton  Hall,  Staffordshire,  was  built  from  his 
designs.  He  died  at  Chevet  Hall,  Wakefield,  in 

PILLANS,  R.,  an  English  marine  painter,  who 
practised  in  the  second  part  of  the  18th  century. 

PILL  ATI,  Heinrich,  Polish  painter,  bom  at 
Warsaw  in  1832  ;  studied  there,  and  afterwards  at 
Munich  under  Kaulbach,  and  then  worked  at 
Rome.  Painted  historical  and  romantic  subjects, 
'  Faust  and  Marguerite,'  &o.  He  died  at  Warsaw, 
April  14,  1894. 

PILLE,  Charles  Henri,  French  painter  ;  born 
at  Essomes  (Aisnes)  in  1845  ;  became  a  pupil  of 
Felix  Barrias ;  began  his  career  as  a  painter  of 
anecdotic  genre  and  historical  subjects ;  scored 
his  first  real  success  with  'Frederic  de  Saxe  et  le 
Due  d'Albe '  and  '  L'Automne '  in  the  Salon  of 
1872 ;  obtained  a  medal  in  1869,  a  second-class 
medal  in  1872,  a  gold  medal  in  1889,  and  the 
Legion  of  Honour  in  1882  ;  well  known  as  a 
portrait  painter  and  successful  as  an  illustrator  of 
'  Don  Quixote,'  and  also  of  the  romances  of  Victor 
Hugo.     He  died  in  Paris,  March  4,  1897. 

PILLE.MENT,  Jean,  was  born  at  Lyons  about 
1728  (some  say  1719),  and  after  receiving  his 
education  in  that  city,  went  to  Paris  and  Vienna, 
and  after  1763  to  London.  He  painted  in  oil  or 
pastel  a  few  pictures  of  landscapes  and  fancy  sub- 
jects, which  were  composed  and  coloured  in  a 
theatrical,  gaudy  style  ;  he  treated  similar  subjects 
in  pencil  drawings  and  water-colours,  which  were 
finished  with  great  neatness  and  labour.  Between 
1773  and  1780  he  occasionally  exhibited  at  the 
Free  Society  of  Artists,  but  in  the  former  year  he 
dropped  for  a  time  the  practice  of  his  art  on  account 
of  ill-health,  and  returned  to  Avignon.  He  became 
painter  to  Marie  Antoinette  and  to  the  last  king 
of  Poland,  but  finally  settled  again  at  Lyons, 
where  (?)  he  died  early  in  the  last  century  (?  1808). 
Several  of  his  designs  have  been  engraved  by 
Canot,  Ravenet,  WooUet,  Mason,  Elliot,  and  other 
eminent  engravers.  He  himself  etched  a  few  plates 
of  flowers,  &c. 

PILLEMENT,  Victor,  designer  and  engraver, 
was  born  at  Vienna  in  1767.  He  was  a  son  and 
pupil  of  Jean  Pillement,  and  worked  with  the 
graver  and  point  combined.  He  died  in  Paris  in 
1814.     Among  bis  best  plates  may  be  mentioned  : 

The  Banks  of  the  Bosphorus  ;  after  Melting. 
Travels  in  Egypt ;  after  Denon. 
CEdipus  Colouneus  ;  after  Valenciennes. 

PILLIARD,  Jacques,  French  painter,  born  at 
Vienne  (dep.  Is5re)  in  1814  ;  became  a  pupil  of 
Orsel  and  of  Bonnefond,  a  religious  painter  of 
mark  :  his  works  include '  Education  de  la  Vierge,' 



'Mort  de  Rachel,'  '  Une  Peste,'  'Le  Martyre 
de  St.  Hippolyte,'  '  Le  Christ  au  Tombeau.'  He 
obtained  a  tliird-class  medal  in  1843,  and  a  second- 
class  medal  in  1844  and  1848.  He  lived  for  many 
years  at  Rome,  and  died  at  his  birthplace,  April 
10,  1898. 

PILO,  Carl  Gcstav,  a  Swedish  painter,  was 
born  near  Runtuna,  in  Siidermanland,  in  1712  or 
1713.  He  first  studied  under  his  father,  Oldf  Pilo 
(a  portrait  painter),  then  under  Crisman  at  Stock- 
holm, and  was  at  Vienna  from  1734  to  1736.  He 
next  travelled  widely  in  Germany,  and  on  returning 
to  his  own  country  settled  for  a  time  at  Schonen, 
where  he  successfully  practised  portrait  painting. 
In  1741  he  went  to  Copenhagen,  and  was 
appointed  drawing-master  to  the  Cadet  Corps, 
and  after  painting  the  Crown  Princess  Louise,  was 
in  1745  made  court-painter,  and  three  years  later 
professor  at  the  old  Academy.  In  1771  he  became 
director,  but  by  accepting  the  Order  of  Vasa  from 
his  own  sovereign,  Gustavus  III.,  he  fell  into  dis- 
favour with  the  Danes,  and  returned  to  Sweden. 
Here,  too,  he  was  chosen  a  director  of  the  Academy. 
He  died  at  Stockholm  in  1792.  Among  his  best 
pictures  we  may  note  : 

Frederik  V.  of  Denmark  on  Horseback. 
Caroliue  Mathilda,  his  Consort. 
Coronation  of  Gustavus  III. 
Portrait  of  Lieut.-General  Lerche. 

PILOTTO,  GiROLAMO,  was  a  native  of  Venice, 
and  flourished  about  the  year  1690.  He  was  a 
scholar  of  the  younger  Palma,  and,  according  to 
Zanotti,  a  faithful  follower  of  his  style  One  of 
his  best  performances  is  a  '  St.  Biagio,'  over  the 
high  altar  of  tlie  Fraglia  at  Rovigo  ;  but  his  most 
celebrated  work  is  the  '  Marriage  of  tlie  Adriatic  by 
the  Doge,'  in  the  grand  saloon  in  the  ducal  palace 
at  Venice.     Zani  places  his  death  in  1649. 

PILOTY,  Carl  Theodob  von,  a  Bavarian  painter, 
was  born  at  Munich  in  1826.  After  studying  under 
his  father  he  entered  the  Munich  Academy,  and  be- 
came the  pupil  of  his  brother-in-law,  Carl  Schorn. 
In  early  manhood  he  visited  Paris,  England,  and 
Brussels,  and  soon  after  his  return  to  Bavaria,  was 
commissioned  by  the  king  to  paint,  for  the  Blaxi- 
milianeum,  '  The  Elector  Max  adhering  to  the 
Catholic  League  in  1609.'  This  was  completed  in 
1854.  Piloty  formed  a  large  class  of  pupils,  and  for 
the  greater  part  of  his  life  was  both  a  member  and 
a  professor  of  the  Munich  Academy.  Lenbach, 
Defregger,  and  Hans  Makart  were  among  his 
scholars.     He  died  in  1886.     Works  : 

Death  of  Wallenstein. 
Seui  before  "Wallensteiu's  corpse. 
Battle  of  the  TVliite  Mountain,  Prague. 
Galileo  in  Prison. 

Wallenstein  marching  against  Egger. 
Discovery  of  America. 
Henry  VIII.  and  Anne  Boleyn. 
Nero  among  the  ruins  of  Eome. 

Thusnelda  at